Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Evidence for progressive Holocene aridification in southern Africa recorded in Namibian hyrax middens: Implications for African Monsoon dynamics and the ‘‘African Humid Period’’

  • Brian M. Chase (a1) (a2), Michael E. Meadows (a3), Andrew S. Carr (a4) and Paula J. Reimer (a5)
Abstract

Presented here are stable nitrogen isotope data from a rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) middens from northwestern Namibia that record a series of rapid aridification events beginning at ca. 3800 cal yr BP, and which mark a progressive decrease in regional humidity across the Holocene. Strong correlations exist between this record and other terrestrial and marine archives from southern Africa, indicating that the observed pattern of climate change is regionally coherent. Combined, these data indicate hemispheric synchrony in tropical African climate change during the Holocene, with similar trends characterising the termination of the ‘African Humid Period’ (AHP) in both the northern and southern tropics. These findings run counter to the widely accepted model of direct low-latitude insolation forcing, which requires an anti-phase relationship to exist between the hemispheres. The combined dataset highlights: 1) the importance of forcing mechanisms influencing the high northern latitudes in effecting low-latitude climate change in Africa, and 2) the potential importance of solar forcing and variations in the Earth's geomagnetic shield in determining both long-term and rapid centennial-scale climate changes, identifying a possible mechanism for the variations marking the AHP termination in both the southern and northern tropics.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author. Department of Archaeology, History, Culture and Religion, University of Bergen, Postbox 7805, 5020, Bergen, Norway. E-mail address: Brian.Chase@ahkr.uib.no (B.M. Chase).
References
Hide All
Ambrose, S.H. Effects of diet, climate and physiology on nitrogen isotope abundances in terrestrial foodwebs. Journal of Archaeological Science 18, (1991). 293317.
Ambrose, S.H., and DeNiro, M.J. The isotopic ecology of East African mammals. Oecologia 69, (1986). 395406.
Aranibar, J.N., Otter, L., Macko, S.A., Feral, C.J.W., Epstein, H.E., Dowty, P.R., Eckardt, F., Shugart, H.H., and Swap, R.J. Nitrogen cycling in the soil–plant system along a precipitation gradient in the Kalahari sands. Global Change Biology 10, (2004). 359373.
Baker, P.A., Seltzer, G.O., Fritz, S.C., Dunbar, R.B., Grove, M.J., Tapia, P.M., Cross, S.L., Rowe, H.D., and Broda, J.P. The history of South American tropical precipitation for the past 25,000 years. Science 291, (2001). 640643.
Bard, E., Rostek, F., and Sonzogni, C. Interhemispheric synchrony of the last deglaciation inferred from alkenone palaeothermometry. Nature 385, (1997). 707710.
Barnard, P. Biological Diversity in Namibia. (1998). Namibian National Biodiversity Task Force, Directorate of Environmental Affairs, Windhoek.
Bateman, M.D., Thomas, D.S.G., and Singhvi, A.K. Extending the aridity record of the Southwest Kalahari: current problems and future perspectives. Quaternary International 111, (2003). 3749.
Behling, H. South and southeast Brazilian grasslands during late Quaternary times: a synthesis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 177, (2002). 1927.
Berger, A., and Loutre, M.F. Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quaternary Science Reviews 10, (1991). 297317.
Blümel, W.D., Eitel, B., and Lang, A. Dunes in southeastern Namibia: evidence for Holocene environmental changes in the southwestern Kalahari based on thermoluminescence data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 138, (1998). 139149.
Braconnot, P., Joussaume, S., de Noblet, N., and Ramstein, G. Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum African Monsoon changes as simulated within the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project. Global and Planetary Change 26, (2000). 5166.
Burrough, S.L., Thomas, D.S.G., and Singarayer, J.S. Late Quaternary hydrological dynamics in the Middle Kalahari: forcing and feedbacks. Earth Science Reviews 96, (2009). 313326.
