Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A perched, high-elevation wetland complex in the Atacama Desert (northern Chile) and its implications for past human settlement

  • Luca Sitzia (a1) (a2), Eugenia M. Gayo (a3), Marcela Sepulveda (a4) (a5), Juan S. González (a6), Lucia Ibañez (a7), Alain Queffelec (a8) and Ricardo De Pol-Holz (a9)...

Abstract

A previously undocumented type of wetland is described from the Atacama Desert in northern Chile (3000 m above sea level), sustained exclusively by direct precipitation and perched above the regional water table. Geomorphological mapping, pedostratigraphy, geochemistry, and analysis of contemporary vegetation is used to understand wetland formation and dynamics during historical and present time periods. The paleowetland deposits overlie a Miocene tuff that acts as an impermeable barrier to water transfer and creates conditions for local shallow ground water. These deposits include several paleosols that were formed during periods when precipitation increased regionally at 7755–7300, 1270, 545, and 400–300 cal yr BP. The similarity in timing with other palaeohydrological records for the Atacama implies that paleosols from this wetland are proxies for reconstructing past changes in local and regional hydrological cycle. Archaeological investigations have revealed the presence of two small farms from the Late Intermediate period, i.e., during the earliest wetter phase represented by the paleosols. Both farms are located near the paleowetland deposits, which suggests that local inhabitants exploited these water sources during late pre-Hispanic times. Results of this study improve knowledge of settlement patterns during this and earlier cultural periods.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aber, J.S., Pavri, F., Aber, S., 2012. Wetland Environments: A Global Perspective. John Wiley and Sons.
Aitchison, J., 1986. The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data. Chapman and Hall, London.
Aitchison, J., Greenacre, M., 2002. Biplots of compositional data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics) 51, 375392.
Alley, R.B., Marotzke, J., Nordhaus, W.D., Overpeck, J.T., Peteet, D.M., Pielke, J.R., Pierrehumbert, R.A., et al. , 2002. Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Arroyo, M.K., Villagrán, C., Marticorena, C., Armesto, J.J., 1982. Flora y relaciones biogeograficas en los Andes del norte de Chile (18–19S). In: Veloso, A. & Bustos, E. (Eds.), El ambiente natural y las poblaciones humanas de los Andes del Norte Grande de Chile (Arica, Lat. 18 28 S). UNESCO, Montevideo, pp. 7192.
Arroyo, M.T.K., Squeo, F.A., Armesto, J.J., Villagran, C., 1988. Effects of aridity on plant diversity in the northern Chilean Andes: results of a natural experiment. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75, 5578.
Ayala, Cabrera y Asociados ltda., 2003. Diagnóstico actual del riego y drenaje en Chile y su proyección. Diagnóstico del riego y drenaje en la I región. Final Report. Comision Nacional de Riego, Santiago.
Babel, U., 1975. Micromorphology of soil organic matter. Soil Components 1, 369473.
Baied, C.A., Wheeler, J.C., 1993. Evolution of high Andean puna ecosystems: environment, climate, and culture change over the last 12,000 years in the Central Andes. Mountain Research and Development, 145156.
Bao, R., Hernández, A., Sáez, A., Giralt, S., Prego, R., Pueyo, J.J., Moreno, A., Valero-Garcés, B.L., 2015. Climatic and lacustrine morphometric controls of diatom paleoproductivity in a tropical Andean lake. Quaternary Science Reviews 129, 96110.
Bindler, R., 2006. Mired in the past — looking to the future: Geochemistry of peat and the analysis of past environmental changes. Global And Planetary Change, Peatlands: Records of Global Environmental Changes 53, 209221.
Birkeland, P.W., 1984. Soils and Geomorphology. Oxford University Press, New York.
Blazejewski, G.A., Stolt, M.H., Gold, A.J., Groffman, P.M., 2005. Macro- and micromorphology of subsurface carbon in riparian zone soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69, 1320.
Buttolph, L., 1998. Rangeland Dynamics and Pastoral Development in the High Andes: The Camelid Herders of Cosapa, Bolivia. PhD dissertation, Utah State University, Logan, USA.
