Glass, Jessica R. Davis, Matt Walsh, Timothy J. Sargis, Eric J. Caccone, Adalgisa and Fiorillo, Anthony 2016. Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner at The Explorers Club?. PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, Issue. 2, p. e0146825.
Graham, Russell W. Belmecheri, Soumaya Choy, Kyungcheol Culleton, Brendan J. Davies, Lauren J. Froese, Duane Heintzman, Peter D. Hritz, Carrie Kapp, Joshua D. Newsom, Lee A. Rawcliffe, Ruth Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie Shapiro, Beth Wang, Yue Williams, John W. and Wooller, Matthew J. 2016. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue. 33, p. 9310.
Muhs, Daniel R. Simmons, Kathleen R. Groves, Lindsey T. McGeehin, John P. Randall Schumann, R. and Agenbroad, Larry D. 2015. Late Quaternary sea-level history and the antiquity of mammoths (Mammuthus exilis and Mammuthus columbi), Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Quaternary Research, Vol. 83, Issue. 03, p. 502.
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Nikolskiy, Pavel and Pitulko, Vladimir 2013. Evidence from the Yana Palaeolithic site, Arctic Siberia, yields clues to the riddle of mammoth hunting. Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 40, Issue. 12, p. 4189.
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NYSTRÖM, VERONICA HUMPHREY, JOANNE SKOGLUND, PONTUS McKEOWN, NIALL J. VARTANYAN, SERGEY SHAW, PAUL W. LIDÉN, KERSTIN JAKOBSSON, MATTIAS BARNES, IAN ANGERBJÖRN, ANDERS LISTER, ADRIAN and DALÉN, LOVE 2012. Microsatellite genotyping reveals end-Pleistocene decline in mammoth autosomal genetic variation. Molecular Ecology, Vol. 21, Issue. 14, p. 3391.
Stuart, Anthony J. and Lister, Adrian M. 2012. Extinction chronology of the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis in the context of late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions in northern Eurasia. Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 51, p. 1.
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Enk, J.M. Yesner, D.R. Crossen, K.J. Veltre, D.W. and O'Rourke, D.H. 2009. Phylogeographic analysis of the mid-Holocene Mammoth from Qagnaxˆ Cave, St. Paul Island, Alaska. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 273, Issue. 1-2, p. 184.
Cave, a lava tube cave on St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs, has recently produced a mid-Holocene vertebrate faunal assemblage including woolly mammoth, polar bear, caribou, and Arctic fox. Several dates on the mammoth remains converge on 5700 14C yr BP. These dates, ~ 2300 yr younger than mammoth dates previously published from the Pribilof Islands, make these the youngest remains of proboscideans, and of non-extinct Quaternary megafauna, recovered from North America. Persistence of mammoths on the Pribilofs is most parsimoniously explained by the isolation of the Pribilofs and the lack of human presence in pre-Russian contact times, but an additional factor may have been the local existence of high-quality forage in the form of grasses enriched by nutrients derived from local Holocene tephras. This interpretation is reinforced by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values obtained from the mammoth remains. The endpoint of mammoth survival in the Pribilofs is unknown, but maybe coterminous with the arrival of polar bears whose remains in the cave date to the Neoglacial cold period of ~ 4500 to 3500 14C yr BP. The polar bear record corroborates a widespread cooling of the Bering Sea region at that time.
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