Carr, A.S., Boom, A., and Chase, B.M. The potential of plant biomarker evidence derived from rock hyrax middens as an indicator of palaeoenvironmental change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 285, (2010). 321330.
Chase, B. Evaluating the use of dune sediments as a proxy for palaeo-aridity: a southern African case study. Earth Science Reviews 93, (2009). 3145.
Chase, B.M., and Meadows, M.E. Late Quaternary dynamics of southern Africa's winter rainfall zone. Earth Science Reviews 84, (2007). 103138.
Chase, B.M., and Thomas, D.S.G. Late Quaternary dune accumulation along the western margin of South Africa: distinguishing forcing mechanisms through the analysis of migratory dune forms. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 251, (2006). 318333.
Chase, B.M., Meadows, M.E., Scott, L., Thomas, D.S.G., Marais, E., Sealy, J., and Reimer, P.J. A record of rapid Holocene climate change preserved in hyrax middens from southwestern Africa. Geology 37, (2009). 703706.
Claussen, M., and Gayler, V. The Greening of the Sahara during the mid-Holocene: results of an interactive atmosphere–biome model. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 6, (1997). 369377.
COHMAP Climatic changes of the last 18,000 years: observations and model simulations. Science 241, (1988). 10431052.
Courtillot, V., Gallet, Y., Le Moue?l, J.-L., Fluteau, F., and Genevey, A. Are there connections between the Earth's magnetic field and climate?. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 253, (2007). 328339.
deMenocal, P., Ortiz, J., Guilderson, T., Adkins, J., Sarnthein, M., Baker, L., and Yarusinsky, M. Abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period: rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, (2000). 347361.
Dupont, L.M., Behling, H., and Kim, J.H. Thirty thousand years of vegetation development and climate change in Angola (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1078). Climates of the Past 4, (2008). 107124.
Eitel, B., Kadereit, A., Blumel, W.-D., Huser, K., Lomax, J., and Hilgers, A. Environmental changes at the eastern Namib Desert margin before and after the Last Glacial Maximum: new evidence from fluvial deposits in the upper Hoanib River catchment, northwestern Namibia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 234, (2006). 201222.
Farmer, E.C., deMenocal, P.B., and Marchitto, T.M. Holocene and deglacial ocean temperature variability in the Benguela upwelling region: implications for low-latitude atmospheric circulation. Paleoceanography 20, (2005). doi:10.1029/2004PA001049
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Mangini, A., Mudelsee, M., Kramers, J., Villa, I., Neff, U., Al-Subbary, A.A., Buettner, A., Hippler, D., and Matter, A. Holocene ITCZ and Indian monsoon dynamics recorded in stalagmites from Oman and Yemen (Socotra). Quaternary Science Reviews 26, (2007). 170188.
Friis-Christensen, E., and Lassen, K. Length of the solar cycle: an indicator of solar activity closely associated with climate. Science 254, (1991). 698700.
Gallet, Y., Genevey, A., and Fluteau, F. Does Earth's magnetic field secular variation control centennial climate change?. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, (2005). 339347.
Gallet, Y., Genevey, A., Le Goff, M., Fluteau, F., and Ali Eshraghi, S. Possible impact of the Earth's magnetic field on the history of ancient civilizations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 246, (2006). 1726.
Gasse, F. Hydrological changes in Africa. Science 292, (2001). 22592260.
Gil-Romera, G., Scott, L., Marais, E., and Brook, G.A. Middle- to late-Holocene moisture changes in the desert of northwest Namibia derived from fossil hyrax dung pollen. Holocene 16, (2006). 10731084.
Gil-Romera, G., Scott, L., Marais, E., and Brook, G.A. Late Holocene environmental change in the northwestern Namib Desert margin: new fossil pollen evidence from hyrax middens. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 249, (2007). 117.