Calhoun, A.J.K., Mushet, D.M., Bell, K.P., Boix, D., Fitzsimons, J.A., Isselin-Nondedeu, F., 2017. Temporary wetlands: challenges and solutions to conserving a ‘disappearing’ ecosystem. Biological Conservation, Small Natural Features 211, 311.
Casby-Horton, S., Herrero, J., Rolong, N.A., 2015. Gypsum soils—their morphology, classification, function, and landscapes. In: Sparks, D.L. (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy. Academic Press, pp. 231290.
Comas, M., Thió-Henestrosa, S., 2011. CoDaPack 2.0: a stand-alone, multi-platform compositional software. CoDaWork'11, Girona, Spain.
de Porras, M.E., Maldonado, A., Pol-Holz, R.D., Latorre, C., Betancourt, J.L., 2017. Late Quaternary environmental dynamics in the Atacama Desert reconstructed from rodent midden pollen records. Journal of Quaternary Science 32, 665684.
DGA (Dirección General de Aguas), 1986. Mapa hidrogeológico de Chile, escala 1:2.500.000. Texto explicativo. Ministerio de Obras Publicas (MOP), Santiago.
Díaz, F.P., Frugone, M., Gutiérrez, R.A., Latorre, C., 2016. Nitrogen cycling in an extreme hyperarid environment inferred from δ15N analyses of plants, soils and herbivore diet. Scientific Reports 6, 22226.
Dubroeucq, D., Geissert, D., Quantin, P., 1998. Weathering and soil forming processes under semi-arid conditions in two Mexican volcanic ash soils. Geoderma 86, 99122.
Dudognon, C., Sepúlveda, M., 2016. Rock art of the upper Lluta valley, northernmost of Chile (South Central Andes): a visual approach to socio-economic changes between Archaic and Formative periods (6,000–1,500 years BP). Quaternary International 491, 136-145.
Flewett, S., Saintenoy, T., Sepúlveda, M., Mosso, E.F., Robles, C., Vega, K., Gutierrez, S., et al. , 2016. Micro x-ray fluorescence study of late pre-Hispanic ceramics from the western slopes of the south central Andes region in the Arica y Parinacota region, Chile: a new methodological approach. Applied Spectroscopy 70, 17591769.
Food and Agriculture Organization-World Reference Base (FAO-WRB), International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) Working Group, 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Garcia, M., Gardeweg, M., Clavero, J., Hérail, G., 2004. Hoja Arica, Región de Tarapacá. Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, Carta Geológica de Chile, Serie Geología Básica, No. 84. SERNAGEOMIN,Santiago.
Garreaud, R., Vuille, M., Clement, A.C., 2003. The climate of the Altiplano: observed current conditions and mechanisms of past changes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194, 522.
Gayo, E.M., Latorre, C., Jordan, T.E., Nester, P.L., Estay, S.A., Ojeda, K.F., Santoro, C.M., 2012a. Late Quaternary hydrological and ecological changes in the hyperarid core of the northern Atacama Desert (~21°S). Earth-Science Reviews 113, 120140.
Gayo, E.M., Latorre, C., Santoro, C.M., Maldonado, A., de Pol-Holz, R., 2012b. Hydroclimate variability in the low-elevation Atacama Desert over the last 2500 yr. Climate of the Past 8, 287306.
Grosjean, M., Núñez, L., Cartajena, I., 2005. Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Journal of Quaternary Science 20, 643653.
Grosjean, M., Santoro, C.M., Thompson, L.G., Núñez, L., Standen, V.G., 2007. Mid-Holocene climate and culture change in the South Central Andes. In: Anderson, D.G., Maasch, K.A., Sandweiss, D.H. (Eds.), Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 51115.
Guilloré, P., 1980. Méthode de fabrication mécanique et en série des lames minces. Institut National d'Agronomie Paris-Grignon, Département des Sols, Paris.
Gustavsson, M., Kolstrup, E., Seijmonsbergen, A.C., 2006. A new symbol-and-GIS based detailed geomorphological mapping system: Renewal of a scientific discipline for understanding landscape development. Geomorphology 77, 90111.
Hernández, A., Bao, R., Giralt, S., Sáez, A., Leng, M.J., Barker, P.A., Kendrick, C.P., Sloane, H.J., 2013. Climate, catchment runoff and limnological drivers of carbon and oxygen isotope composition of diatom frustules from the central Andean Altiplano during the Lateglacial and Early Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 66, 6473.
Herrera, C., Custodio, E., Chong, G., Lambán, L.J., Riquelme, R., Wilke, H., Jódar, J., et al. , 2016. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes. Science of the Total Environment 541, 303318.
Holmgren, C.A., Rosello, E., Latorre, C., Betancourt, J.L., 2008. Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile. Journal of Arid Environments 72, 677686.
Houston, J., 2006. Variability of precipitation in the Atacama Desert: its causes and hydrological impact. International Journal of Climatology 26, 21812198.
Houston, J., Hartley, A.J., 2003. The central Andean west-slope rainshadow and its potential contribution to the origin of hyper-aridity in the Atacama Desert. International Journal of Climatology 23, 14531464.
Junk, W.J., An, S., Finlayson, C.M., Gopal, B., Květ, J., Mitchell, S.A., Mitsch, W.J., Robarts, R.D., 2013. Current state of knowledge regarding the world's wetlands and their future under global climate change: a synthesis. Aquatic Sciences 75, 151167.
Kent, M., 2011. Vegetation Description and Data Analysis: A Practical Approach. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
Latorre, C., Betancourt, J.L., Arroyo, M.T.K., 2006. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of a perennial river canyon in the Río Salado basin (22°S) of northern Chile. Quaternary Research 65, 450466.
Latorre, C., Betancourt, J.L., Rylander, K.A., Quade, J., 2002. Vegetation invasions into absolute desert: a 45000 yr rodent midden record from the Calama–Salar de Atacama basins, northern Chile (lat 22°–24°S). Geological Society of America Bulletin 114, 349366.
Latorre, C., Betancourt, J.L., Rylander, K.A., Quade, J., Matthei, O., 2003. A vegetation history from the arid prepuna of northern Chile (22–23°S) over the last 13 500 years. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194, 223246.
Maldonado, A., Betancourt, J.L., Latorre, C., Villagran, C., 2005. Pollen analyses from a 50 000-yr rodent midden series in the southern Atacama Desert (25°30′ S). Journal of Quaternary Science 20, 493507.
Martín-Fernández, J., Barceló-Vidal, C., Pawlowsky-Glahn, V., 2003. Dealing with zeros and missing values in compositional data sets using nonparametric imputation. Mathematical Geology 35, 253278.
Melly, B.L., Schael, D.M., Gama, P.T., 2017. Perched wetlands: an explanation to wetland formation in semi-arid areas. Journal of Arid Environments 141, 3439.
Morales, M.S., Christie, D.A., Villalba, R., Argollo, J., Pacajes, J., Silva, J.S., Alvarez, C.A., Llancabure, J.C., Soliz Gamboa, C.C., 2012. Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings. Climate of the Past 8, 653666.
Moreno, A., Giralt, S., Valero-Garcés, B., Sáez, A., Bao, R., Prego, R., Pueyo, J.J., González-Sampériz, P., Taberner, C., 2007. A 14 kyr record of the tropical Andes: The Lago Chungará sequence (18°S, northern Chilean Altiplano). Quaternary International 161, 421.
Moreno, A., Santoro, C.M., Latorre, C., 2009. Climate change and human occupation in the northernmost Chilean Altiplano over the last ca. 11 500 cal. a BP. Journal of Quaternary Science 24, 373382.
Mortimer, C., Saric, N., 1972. Landform evolution in the coastal region of Tarapacá Province, Chile. Revue de géomorphologie dynamique 21, 162170.
Mujica, M.I., Latorre, C., Maldonado, A., González-Silvestre, L., Pinto, R., de Pol-Holz, R., Santoro, C.M., 2014. Late Quaternary climate change, relict populations and present-day refugia in the northern Atacama Desert: a case study from Quebrada La Higuera (18°S). Journal of Biogeography 42, 7688.
Muñoz, I., Briones, L., 1996. Poblados, rutas y arte rupestre precolombinos de Arica: descripción y análisis de sistema de organización. Chungará 28, 4784.
Muñoz Ovalle, I., 2005. Espacio social y áreas de actividad en asentamientos agrícolas prehispánicos tardíos en la sierra de Arica. Bulletin de l'Institut Français d’Études Andines 34, 321355.
