Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Late Quaternary Environmental and Climatic Changes in Central Brazil

  • Marie-Pierre Ledru
Abstract

Paleoenvironmental changes dating back to 30,000 yr B.P. documented in a pollen record from central Brazil (lat. 19°S) permit the reconstruction of climatic changes related to shifts of the Antarctic polar fronts. The paleoclimatic inferences were obtained by a study of modern vegetation and pollen distribution, taking into account present-day climatic parameters. At 30,000 yr B.P. the climate must have been warmer and moister than today judging from the high amount of tree pollen taxa characteristic of floodplain forest. From 17,000 to 14,000 yr B.P. the climate was drier although tree pollen percentages were relatively high. After 12,000 yr B.P. Araucaria forest elements increased, suggesting a moister and cooler climate. The Araucaria forest disappeared during a short interval between 11,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. This could be related to the Younger Dryas event. At the beginning of the Holocene the climate became cool and moist again, as indicated by the reexpansion of the Araucaria forest. The latter was progressively replaced by a mesophytic semideciduous forest indicating warmer and drier climate after 8500 yr B.P. At 5000 yr B.P. an arid interval was followed by the expansion of mesophytic semideciduous forest elements.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Ab’Saber, A. N. (1982). The paleoclimate and paleoecology of brazilian Amazonia. In “Biological Diversification in the Tropics” (Prance, G. T., Ed.), pp. 4159. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.
Absy, M. L. (1980). Dados sobre as mudanças do clima e da vegetaçāo da Amazonia durante o Quatemário. Acta Amazon’tca 10(4), 929930.
Absy, M. L. Cleef, A. Fouvnier, M. Martin, L. Servant, M. Siffe-dine, A. Silva, M. F. F. Soubiès, F. Suguio, K. Turcq, B., and Van der Hammen, T. (1991), Mise en évidence de quatre phases d’ouver-ture de la forêt dense dans le sud-est de l’Amazonie au cours des 60000 dernières années. Premiere comparison avec d’autres régions tropicales. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Serie 2 t . 312, 673678.
Aubreville, A. (1961). “Etude écologique des principales formations végétales du Brésil et contribution à la connaissance des forêts de l’Amazonie brésilienne.” Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent.
Bigarella, J. J., and Andrade-Lima, de D. (1982). Paleoenvironmental changes in Brazil. In “Biological Diversification in the Tropics” (Prance, G. T., Ed.), pp. 2740. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.
Bradbury, J. P. Leyden, B. Salgado-Labouriau, M. L. Lewis, W. M. Jr Schubert, C Benford, M. W. Frey, D. G. Whitehead, D. R., and Weibezahn, F. H. (1981). Late Quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela. Science 214, 12991305.
Bush, M. B., and Colinvaux, P. A. (1990). A pollen record of a complete glacial cycle from lowland Panama. Journal of Vegetation Science 1, 105118.
Bush, M. B. Colinvaux, P. A. Wiemann, M. C Piperno, D. R., and Liu, K. B. (1990). Late Pleistocene temperature depression and veg-etation change in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Quaternary Research 34, 330345.
Faegri, K., and Iversen, J. (1975). “Textbook of Pollen Analysis.” Munksgaard, Copenhagen.
Ferri, M. G. (1980). “Vegetação brasileira.” USP e Itatiaia, Sao Paulo.
Gentry, A. H. (1982). Phytogeographic patterns as evidence for a Chocó refuge. In “Biological Diversification in the Tropics” (Prance, G. T., Ed.), pp. 112135. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.
Haffer, J. (1969). Speciation in Amazonian forest birds. Science 165, 131137.
Hueck, K., and Seibert, P. (1981). “Vegetationskarte von Su-damerika.” G. Fischer, Stuttgart.
Klein, R. M. (1975). Southern Brazilian phytogeographic features and the probable influence of upper Quaternary climatic changes in the floristic distribution. Boletim Paranaense de Geosciencias 33, 6788.
Ledru, M. P. (1991). “Etude de la pluie pollinique actuelle des forêts du Brésil Central: climat, végétation, application à l’étude de l’évolution paléoclimatique des 30000 dernières années”. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Leyden, B. W. (1985). Late Quaternary aridity and Holocene moisture fluctuations in the Lake Valencia Basin, Venezuela. Ecology 66(4), 12791295.
Liu, K. B., and Colinvaux, P. (1985). Forest changes in the Amazon basin during the last glacial maximum. Nature 138, 556557.