Handley, L.L., Austin, A.T., Stewart, G.R., Robinson, D., Scrimgeour, C.M., Raven, J.A., Heaton, T.H.E., and Schmidt, S. The 15N natural abundance (δ 15N) of ecosystem samples reflects measures of water availability. Functional Plant Biology 26, (1999). 185199.
Haug, G.H., Hughen, K.A., Sigman, D.M., Peterson, L.C., and Röhl, U. Southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone through the Holocene. Science 293, (2001). 13041308.
Heaton, T.H.E., Vogel, J.C., von la Chevallerie, G., and Collet, G. Climate influence on the isotopic composition of bone nitrogen. Nature 322, (1986). 822823.
Hijmans, R., Cameron, S.E., Parra, J.L., Jones, P.G., and Jarvis, A. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25, (2005). 19651978.
Hoeck, H.N. Differential feeding behaviour of the sympatric hyrax: (Procavia johnstoni and Heterohyrax brucei). Oecologia 22, (1975). 1547.
Holmgren, K., Karlen, W., Lauritzen, S.E., Lee-Thorp, J.A., Partridge, T.C., Piketh, S., Repinski, P., Stevenson, C., Svanered, O., and Tyson, P.D. A 3000-year high-resolution stalagmite-based record of palaeoclimate for northeastern South Africa. Holocene 9, (1999). 295309.
Holmgren, K., Lee-Thorp, J.A., Cooper, G.R.J., Lundblad, K., Partridge, T.C., Scott, L., Sithaldeen, R., Talma, A.S., and Tyson, P.D. Persistent millennial-scale climatic variability over the past 25,000 years in Southern Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, (2003). 23112326.
Joussaume, S., Taylor, K.E., Braconnot, P., Mitchell, J.F.B., Kutzbach, J.E., Harrison, S.P., Prentice, I.C., Broccoli, A.J., Abe-Ouchi, A., Bartlein, P.J., Bonfils, C., Dong, B., Guiot, J., Herterich, K., Hewitt, C.D., Jolly, D., Kim, J.W., Kislov, A., Kitoh, A., Loutre, M.F., Masson, V., McAvaney, B., McFarlane, N., de Noblet, N., Peltier, W.R., Peterschmitt, J.Y., Pollard, D., Rind, D., Royer, J.F., Schlesinger, M.E., Syktus, J., Thompson, S., Valdes, P., Vettoretti, G., Webb, R.S., and Wyputta, U. Monsoon changes for 6000 years ago: results of 18 simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). Geophysical Research Letters 26, (1999). 859862.
Kim, J.-H., Schneider, R.R., Mulitza, S., and Müller, P.J. Reconstruction of SE trade-wind intensity based on sea-surface temperature gradients in the Southeast Atlantic over the last 25 kyr. Geophysical Research Letters 30, (2003). 2144
Knoop, W.T., and Walker, B.H. Interactions of woody and herbaceous vegetation in a southern African savanna. Journal of Ecology 73, (1985). 235253.
Knudsen, M.F., Riisager, P., Donadini, F., Snowball, I., Muscheler, R., Korhonen, K., and Pesonen, L.J. Variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment during the Holocene and the past 50 kyr. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 272, (2008). 319329.
Korte, M., and Constable, C.G. The geomagnetic dipole moment over the last 7000 years: new results from a global model. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, (2005). 348358.
Kristen, I., Fuhrmann, A., Thorpe, J., Rohl, U., Wilkes, H., and Oberhansli, H. Hydrological changes in southern Africa over the last 200 ka as recorded in lake sediments from the Tswaing impact crater. South African Journal of Geology 110, (2007). 311326.
Kristen, I., Wilkes, H., Vieth, A., Zink, K.-G., Plessen, B., Thorpe, J., Partridge, T.C., and Oberhänsli, H. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses of sedimentary organic matter from Lake Tswaing: evidence for deglacial wetness and early Holocene drought from South Africa. Journal of Paleolimnology (2009). 118.
Kröpelin, S., Verschuren, D., Lezine, A.M., Eggermont, H., Cocquyt, C., Francus, P., Cazet, J.P., Fagot, M., Rumes, B., Russell, J.M., Darius, F., Conley, D.J., Schuster, M., von Suchodoletz, H., and Engstrom, D.R. Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years. Science 320, (2008). 765768.
Kutzbach, J.E. Monsoon climate of the early Holocene: climate experiment with the Earth's orbital parameters for 9000 years ago. Science 214, (1981). 5961.
Kutzbach, J.E., and Liu, Z. Response of the African Monsoon to orbital forcing and ocean feedbacks in the middle Holocene. Science 278, (1997). 440443.
Kutzbach, J.E., Street-Perrott, F.A., (1985). Milankovitch forcing of fluctuations in the level of tropical lakes from 18 to 0 kyr BP. Nature 317, 130134.
Kutzbach, J., Liu, X., Liu, Z., and Chen, G. Simulation of the evolutionary response of global summer monsoons to orbital forcing over the past 280,000 years. Climate Dynamics 30, (2008). 567579.
Labeyrie, L., Cole, J., Alverson, K.D., and Stocker, T. History of climate dynamics in the late quaternary. Alverson, K.D., Bradley, R.S., and Pedersen, T.F. Paleoclimate, Global Change and the Future. (2003). Springer, Berlin. 3361.
Lamb, A.L., Leng, M.J., Umer Mohammed, M., and Lamb, H.F. Holocene climate and vegetation change in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley, inferred from the composition (C/N and [delta]13C) of lacustrine organic matter. Quaternary Science Reviews 23, (2004). 881891.
Lancaster, N. How dry was dry?: Late Pleistocene palaeoclimates in the Namib Desert. Quaternary Science Reviews 21, (2002). 769782.
Ledru, M.-P., Braga, P.I.S., Soubies, F., Fournier, M., Martin, L., Suguio, K., and Turcq, B. The last 50,000 years in the Neotropics (Southern Brazil): evolution of vegetation and climate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 123, (1996). 239257.
Lee-Thorp, J.A., Hohngren, K., Lauritzen, S.-E., Linge, H., Moberg, A., Partridge, T.C., Stevenson, C., and Tyson, P.D. Rapid climate shifts in the southern African interior throughout the mid- to late Holocene. Geophysical Research Letters 28, (2001). 45074510.
Little, M.G., Schneider, R.R., Kroon, D., Price, B., Summerhayes, C.P., and Segl, M. Trade wind forcing of upwelling, seasonality, and Heinrich events as a response to sub-Milankovitch climate variability. Paleoceanography 12, (1997). 568576.
Liu, Z., Kutzbach, J., Otto-Bliesner, B., Shields, C., and Li, L. Coupled climate simulation of the evolution of global monsoons in the Holocene. Journal of Climate 16, (2003). 24722490.
Maley, J., and Brénac, P. Vegetation dynamics, palaeoenvironments and climatic changes in the forests of western Cameroon during the last 28,000 years B.P. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 99, (1998). 157187.
Marchant, R., and Hooghiemstra, H. Rapid environmental change in African and South American tropics around 4000 years before present: a review. Earth Science Reviews 66, (2004). 217260.
Mayewski, P.A., Rohling, E.E., Curt Stager, J., Karlen, W., Maasch, K.A., David Meeker, L., Meyerson, E.A., Gasse, F., van Kreveld, S., and Holmgren, K. Holocene climate variability. Quaternary Research 62, (2004). 243255.
McCarthy, T.S., Ellery, W.N., Backwell, L., Marren, P., de Klerk, B., Tooth, S., Brandt, D., Woodborne, S., in press. The character, origin and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Wonderkrater Spring mound, South Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences.
McCormac, F.G., Hogg, A.G., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Higham, T.F.G., and Reimer, P.J. SHCal04 Southern Hemisphere Calibration, 0–11.0 Cal Kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46, (2004). 10871092.
Meadows, M.E., Seliane, M., and Chase, B.M. Holocene palaeoenvironments of the Cederberg and Swartruggens mountains, Western Cape, South Africa: pollen and stable isotope evidence from hyrax dung middens. Journal of Arid Environments 74, (2010). 786793.
Murphy, B.P., and Bowman, D.M.J.S. Kangaroo metabolism does not cause the relationship between bone collagen δ 15N and water availability. Functional Ecology 20, (2006). 10621069.
Neff, U. Strong coherence between solar variability and the monsoon in Oman between 9 and 6 kyr ago. Nature 411, (2001). 290293.
Nicholson, S.E. The nature of rainfall variability over Africa on time scales of decades to millenia. Global and Planetary Change 26, (2000). 137158.
O'Connor, P.W., and Thomas, D.S.G. The timing and environmental significance of late Quaternary linear dune development in western Zambia. Quaternary Research 52, (1999). 4455.
Partridge, T.C., deMenocal, P.B., Lorentz, S.A., Paiker, M.J., and Vogel, J.C. Orbital forcing of climate over South Africa: a 200,000-year rainfall record from the Pretoria Saltpan. Quaternary Science Reviews 16, (1997). 11251133.
Renssen, H., Goosse, H., and Muscheler, R. Coupled climate model simulation of Holocene cooling events: oceanic feedback amplifies solar forcing. Climates of the Past 2, (2006). 7990.
Sale, J. B. (1965). “Some aspects of the behaviour and ecology of the rock hyraxes (Genera Procavia and Heterohyrax) in Kenya..”Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London, .
Salzmann, U., and Waller, M. The Holocene vegetational history of the Nigerian Sahel based on multiple pollen profiles. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 100, (1998). 3972.
Salzmann, U., Hoelzmann, P., and Morczinek, I. Late Quaternary climate and vegetation of the Sudanian Zone of northeast Nigeria. Quaternary Research 58, (2002). 7383.
Schefuß, E., Schouten, S., Schneider, R.R., (2005). Climatic controls on central African hydrology during the past 20,000 years. Nature 437, 10031006.
Schoeninger, M.J., and DeNiro, M.J. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, (1984). 625639.
Scholz, C.A., Johnson, T.C., Cohen, A.S., King, J.W., Peck, J.A., Overpeck, J.T., Talbot, M.R., Brown, E.T., Kalindekafe, L., Amoako, P.Y.O., Lyons, R.P., Shanahan, T.M., Castaneda, I.S., Heil, C.W., Forman, S.L., McHargue, L.R., Beuning, K.R., Gomez, J., and Pierson, J. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, (2007). 1641616421.
Schwarcz, H.P., Dupras, T.L., and Fairgrieve, S.I. 15N enrichment in the Sahara: in search of a global relationship. Journal of Archaeological Science 26, (1999). 629636.
Scott, L. Climatic conditions in Southern Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum, inferred from pollen analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 70, (1989). 345353.
Scott, L. Vegetation history and climate in the Savanna biome South Africa since 190, 000 ka: a comparison of pollen data from the Tswaing Crater (the Pretoria Saltpan) and Wonderkrater. Quaternary International 57-8, (1999). 215223.
Scott, L., and Bousman, C.B. Palynological analysis of hyrax middens from Southern Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 76, (1990). 367379.
Scott, L., and Lee-Thorp, A.M. Holocene climatic trends and rhythms in southern Africa. Battarbee, R., Gasse, F., and Stickley, C.E. Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa. Developments in Palaeoenvironmental Research (2004). Springer, Dordrecht.
Scott, L., and Thackeray, J.F. Mulivariate analysis of Late Pleistocene and Holocene pollen spectra from Wonderkrater, Transvaal, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 83, (1987). 9398.
Scott, L., and Woodborne, S. Vegetation history inferred from pollen in late Quaternary faecal deposits (hyraceum) in the Cape winter–rain region and its bearing on past climates in South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, (2007). 941953.
Scott, L., Cooremans, B., de Wet, J.S., and Vogel, J.C. Holocene environmental changes in Namibia inferred from pollen analysis of swamp and lake deposits. Holocene 1, (1991). 813.
Scott, L., Holmgren, K., Talma, A.S., Woodborne, S., and Vogel, J.C. Age interpretation of the Wonderkrater spring sediments and vegetation change in the Savanna Biome, Limpopo province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 99, (2003). 484488.
Scott, L., Marais, E., and Brook, G.A. Fossil hyrax dung and evidence of Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation types in the Namib Desert. Journal of Quaternary Science 19, (2004). 829832.
Scott, L., Holmgren, K., and Partridge, T.C. Reconciliation of vegetation and climatic interpretations of pollen profiles and other regional records from the last 60 thousand years in the Savanna Biome of southern Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257, (2008). 198206.
Shanahan, T.M., Overpeck, J.T., Wheeler, C.W., Beck, J.W., Pigati, J.S., Talbot, M.R., Scholz, C.A., Peck, J., and King, J.W. Paleoclimatic variations in West Africa from a record of late Pleistocene and Holocene lake level stands of Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 242, (2006). 287302.
Shi, N., Dupont, L.M., Beug, H.-J., and Schneider, R. Correlation between vegetation in southwestern Africa and oceanic upwelling in the past 21,000 years. Quaternary Research 54, (2000). 7280.
Slota, P.J., Jull, A.J.T., Linick, T.W., and Toolin, L.J. Preparation of small samples for 14C accelerator targets by catalytic reduction of CO. Radiocarbon 29, (1987). 303306.
Snowball, I., and Muscheler, R. Palaeomagnetic intensity data: an Achilles heel of solar activity reconstructions. Holocene 17, (2007). 851859.
Snowball, I., Zillén, L., Ojala, A., Saarinen, T., and Sandgren, P. FENNOSTACK and FENNORPIS: varve dated Holocene palaeomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity stacks for Fennoscandia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 255, (2007). 106116.
Solanki, S.K., Usoskin, I.G., Kromer, B., Schüssler, M., and Beer, J. Unusual activity of the Sun during recent decades compared to the previous 11,000 years. Nature 431, (2004). 10841087.
Sonzogni, C., Bard, E., and Rostek, F. Tropical sea-surface temperatures during the last glacial period: a view based on alkenones in Indian Ocean sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews 17, (1998). 11851201.
Srivastava, P., Brook, G.A., and Marais, E. Depositional environment and luminescence chronology of the Hoarusib River Clay Castles sediments, northern Namib Desert, Namibia. Catena 59, (2005). 187204.
Stager, J.C., Cumming, B., and Meeker, L. A high-resolution 11, 400 yr diatom record from Lake Victoria, East Africa. Quaternary Research 47, (1997). 8189.
Stager, J.C., Mayewski, P.A., and Meeker, L.D. Cooling cycles, Heinrich event 1, and the desiccation of Lake Victoria. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 183, (2002). 169178.
Stager, C.J., Ruzmaikin, A., Conway, D., Verburg, P., and Mason, P.J. Sunspots, El Niño, and the levels of Lake Victoria, East Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, (2007).
Stokes, S., Thomas, D.S.G., and Shaw, P.A. New chronological evidence for the nature and timing of linear dune development in the southwest Kalahari Desert. Geomorphology 20, (1997). 8193.
Stokes, S., Thomas, D.S.G., and Washington, R. Multiple episodes of aridity in southern Africa since the last interglacial period. Nature 388, (1997). 154158.
Stone, A.E.C., Thomas, D.S.G., and Viles, H.A. Late Quaternary palaeohydrological changes in the northern Namib Sand Sea: new chronologies using OSL dating of interdigitated aeolian and water-lain interdune deposits. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 288, (2010). 3553.
Street-Perrott, F.A., Mitchell, J.F.B., Marchand, D.S., and Brunner, J.S. Milankovitch and albedo forcing of the tropical monsoons: a comparison of geological evidence and numerical simulations for 9000 BP. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Earth Sciences 81, (1990). 407427.
Street, F.A., and Grove, A.T. Global maps of lake-level fluctuations since 30, 000 yr BP. Quaternary Research 12, (1979). 83118.
Stuiver, M., and Polach, H.A. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19, (1977). 355363.
Stuut, J.-B.W., Prins, M.A., Schneider, R.R., Weltje, G.J., Jansen, J.H.F., and Postma, G. A 300 kyr record of aridity and wind strength in southwestern Africa: inferences from grain-size distributions of sediments on Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic. Marine Geology 180, (2002). 221233.
Svensmark, H., and Friis-Christensen, E. Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage—a missing link in solar–climate relationships. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 59, (1997). 12251232.
Swap, R.J., Aranibar, J.N., Dowty, P.R., Gilhooly, W.P., and Macko, S.A. Natural abundance of 13C and 15N in C3 and C4 vegetation of southern Africa: patterns and implications. Global Change Biology 10, (2004). 350358.
Telfer, M.W., and Thomas, D.S.G. Late Quaternary linear dune accumulation and chronostratigraphy of the southwestern Kalahari: implications for aeolian palaeoclimatic reconstructions and predictions of future dynamics. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, (2007). 26172630.
Thomas, D.S.G., O'Connor, P.W., Bateman, M.D., Shaw, P.A., Stokes, S., and Nash, D.J. Dune activity as a record of late Quaternary aridity in the Northern Kalahari: new evidence from northern Namibia interpreted in the context of regional arid and humid chronologies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 156, (2000). 243259.
Trauth, M.H., Larrasoaña, J.C., and Mudelsee, M. Trends, rhythms and events in Plio–Pleistocene African climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, (2009). 399411.
Umer, M., Lamb, H.F., Bonnefille, R., Lézine, A.M., Tiercelin, J.J., Gibert, E., Cazet, J.P., and Watrin, J. Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation history of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, (2007). 22292246.
Usoskin, I.G., Solanki, S.K., and Korte, M. Solar activity reconstructed over the last 7000 years: the influence of geomagnetic field changes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, (2006).
van Geel, B., Heusser, C.J., Renssen, H., and Schuurmans, C.J.E. Climatic change in Chile at around 2700 BP and global evidence for solar forcing: a hypothesis. Holocene 10, (2000). 659664.
Vincens, A., Buchet, G., Servant, M., and collaborators, E. M., (2010). Vegetation response to the "African Humid Period" termination in Central Cameroon (7°N) – new pollen insight from Lake Mbalang. Climate of the Past 6, 281294.
Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., He, Y., Kong, X., An, Z., Wu, J., Kelly, M.J., Dykoski, C.A., and Li, X. The Holocene Asian monsoon: links to solar changes and North Atlantic climate. Science 308, (2005). 854857.
Wang, X., Auler, A.S., Edwards, R.L., Cheng, H., Ito, E., and Solheid, M. Interhemispheric anti-phasing of rainfall during the last glacial period. Quaternary Science Reviews Critical Quaternary Stratigraphy 25, (2006). 33913403.
Woodborne, S., Melice, J.-L., and Scholes, R.J. Long-term sunspot forcing of savanna structure inferred from carbon and oxygen isotopes. Geophysical Research Letters 35, (2008).
Yang, S., Odah, H., and Shaw, J. Variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment over the last 12,000 years. Geophysical Journal International 140, (2000). 158162.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
EXCEL
Supplementary materials

Chase et al. Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material

 Excel (42 KB)
42 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 14 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 154 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 22nd April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.