Naranjo, J.A., Paskoff, R., 1985. Evolución cenozoica del piedemonte andino en la Pampa del Tamarugal, norte de Chile (18–21 S). In: Congreso Geológico Chileno. Publisher, Antofagasta, Chile, pp. 149165.
Navarro, G., 1993. Vegetación de Bolivia: el Altiplano meridional. Rivasgodaya 7, 6998.
Nester, P.L., Gayó, E., Latorre, C., Jordan, T.E., Blanco, N., 2007. Perennial stream discharge in the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile during the latest Pleistocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 1972419729.
Nicholas, G.P., 1998. Wetlands and hunter-gatherers: a global perspective. Current Anthropology 39, 720731.
Niemeyer, H., 1989. El Escenario geográfico. In: Hidalgo L., Jorge, Culturas de Chile 1 Prehistoria: Desde Sus Orígenes Hasta Los Albores de La Conquista. Andrés Bello, Santiago, pp. 112.
Núñez, L., Cartajena, I., Grosjean, M., 2013. Archaeological silence and ecorefuges: arid events in the Puna of Atacama during the Middle Holocene. Quaternary International 307, 513.
Osorio, D., Steele, J., Sepúlveda, M., Gayo, E.M., Capriles, J.M., Herrera, K., Ugalde, P., De Pol-Holz, R., Latorre, C., Santoro, C.M., 2017. The Dry Puna as an ecological megapatch and the peopling of South America: technology, mobility, and the development of a late Pleistocene/early Holocene Andean hunter-gatherer tradition in northern Chile. Quaternary International 461, 4153.
Paskoff, R., 1979. Sobre la Evolución Geomorfológica del gran acantilado costero del Norte Grande de Chile. Norte Grande 6, 722.
Pfeiffer, M., Latorre, C., Santoro, C.M., Gayo, E.M., Rojas, R., Carrevedo, M.L., McRostie, V.B., et al. , 2018. Chronology, stratigraphy and hydrological modelling of extensive wetlands and paleolakes in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert during the late quaternary. Quaternary Science Reviews 197, 224245.
Pigati, J.S., Rech, J.A., Quade, J., Bright, J., 2014. Desert wetlands in the geologic record. Earth-Science Reviews 132, 6781.
Placzek, C., Quade, J., Betancourt, J.L., 2001. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, southern Peru. Quaternary Research 56, 181190.
Placzek, C., Quade, J., Betancourt, J.L., Patchett, P.J., Rech, J.A., Latorre, C., Matmon, A., Holmgren, C., English, N.B., 2009. Climate in the dry central Andes over geologic, millennial, and interannual timescales. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96, 386397.
Poch, R.M., Artieda, O., Herrero, J., Lebedeva-Verba, M., 2010. Gypsic features. In: Stoops, G., Marcelino, V., Mees, F. (Eds.), Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 195216.
Porta, J., Herrero, J., 1990. Micromorphology and Genesis of Soils Enriched with Gypsum. In: Doublas, Lowell A., Soil Micro-Morphology: A Basic and Applied Science. Proceedings of the VIIIth International Working Meeting of Soil Micromorphology. Elsevier, San Antonio, Texas, pp. 321339.
Pueyo, J.J., Sáez, A., Giralt, S., Valero-Garcés, B.L., Moreno, A., Bao, R., Schwalb, A., Herrera, C., Klosowska, B., Taberner, C., 2011. Carbonate and organic matter sedimentation and isotopic signatures in Lake Chungará, Chilean Altiplano, during the last 12.3kyr. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 307, 339355.
Qi, J., Chehbouni, A., Huete, A.R., Kerr, Y.H., Sorooshian, S., 1994. A modified soil adjusted vegetation index. Remote Sensing of Environment 48, 119126.
Quade, J., Rech, J.A., Betancourt, J.L., Latorre, C., Quade, B., Rylander, K.A., Fisher, T., 2008. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Quaternary Research 69, 343360.
Rech, J.A., 2001. Late Quaternary Paleohydrology and Surficial Processes of the Atacama Desert, Chile: evidence from Wetland Deposits and Stable Isotopes of Soil Salts. PhD dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Rech, J.A., Pigati, J.S., Quade, J., Betancourt, J.L., 2003. Re-evaluation of mid-Holocene deposits at Quebrada Puripica, northern Chile. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194, 207222.
Rech, J.A., Quade, J., Betancourt, J.L., 2002. Late Quaternary paleohydrology of the central Atacama Desert (lat 22°–24°S), Chile. Geological Society of America Bulletin 114, 334348.
Ruthsatz, B., 2012. Vegetación y ecología de los bofedales altoandinos de Bolivia. Phytocoenologia 42, 133179.
Sáez, A., Godfrey, L.V., Herrera, C., Chong, G., Pueyo, J.J., 2016. Timing of wet episodes in Atacama Desert over the last 15 ka: the groundwater discharge deposits (GWD) from Domeyko Range at 25°S. Quaternary Science Reviews 145, 8293.
Saintenoy, T., Ajata, R., Romero, A.L., Sepulveda, M., 2017. Arqueología del territorio aldeano prehispánico tardío en los altos de Arica: aportes de la fotointerpretación satelital para el estudio regional de la cuenca alta de Azapa. Estudios Atacameños 54, 85110.
Santoro, C., Osorio, D., Ugalde, P., Sepúlveda, M., Cartajena, I., Standen, V., Gayó, E., Maldonado, A., et al. , 2016. Cazadores, recolectores y pescadores arcaicos del Desierto de Atacama, entre el Pacífico y los Andes, Norte de Chile (ca. 10.000- 3.700 años a.p.). In: Falabella, F., Sanhueza, L., Uribe, M., Aldunate, C., Hidalgo, J. (Eds.), Prehistoria en Chile: Desde sus primeros habitantes hasta los Incas. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de Chile, pp. 117180.
Scasso, R., Limarino, O., 1997. Petrología y Diagénesis de rocas clásticas. Publicación Especial no 1. Asociación Argentina de Sedimentología, Buenos Aires.
Schittek, K., Forbriger, M., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., Eitel, B., 2015. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14°S) and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. Climate of the Past 11, 2744.
Schwalb, A., Burns, S.J., Kelts, K., 1999. Holocene environments from stable isotope stratigraphy of ostracods and authigenic carbonate in Chilean Altiplano Lakes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 148, 153168.
Sepúlveda, M., Cornejo, L., Osorio, D., Uribe, M., Llanos, C., 2018. Cazadores-recolectores en tiempos formativos. Trayectoria histórica local en la precordilleradel extremo norte de Chile. Chungara 50, 2950.
Sepúlveda, M., Cornejo, L., Osorio, D., Sitzia, L., Saintenoy, T., Espinoza, F., 2017a. North/South Archaic Mobility in Dry Puna: Hunter-Gatherers from Upper Azapa Valley Basin, Northern Chile. Paper presented at the 82th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Sepúlveda, M., Saintenoy, T., Cornejo, L., Dudognon, C., Espinoza, F., Guerrero-Bueno, Z., Cerrillo-Cuenca, E., 2017b. Rock art painting and territoriality in the precordillera of northernmost Chile (South-Central Andes). Archeological and spatial approaches to the Naturalistic Tradition. Quaternary International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2017.02.005.
Sitzia, L., Bertran, P., Sima, A., Chery, P., Queffelec, A., Rousseau, D.-D., 2017. Dynamics and sources of last glacial aeolian deposition in southwest France derived from dune patterns, grain-size gradients and geochemistry, and reconstruction of efficient wind directions. Quaternary Science Reviews 170, 250268.
Smyth, R.C., Sharp, J.M. Jr., 2006. The hydrology of tuffs. In: EDITORS, Tuffs—Their Properties, Uses, Hydrology, and Resources. Special Paper 408. The Geological Society of America, CITY, pp. 91112.
Squeo, F.A., Warner, B.G., Aravena, R., Espinoza, D., 2006. Bofedales: high altitude peatlands of the central Andes. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 79, 245255.
Stolt, M.H., Lindbo, D.L., 2010. 17 - Soil Organic Matter. In: Stoops, G., Marcelino, V., Mees, F., Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 369396.
Stoops, G., 2003. Guidelines for analysis and description of soil and regolith thin sections. Vepraskas, M.J. (Ed.), Soil Science Society of America, Madison, USA.