Loefgren, A., and Edwall, G. (18971905). Flora Paulista. Bol. Comm, Geogr. Sāo Paulo 14, 1215.
Lorscheitter, M. L., and Romero, E. J. (1985). Palynology of Quaternary sediments of the core T15 Rio Grande Cone, South Atlantic, Brazil. In “Quaternary of South America and Antarctica Peninsula” (Rabassa, J., Ed.), Vol. 3, pp. 5592. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Lund, P. W. (1835). Bemaerkninger over VegetaMonen paa de indre Hogsletter af Brasilien, isaer i plantehistorike henseende. Kgl. Danske Videnskab. Selsk. Skrifer VI, 14588.
Markgraf, V. (1989). Paleoclimates in Central and South America since 18000 BP based on pollen and lake-level records. Quaternary Science Reviews 8, p. 124.
Markgraf, V. (1991). Younger Dryas in southern South America? Boreas 20, 6370.
Markgraf, V., and Bradbury, J. P. (1982). Holocene climatic history of South America. In “Chronostratigraphic Subdivision of the Holocene” (Mangerud, J. Birks, H. J. B., and Jäger, K. D., Eds.), Striae 16, 4045, Uppsala.
Nobre, C. A., and Oliveira, de A. S. (1986). Precipitation and circulation anomalies in South America and the 1982-83 El Nin̄o/Southern Oscillation episod. In “Extended Abstracts of the Second International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology,” pp. 442445. Wellington, New Zealand.
Pagney, P. (1976). “Les climats de la Terre.” Masson, Paris.
Prance, G. T. (1973). Phytogeographic support for the theory of Pleistocene forest refuges in the Amazon basin, based on evidence from distribution patterns in Caryocaraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Dichap-etalaceae and Lecythidaceae. Acta Amazonica 3(3), 528.
Räsänen, M. E. Salo, J. S., and Kalliola, R. J. (1987). Fluvial pertur-bance in the western Amazon basin: regulation by long term sub-Andean tectonics. Science 238, 13981400.
Rizzini, C. T. (1979). “Tratado de fitogeografia do Brasil. Aspectos sociológicos e floristicos.” HUCITEC e USP, Sāo Paulo.
Salgado-Labouriau, M. L. (1973). “Contribuçāo á palinologia dos cer-rados.” Ac. Bras. de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro.
Salo, J. S. Kalliola, R. J. Häkkinen, i. Mäkinen, Y. Niemelä, P. Pumakka, M., and Coley, P. (1986). River dynamics and the diversity of Amazon lowland forest. Nature 322, 254258.
Schnell, R. (1987). “La flore et la végétation de l’Amérique Tropicale.” Masson, Paris.
Servant, M. Fournider, M. Soubiès, F. Suguio, K., and Turcq, B. (1989). Sécheresse holocène au Brésil (18-20° latitude Sud). Impli-cations paléométéorologiques. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Serie 2 t.309, 153156.
Silva, da A. F., and Shepherd, G. J. (1986). Comparaçōes florísticas entre algumas matas brasileiras utilizando análise de agrupamento. Rvta Brasil. Bot. 9, 8186.
Souza Reis, A. C. de (1971). Climatologia dos cerrados. In “III Sim-pósio sôbre o cerrado” (Ferri, M. G., Ed.), pp. 1526. Bücher Ltd. e USP, Sāo Paulo.
Van der Hammen, T. (1974). The Pleistocene changes of the vegetation and climate in tropical South America. Journal of Bio. 1, 326.
Van der Hammen, T. (1983). The palaeoecology and palaeogeography of savannas. In “Tropical savannas” (Bourliere, F., Ed.), pp. 1935, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Van der Hammen, T., and Gonzalez, A. E. (1960). Holocene and late glacial climate and vegetation of Páramo de Palacio (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia, South America). Geotogie en Mijnbow 39(12), 737746.
Van der Hammen, T., and Gonzalez, A. E. (1965). A pollen diagram from “Lagunade la Herrera” (Sabana de Bogotá).. Leidse Geol. Med. 32, 183191.
Vaughan-Williams, P. (1988). “Brasil. A Concise Thematic Geogra-phy.” Unwin Hyman, London.
Virji, H., and Kousky, V. E. (1983). Regional and global aspects of a low latitude frontal penetration in Amazonas and associated tropical activity. In “Preprints of the 1st international Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology”, pp. 215220. Sāo José dos Campos, Brazil.
Wijmstra, T. A., and Van der Hammen, T. (1966). Palynological data on the history of tropical savannas in northern South America. Leidse Geol. Med. 38, 7190.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed