Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Reconstruction of Annual Temperature (1590–1979) for Longmire, Washington, Derived from Tree Rings

  • Lisa J. Graumlich (a1) and Linda B. Brubaker (a1)

Annual growth records from trees at timberline in the Cascade Range of Washington are correlated with variations in temperature and snow depth and used to reconstruct climatic variation in the past. Response surfaces indicate that growth of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) and subalpine larch (Larix lyallii) is positively correlated with summer (July to September) temperature and negatively correlated with spring (March) snow depth when snow depth is at or below average. During years of above average snow depth, temperature has little effect on mountain hemlock but has a negative effect on growth in subalpine larch. These interactions make it difficult to reconstruct these climatic variables separately using standard methods. Mean annual temperature values, which combine information on both summer temperature and spring snow depth, were estimated from a regression model that reconstructs past temperature at Longmire, Washington, as a function of larch and hemlock tree-ring chronologies. The reconstruction of mean annual temperature shows temperatures between 1590 and 1900 to be approximately 1°C lower than those of the 20th century. Only during a short period from 1650 to 1690 did temperatures approach 20th-century values.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

P. J. Bartlein I. C. Prentice T. Webb III 1986 Climatic response surfaces for some eastern North American pollen types. Journal of Biogeography 13 in press

D. W. Burbank 1981 A chronology of late Holocene glacier fluctuations at Mount Rainier. Washington. Arctic and Alpine Research 13 369 386

D. W. Burbank 1982 Correlations of climate, mass balances, and glacier fluctuations at Mount Rainier, Washington, U.S.A., since 1850. Arctic and Alpine Research 14 137 148

H. C. Fritts 1976 Tree-Rings and Climate Academic Press New York

H. C. Fritts G. R. Lofgren G. A. Gordon 1979 Variations in climate since 1602 as reconstructed from tree-rings. Quaternary Research 12 18 46

H. C. Fritts J. M. Lough 1985 An estimate of average annual temperature variations for North America, 1602 to 1961. Climatic Change 7 203 224

O. Heikkinen 1984 Dendrochronological evidence of variations of Coleman Glacier, Mount Baker, Washington, U.S.A.. Arctic and Alpine Research 16 53 64

G. C. Jacoby E. R. Cook L. D. Ulan 1985 Reconstructed summer degree-days in Alaska and northwestern Canada since 1524. Quaternary Research 23 18 26

P. D. Jones P. A. Kelly 1983 The spatial and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations. Journal of Climatology 3 243 252

V. C. LaMarche Jr. D. A. Grabill H. C. Fritts M. R. Rose 1984 Rising atmospheric CO2: Tree-ring evidence of growth enhancement in natural vegetation. Science (Washington, D.C.), 225 10191021

H. H. Lamb 1982 Climate History and the Modern World Methuen London

R. Mead D. J. Pike 1975 A review of response surface methodology from a biometric viewpoint. Biometrics 31 803 851

C. D. Miller 1969 Chronology of Neoglacial moraines in the Dome Peak area, North Casade Range, Washington. Arctic and Alpine Research 1 49 66

R. O. Teskey T. M. Hickley C. C. Grier 1984 Temperature-induced changes in the water relations of Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes. Plant Physiology, 74 7780

W. Tranquillini 1979 Physiological Ecology of the Alpine Timberline Springer-Verlag Berlin

E. W. Wahl T. I. Lawson 1970 The climate of the mid-nineteenth century United States compared to the current normals. Monthly Weather Review 98 259 265

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 14 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 26th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.