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., Reimer, R.W., 2018, CALIB 7.1 (accessed October 30, 2018). http://calib.org.
Teiller, S., 1998. Flora y vegetación alto-andina del área de Collaguasi-Salar de Coposa, Andes del norte de Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 71, 313329.
Tooth, S., McCarthy, T.S., 2007. Wetlands in drylands: geomorphological and sedimentological characteristics, with emphasis on examples from southern Africa. Progress in Physical Geography 31, 341.
Tosdal, R.M., Clark, A.H., Farrar, E., 1984. Cenozoic polyphase landscape and tectonic evolution of the Cordillera Occidental, southernmost Peru. Geological Society of America Bulletin 95, 13181332.
Townley, L.R., 1998. Shallow groundwater systems. In: Dillon, P., Simmers, I. (Eds.), Shallow Groundwater Systems: IAH International Contribution to Hydrogeology. International Contributions to Hydrogeology 18. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 311.
Vandergoes, M.J., Newnham, R.M., Preusser, F., Hendy, C.H., Lowell, T.V., Fitzsimons, S.J., Hogg, A.G., Kasper, H.U., Schlüchter, C., 2005. Regional insolation forcing of late Quaternary climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Nature 436, 242245.
Vaniman, D., 2006. Tuff mineralogy. In: Heicken, G., Tuffs—Their Properties, Uses, Hydrology, and Resources. Special Paper 408. Geological Society of America, Penrose, pp. 91112.
Vepraskas, M.J., Faulkner, S.P., 2000. Redox Chemistry of hydric soils. In: Richardson, J.L., Vepraskas, M.J. (Eds.), Wetland Soils Genesis, Hydrology, Landscapes, and Classification. CRC PRESS, Boca Raton, pp. 85107.
Verdin, J. P. (1996) Remote sensing of ephemeral water bodies in western Niger. International Journal of Remote Sensing 17, 733–48.
Villagrán, C., Armesto, J.J., Arroyo, M.T.K., 1981. Vegetation in a high Andean transect between Turi and Cerro León in Northern Chile. Vegetatio 48, 316.
Villagrán, C., Kalin Arroyo, M.T., Marticorena, C., 1983. Efectos de la desertización en la distribución de la flora andina de Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 137157.
Vleeschouwer, F.D., Vanneste, H., Mauquoy, D., Piotrowska, N., Torrejón, F., Roland, T., Stein, A., Roux, G.L., 2014. Emissions from Pre-Hispanic metallurgy in the South American atmosphere. PLoS ONE 9, e111315.
von Eynatten, H., Barceló-Vidal, C., Pawlowsky-Glahn, V., 2003. Modelling compositional change: the example of chemical weathering of granitoid rocks. Mathematical Geology 35, 231251.
Vuille, M., Ammann, C., 1997. Regional Snowfall Patterns in the High, Arid Andes. Climatic Change at High Elevation Sites 36, 181191.
Vuille, M., Keimig, F., 2004. Interannual variability of summertime convective cloudiness and precipitation in the Central Andes derived from ISCCP-B3 data. Journal of Climate 17, 33343348.
Walker, M.J.C., Berkelhammer, M., Björck, S., Cwynar, L.C., Fisher, D.A., Long, A.J., Lowe, J.J., Newnham, R.M., Rasmussen, S.O., Weiss, H., 2012. Formal subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch: a Discussion Paper by a Working Group of INTIMATE (Integration of ice-core, marine and terrestrial records) and the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (International Commission on Stratigraphy). Journal of Quaternary Science 27, 649659.
Witham, C.S., Oppenheimer, C., Horwell, C.J., 2005. Volcanic ash-leachates: a review and recommendations for sampling methods. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 141, 299326.
Yokota, S., Iwamatsu, A., 2000. Weathering distribution in a steep slope of soft pyroclastic rocks as an indicator of slope instability. Engineering Geology 55, 5768.
Zhou, J., Lau, K.-M., 1998. Does a Monsoon Climate Exist over South America? Journal of Climate 11, 10201040.
Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O., Belgrano, M., 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany 107. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Sitzia et al. supplementary material
Sitzia et al. supplementary material 1

 Unknown (29.5 MB)
29.5 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed