Skip to main content

Reevaluation of Late Pleistocene loess profiles at Remizovka (Kazakhstan) indicates the significance of topography in evaluating terrestrial paleoclimate records

  • Tobias Sprafke (a1), Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons (a2), Christoph Grützner (a3) (a4), Austin Elliot (a5), Laurent Marquer (a2) (a6) and Saida Nigmatova (a7)...

We report on a loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) near Remizovka, located in the northern Tian Shan piedmont of southeastern Kazakhstan. This site represents a key record for Late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations at the intersection of major northern hemisphere climate subsystems. This paper develops a synthesized dataset of previous conflicting studies at Remizovka by characterizing their (paleo)topographic context, which had remained previously overlooked. Digital elevation models, satellite images, and archival photography characterize recent topographic developments. Two well-developed pedocomplexes, which we investigate in detail and date by luminescence mark the paleotopography during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. Peak dust accumulation rates here occurred during the middle MIS 5 and MIS 4/early MIS 3. These are partially comparable with records from neighboring regions, but not in phase with global ice volume records. This discrepancy may be related to a distinct regional environmental response to larger-scale climatic drivers and local topographic influences on dust deposition patterns. Our findings confirm the potential of the LPS Remizovka to provide high-resolution paleoclimate data for the Late Pleistocene. The three-dimensional stratigraphic reconstruction reinforces the caution required to correctly interpret loess formation processes prior to their interpretation as paleoclimate archives, and provides guidelines for a more suitable approach.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author at: Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. E-mail address: (T. Sprafke).
Hide All
Abdrakhmatov, K.E., Walker, R.T., Campbell, G.E., Carr, A.S., Elliott, A., Hillemann, C., Hollingsworth, J., et al., 2016. Multisegment rupture in the 11 July 1889 Chilik earthquake (M-w 8.0-8.3), Kazakh Tien Shan, interpreted from remote sensing, field survey, and paleoseismic trenching. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 121, 46154640.
Adamiec, G., Aitken, M., 1998. Dose-rate conversion factors: update. Ancient TL 16, 3750.
An, Z.S., Liu, T.S., Porter, S.C., Kukla, G.J., Wu, X.H., Hua, Y.M., 1990. The long-term paleomonsoon variation record by the loess-paleosol sequence in central China. Quaternary International 7/8, 9195.
Ankjærgaard, C., Guralnik, B., Buylaert, J.P., Reimann, T., Yi, S.W., Wallinga, J., 2016. Violet stimulated luminescence dating of quartz from Luochuan (Chinese loess plateau): agreement with independent chronology up to ∼600 ka. Quaternary Geochronology 34, 3346.
Antoine, P., Rousseau, D.D., Moine, O., Kunesch, S., Hatté, C., Lang, A., Tissoux, H., Zöller, L., 2009. Rapid and cyclic aeolian deposition during the Last Glacial in European loess: a high-resolution record from Nussloch, Germany. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 29552973.
Antoine, P., Rousseau, D.D., Zöller, L., Lang, A., Munaut, A.V., Hatté, C., Fontugne, M., 2001. High-resolution record of the last Interglacial-glacial cycle in the Nussloch loess-palaeosol sequences, Upper Rhine Area, Germany. Quaternary International 76–7, 211229.
Atrushkevitch, P.A., Kalabaev, N.B., Kartashov, A.P., Lototsky, V.D., Ostropico, P.A., 1988. Research on crustal movements on the Alma-Ata polygon, Northern Tien Shan. Journal of Geodynamics 9, 279292.
Auclair, M., Lamothe, M., Huot, S., 2003. Measurement of anomalous fading for feldspar IRSL using SAR. Radiation Measurements 37, 487492.
Bertran, P., Liard, M., Sitzia, L., Tissoux, H., 2016. A map of Pleistocene aeolian deposits in Western Europe, with special emphasis on France. Journal of Quaternary Science 31, 844856.
Bronger, A., 1976. Zur quartären Klima- und Landschaftsentwicklung des Karpatenbeckens auf (paläo-)pedologischer und bodengeographischer Grundlage. Geographisches Institut, Universität Kiel, Kiel.
Bronger, A., 2003. Correlation of loess-paleosol sequences in East and Central Asia with SE Central Europe: towards a continental Quaternary pedostratigraphy and paleoclimatic history. Quaternary International 106, 1131.
Bronger, A., Winter, R., Heinkele, T., 1998a. Pleistocene climatic history of East and Central Asia based on paleopedological indicators in loess-paleosol sequences. Catena 34, 117.
Bronger, A., Winter, R., Sedov, S., 1998b. Weathering and clay mineral formation in two Holocene soils and in buried paleosols in Tadjikistan: towards a Quaternary paleoclimatic record in Central Asia. Catena 34, 1934.
Buggle, B., Hambach, U., Kehl, M., Marković, S.B., Zöller, L., Glaser, B., 2013. The progressive evolution of a continental climate in southeast-central European lowlands during the middle Pleistocene recorded in loess paleosol sequences. Geology 41, 771774.
Buggle, B., Hambach, U., Müller, K., Zöller, L., Marković, S.B., Glaser, B., 2014. Iron mineralogical proxies and Quaternary climate change in SE-European loess–paleosol sequences. Catena 117, 422.
Buylaert, J.-P., Jain, M., Murray, A.S., Thomsen, K.J., Thiel, C., Sohbati, R., 2012a. A robust feldspar luminescence dating method for Middle and Late Pleistocene sediments. Boreas 41, 435451.
Buylaert, J.P., Jain, M., Murray, A.S., Thomsen, K.J., Thiel, C., Sohbati, R., 2012b. A robust feldspar luminescence dating method for Middle and Late Pleistocene sediments. Boreas 41, 435451.
Chen, Q., Liu, X.M., Heller, F., Hirt, A.M., Lu, B., Guo, X.L., Mao, X.G., et al., 2012. Susceptibility variations of multiple origins of loess from the Ily Basin (NW China). Chinese Science Bulletin 57, 18441855.
de Lussy, F., Kubik, P., Greslou, D., Pascal, V., Gigord, P., Cantou, J.P., 2005. PLEIADES-HR image system products and quality-PLEIADES-HR image system products and geometric accuracy. Proceedings of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Workshop, Hannover, Germany, 17–20 May.
Delvaux, D., Abdrakhmatov, K.E., Lemzin, I.N., Strom, A.L., 2001. Landslide and surface breaks of the 1911 M 8.2 Kemin Earthquake. Landslides 42, 15831592.
Ding, Z.L., Derbyshire, E., Yang, S.L., Yu, Z.W., Xiong, S.F., Liu, T.S., 2002a. Stacked 2.6-Ma grain size record from the Chinese loess based on five sections and correlation with the deep-sea δ18O record. Paleoceanography 17, 5-1–5-21.
Ding, Z.L., Ranov, V., Yang, S.L., Finaev, A., Han, J.M., Wang, G.A., 2002b. The loess record in southern Tajikistan and correlation with Chinese loess. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 200, 387400.
Dodonov, A., 1991. Loess of Central Asia. GeoJournal 24, 185194.
Dodonov, A.E., Baiguzina, L.L., 1995. Loess stratigraphy of Central Asia: palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental aspects. Quaternary Science Reviews 14, 707720.
Dodonov, A.E., Sadchikova, T.A., Sedov, S.N., Simakova, A.N., Zhou, L.P., 2006. Multidisciplinary approach for paleoenvironmental reconstruction in loess-paleosol studies of the Darai Kalon section, Southern Tajikistan. Quaternary International 152, 4858.
E, C.Y., Lai, Z.P., Sun, Y.J., Hou, S.S., Yu, L.P., Wu, C.Y., 2012. A luminescence dating study of loess deposits from the Yili River basin in western China. Quaternary Geochronology 10, 5055.
Feng, Z.D., Ran, M., Yang, Q.L., Zhai, X.W., Wang, W., Zhang, X.S., Huang, C.Q., 2011. Stratigraphies and chronologies of late Quaternary loess–paleosol sequences in the core area of the central Asian arid zone. Quaternary International 240, 156166.
Fink, J., 1956. Zur Korrelation der Terrassen und Lösse in Österreich. Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart 7, 4977.
Fink, J., 1962. Studien zur absoluten und relativen Chronologie der fossilen Böden in Österreich. II. Wetzleinsdorf und Stillfried. Archaeologia Austriaca 31, 118.
Fink, J., 1976. Exkursion durch den österreichischen Teil des nördlichen Alpenvorlandes und den Donauraum zwischen Krems und der Wiener Pforte. ÖAW, Wien.
Fitzsimmons, K.E., 2017. Reconstructing palaeoenvironments on desert margins: new perspectives from Eurasian loess and Australian dry lake shorelines. Quaternary Science Reviews 171, 119.
Fitzsimmons, K.E., Hambach, U., Veres, D., Iovita, R., 2013. The Campanian Ignimbrite eruption: new data on volcanic ash dispersal and its potential impact on human evolution. PLoS ONE 8, e65839.
Fitzsimmons, K.E., Marković, S.B., Hambach, U., 2012. Pleistocene environmental dynamics recorded in the loess of the middle and lower Danube basin. Quaternary Science Reviews 41, 104118.
Fitzsimmons, K.E., Sprafke, T., Zielhofer, C., Günter, C., Deom, J.-M., Sala, R., Iovita, R., in press. Loess accumulation in the Tian Shan piedmont: implications for palaeoenvironmental change in arid Central Asia. Quaternary International (in press).
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2006. Guidelines for Soil Description. 4th ed. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Frechen, M., Schweitzer, U., Zander, A., 1996. Improvements in sample preparation for the fine grain technique. Ancient TL 14, 1517.
Galbraith, R.F., Roberts, R.G., Laslett, G.M., Yoshida, H., Olley, J.M., 1999. Optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, northern Australia. Part 1, Experimental design and statistical models. Archaeometry 41, 339364.
Jain, M., Buylaert, J.P., Thomsen, K.J., Murray, A.S., 2015. Further investigations on ‘non-fading’ in K-Feldspar. Quaternary International 362, 37.
Kang, S.G., Wang, X.L., Lu, Y.C., Liu, W.G., Song, Y.G., Wang, N., 2015. A high-resolution quartz OSL chronology of the Talede loess over the past similar to 30 ka and its implications for dust accumulation in the Ili Basin, Central Asia. Quaternary Geochronology 30, 181187.
Konert, M., Vandenberghe, J.E.F., 1997. Comparison of laser grain size analysis with pipette and sieve analysis: a solution for the underestimation of the clay fraction. Sedimentology 44, 523535.
Koppes, M., Gillespie, A.R., Burke, R.M., Thompson, S.C., Stone, J., 2008. Late Quaternary glaciation in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 846866.
Kukla, G.J., 1987. Loess Stratigraphy in Central China. Quaternary Science Reviews 6, 191219.
Kukla, G.J., An, Z.S., Melice, J.L., Gavin, J., Xiao, J.L., 1990. Magnetic-Susceptibility Record of Chinese Loess. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh-Earth Sciences 81, 263288.
Landgraf, A., Dzhumabaeva, A., Abdrakhmatov, K.E., Strecker, M.R., Macaulay, E.A., Arrowsmith, J.R., Sudhaus, H., Preusser, F., Rugel, G., Merchel, S., 2016. Repeated large-magnitude earthquakes in a tectonically active, low-strain continental interior: the northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 121, 38883910.
Lauer, T., Vlaminck, S., Frechen, M., Rolf, C., Kehl, M., Sharifi, J., Lehndorff, E., Khormali, F., 2017. The Agh Band loess-palaeosol sequence – a terrestrial archive for climatic shifts during the last and penultimate glacial–interglacial cycles in a semiarid region in northern Iran. Quaternary International 429, 1330.
Lehmkuhl, F., Zens, J., Krauss, L., Schulte, P., Kels, H., 2016. Loess-paleosol sequences at the northern European loess belt in Germany: distribution, geomorphology and stratigraphy. Quaternary Science Reviews 153, 1130.
Li, G.Q., Rao, Z.G., Duan, Y.W., Xia, D.S., Wang, L.B., Madsen, D.B., Jia, J., et al., 2016a. Paleoenvironmental changes recorded in a luminescence dated loess/paleosol sequence from the Tianshan Mountains, arid central Asia, since the Penultimate Glaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 448, 112.
Li, Y., Song, Y.G., Lai, Z.P., Han, L., An, Z.S., 2016b. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis. Scientific Reports 6, 32365.
Li, Y., Song, Y.G., Yan, L.B., Chen, T., An, Z.S., 2015. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China. PLoS ONE, 10.
Liu, T.S., 1988. Loess in China. 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Machalett, B., Frechen, M., Hambach, U., Oches, E.A., Zöller, L., Marković, S.B., 2006. The loess sequence from Remisowka (northern boundary of the Tien Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan) - Part I: Luminescence dating. Quaternary International 152–153, 192201.
Machalett, B., Oches, E.A., Frechen, M., Zöller, L., Hambach, U., Mavlyanova, N.G., Marković, S.B., Endlicher, W., 2008. Aeolian dust dynamics in central Asia during the Pleistocene: driven by the long-term migration, seasonality, and permanency of the Asiatic polar front. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 9, 122.
Makeev, A.O., 2009. Pedogenic alteration of aeolian sediments in the upper loess mantles of the Russian Plain. Quaternary International 209, 7994.
Marković, S.B., Fitzsimmons, K.E., Sprafke, T., Gavrilovic, D., Smalley, I.J., Jovic, V., Svircev, Z., Gavrilov, M.B., Beslin, M., 2016. The history of Danube loess research. Quaternary International 399, 8699.
Marković, S.B., Hambach, U., Stevens, T., Kukla, G.J., Heller, F., Mccoy, W.D., Oches, E.A., Buggle, B., Zöller, L., 2011. The last million years recorded at the Stari Slankamen (Northern Serbia) loess-palaeosol sequence: revised chronostratigraphy and long-term environmental trends. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 11421154.
Marković, S.B., Stevens, T., Kukla, G.J., Hambach, U., Fitzsimmons, K.E., Gibbard, P.L., Buggle, B., et al., 2015. Danube loess stratigraphy — towards a pan-European loess stratigraphic model. Earth-Science Reviews 148, 228258.
Mason, J.A., Joeckel, R.M., Bettis, E.A. III, 2007. Middle to Late Pleistocene loess record in eastern Nebraska, USA, and implications for the unique nature of Oxygen Isotope Stage 2. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 773792.
Narama, C., Kaab, A., Duishonakunov, M., Abdrakhmatov, K., 2010. Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (similar to 1970), Landsat (similar to 2000), and ALOS (similar to 2007) satellite data. Global and Planetary Change 71, 4254.
Nigmatova, S., 2009. First results of palynological researches of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Loess Kazhakstan (North Tian-Shan). NSF Collaborative research: bioclimatic reconstruction of the past 50,000 years from eolian sequences in westerlies-dominated Central Asia, 2006–2008. Unpublished project report, Louisiana State University.
Owen, L.A., Dortch, J.M., 2014. Nature and timing of Quaternary glaciation in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. Quaternary Science Reviews 88, 1454.
Porter, S.C., 2013. Loess Records - China. In Elias, S.A., Mock, C.J. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. 2nd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 595605.
Prescott, J.R., Hutton, J.T., 1994. Cosmic ray contributions to dose rates for luminescence and ESR dating: large depths and long term variations. Radiation Measurements 23, 497500.
Ran, M., Feng, Z.D., 2014. Variation in carbon isotopic composition over the past ca. 46,000 yr in the loess–paleosol sequence in central Kazakhstan and paleoclimatic significance. Organic Geochemistry 73, 4755.
Rees-Jones, J., Tite, M.S., 1997. Optical dating results for British archaeological sediments. Archaeometry 36, 177187.
Roberts, H.M., 2008. The development and application of luminescence dating to loess deposits: a perspective on the past, present and future. Boreas 37, 483507.
Rousseau, D.D., Antoine, P., Kunesch, S., Hatté, C., Rossignol, J., Packman, S., Lang, A., Gauthier, C., 2007. Evidence of cyclic dust deposition in the US Great plains during the last deglaciation from the high-resolution analysis of the Peoria Loess in the Eustis sequence (Nebraska, USA). iarth and Planetary Science Letters 262, 159174.
Ruhe, R.V., Daniels, R.B., Cady, J.G., 1967. Landscape Evolution and Soil Formation in Southwestern Iowa. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
Schaetzl, R.J., Larson, P.H., Faulkner, D.J., Running, G.L., Jol, H.M., Rittenour, T.M., in pressEolian Sand and Loess Deposits Indicate West-Northwest Paleowinds During the Late Pleistocene in Western Wisconsin, USA. Quaternary Research (In Press).
Schirmer, W., 2012. Rhine loess at Schwalbenberg II - MIS 4 and 3. E & G Quaternary Science Journal 61, 3247.
Schulte, P., Sprafke, T., Rodrigues, L., Fitzsimmons, K.E., in press. Are fixed grain size ratios useful proxies for loess sedimentation dynamics? Experiences from Remizovka, Kazakhstan. Aeolian Research (In Press).
Sedov, S., Sycheva, S., Pi, T., Díaz, J., 2013. Last Interglacial paleosols with Argic horizons in Upper Austria and Central Russia: pedogenetic and paleoenvironmental inferences from comparison with the Holocene analogues. E&G Quaternary Science Journal 62, 4458.
Selander, J., Oskin, M., Ormukov, C., Abdrakhmatov, K., 2012. Inherited strike‐slip faults as an origin for basement‐cored uplifts: example of the Kungey and Zailiskey ranges, northern Tian Shan. Tectonics, 31. http// 10.1029/2011TC003002.
Smalley, I.J., Krinsley, D.H., 1978. Loess deposits associated with deserts. Catena 5, 5366.
Smalley, I.J., Mavlyanova, N.G., Rakhmatullaev, K.L., Shermatov, M.S., Machalett, B., Dhand, K.O., Jefferson, I.F., 2006. The formation of loess deposits in the Tashkent region and parts of Central Asia; and problems with irrigation, hydrocollapse and soil erosion. Quaternary International 152, 5969.
Song, Y.G., Chen, X.L., Qian, L.B., Li, C.X., Li, Y., Li, X.X., Chang, H., An, Z.S., 2014. Distribution and composition of loess sediments in the Ili Basin, Central Asia. Quaternary International 334, 6173.
Song, Y.G., Lai, Z.P., Li, Y., Chen, T., Wang, Y.X., 2015. Comparison between luminescence and radiocarbon dating of late Quaternary loess from the Ili Basin in Central Asia. Quaternary Geochronology 30, 405410.
Song, Y.G., Li, C.X., Zhao, J.D., Cheng, P., Zeng, M.X., 2012. A combined luminescence and radiocarbon dating study of the Ili loess, Central Asia. Quaternary Geochronology 10, 27.
Sprafke, T., 2016. Löss in Niederösterreich - Archiv quartärer Klima- und Landschaftsveränderungen. Würzburg University Press, Würzburg.
Sprafke, T., Obreht, I., 2016. Loess: rock, sediment or soil - what is missing for its definition? Quaternary International 399: 198207.
Sprafke, T., Thiel, C., Terhorst, B., 2014. From micromorphology to palaeoenvironment: the MIS 10 to MIS 5 record in Paudorf (Lower Austria). Catena 117, 6072.
Stevens, T., Thomas, D.S.G., Armitage, S.J., Lunn, H.R., Lu, H.Y., 2007. Reinterpreting climate proxy records from late Quaternary Chinese loess: a detailed OSL investigation. Earth-Science Reviews 80, 111136.
Sun, Y.B., An, Z.S., Clemens, S.C., Bloemendal, J., Vandenberghe, J., 2010. Seven million years of wind and precipitation variability on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 297, 525535.
Tatevossian, R.E., 2007. The Verny, 1887, earthquake in Central Asia: application of the INQUA scale, based on coseismic environmental effects. Quaternary International 173–174: 2329.
Thiel, C., Buylaert, J.P., Murray, A.S., Terhorst, B., Hofer, I., Tsukamoto, S., Frechen, M., 2011. Luminescence dating of the Stratzing loess profile (Austria) - testing the potential of an elevated temperature post-IR IRSL protocol. Quaternary International 234, 2331.
Thiel, C., Horváth, E., Frechen, M., 2014. Revisiting the loess/palaeosol sequence in Paks, Hungary: a post-IR IRSL based chronology for the ‘Young Loess Series’. Quaternary International 319, 8898.
Vandenberghe, J., Markovič, S.B., Jovanovič, M., Hambach, U., 2014. Site-specific variability of loess and palaeosols (Ruma, Vojvodina, northern Serbia). Quaternary International 334–335, 8693.
Vandenberghe, J., Renssen, H., van Huissteden, K., Nugteren, G., Konert, M., Lu, H.Y., Dodonov, A., Buylaert, J.-P., 2006. Penetration of Atlantic westerly winds into Central and East Asia. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 23802389.
Vasiljević, D.A., Marković, S.B., Hose, T.A., Ding, Z.L., Guo, Z.T., Liu, X.M., Smalley, I.J., Lukić, T., Vujičić, M.D., 2014. Loess–palaeosol sequences in China and Europe: common values and geoconservation issues. Catena 117, 108118.
Velichko, A.A., 1990. Loess-paleosol formation on the Russian Plain. Quaternary International 7–8, 103114.
Vlaminck, S., Kehl, M., Lauer, T., Shahriari, A., Sharifi, J., Eckmeier, E., Lehndorff, E., Khormali, F., Frechen, M., 2016. Loess-soil sequence at Toshan (Northern Iran): insights into late Pleistocene climate change. Quaternary International 399, 122135.
Vogel, J.C., Zagwijn, W.H., 1967. Groningen radiocarbon dates VI. Radiocarbon 9, 63106.
Weather and Climate. 2017. Climate Almaty (accessed April 07 2017). [In Russian].
Youn, J.H., Seong, Y.B., Choi, J.H., Abdrakhmatov, K., Ormukov, C., 2014. Loess deposits in the northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan: implications for the paleoclimate reconstruction during the Late Quaternary. Catena 117, 8193.
Zech, R., Zech, M., Marković, S., Hambach, U., Huang, Y.S., 2013. Humid glacials, arid interglacials? Critical thoughts on pedogenesis and paleoclimate based on multi-proxy analyses of the loess–paleosol sequence Crvenka, Northern Serbia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 387, 165175.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Sprafke et al. supplementary material
Sprafke et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (223 KB)
223 KB
Supplementary materials

Sprafke et al. supplementary material
Sprafke et al. supplementary material 2

 Unknown (82 KB)
82 KB
Supplementary materials

Sprafke et al. supplementary material
Sprafke et al. supplementary material 3

 Unknown (5 KB)
5 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 36 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 196 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 15th February 2018 - 23rd March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.