Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Summary of the Snowmastodon Project Special Volume A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6–4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

  • Ian M. Miller (a1), Jeffrey S. Pigati (a2), R. Scott Anderson (a3), Kirk R. Johnson (a1) (a4), Shannon A. Mahan (a5), Thomas A. Ager (a2), Richard G. Baker (a6), Maarten Blaauw (a7), Jordon Bright (a8), Peter M. Brown (a9), Bruce Bryant (a2), Zachary T. Calamari (a10) (a11), Paul E. Carrara (a2), Michael D. Cherney (a10) (a11), John R. Demboski (a1), Scott A. Elias (a12), Daniel C. Fisher (a10) (a11), Harrison J. Gray (a5), Danielle R. Haskett (a13), Jeffrey S. Honke (a2), Stephen T. Jackson (a14) (a15), Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno (a16), Douglas Kline (a1), Eric M. Leonard (a17), Nathaniel A. Lifton (a18), Carol Lucking (a1), H. Gregory McDonald (a19), Dane M. Miller (a14), Daniel R. Muhs (a2), Stephen E. Nash (a1), Cody Newton (a20), James B. Paces (a21), Lesley Petrie (a22), Mitchell A. Plummer (a23), David F. Porinchu (a13), Adam N. Rountrey (a11) (a24), Eric Scott (a25), Joseph J.W. Sertich (a1), Saxon E. Sharpe (a26), Gary L. Skipp (a2), Laura E. Strickland (a2), Richard K. Stucky (a1), Robert S. Thompson (a2) and Jim Wilson (a27)...
Abstract

In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author.E-mail address: ian.miller@dmns.org (I.M. Miller).
References
Hide All
Adam, D.P., and Robinson, S.W. Palynology of two Upper Quaternary cores from Clear Lake, Lake County, California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. 1363, (1988). (86 pp.)
Adam, D.P., Sims, J.D., and Throckmorton, C.K. 130,000-yr continuous pollen record from Clear Lake, Lake County, California. Geology 9, (1981). 373377.
Anderson, R.S., Jiménez-Moreno, G., Ager, T., and Porinchu, D. High-elevation paleoenvironmental change during MIS 6–4 in the central Rockies of Colorado as determined from pollen analysis. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 542552. (in this volume)
Baker, R.G. Sangamonian (?) and Wisconsinan paleoenvironments in Yellowstone National Park. Geological Society of America Bulletin 97, (1986). 717736.
Balco, G., Stone, J.O., Lifton, N.A., and Dunai, T.J. A complete and easily accessible means of calculating surface exposure ages or erosion rates from 10Be and 26Al measurements. Quaternary Geochronology 3, (2008). 174195.
Bell, C.J., Lundelius, E.L. Jr., Barnosky, A.D., Graham, R.W., Lindsay, E.H., Ruez, D.R. Jr., Semken, H.A. Jr., Webb, S.D., and Zakrzewski, R.J. The Blancan, Irvingtonian, and Rancholabrean mammal ages. Woodburne, M.O. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Mammals of North America. (2004). Columbia University Press, New York. 232314.
Berger, A.L., and Loutre, M.F. Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quaternary Science Reviews 10, (1991). 297317.
Blaauw, M., and Christen, J.A. Flexible paleoclimate age–depth models using an autoregressive gamma process. Bayesian Analysis 6, (2011). 457474.
Brown, P.M., Nash, S.E., and Kline, D. Identification and dendrochronology of wood found at the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Colorado, USA. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 575579. (in this volume)
Bryant, B. (1972). Geologic map of the Highland Peak quadrangle. Pitkin County, Colorado., U.S. Geological Survey Map GC-932, 1:24,000 scale.
CAPE-Last Interglacial Project Members Last Interglacial Arctic warmth confirms polar amplification of climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, (2006). 13831400.
Coplen, T.B., Winograd, I.J., Landwehr, J.M., and Riggs, A.C. 500,000-Year stable carbon isotopic record from vein calcite in Devils Hole, Nevada. Science 263, (1994). 361365.
Cutler, K.B., Edwards, R.L., Taylor, F.W., Cheng, H., Adkins, J., Gallup, C.D., Cutler, P.M., Burr, G.S., and Bloom, A.L. Rapid sea-level fall and deep-ocean temperature change since the last interglacial period. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 206, (2003). 253271.
Elias, S.A. Environmental interpretation of fossil insect assemblages from MIS 5 at Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 592603. (in this volume)
EPICA community members Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature 429, (2004). 623628.
Fawcett, P.J., Werne, J.P., Anderson, R.S., Heikoop, J.M., Brown, E.T., Berke, M.A., Smith, S., Goff, F., Hurley, L., Cisneros-Dozal, L.M., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Huang, Y., Toney, J., Fessenden, J., WoldeGabriel, G., Atudorei, V., Geissman, J.W., and Allen, C.D. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials. Nature 470, (2011). 518521.
Fisher, D.C., Cherney, M.D., Newton, C., Rountrey, A.N., Calamari, Z.T., Stucky, R., Lucking, C., and Petrie, L. Taxonomic overview and tusk growth analyses of Ziegler Reservoir proboscideans. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 518532. (in this volume)
Graham, R.W., and Lundelius, J.E.L. FAUNMAP II: New Data for North America with a Temporal Extension for the Blancan, Irvingtonian and Early Rancholabrean. (2010). (http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/faunmap/about/index.html )
Haskett, D.R., and Porinchu, D.F. A quantitative midge-based reconstruction of mean July air temperature from a high-elevation site in central Colorado, USA, for MIS 6 and 5. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 580591. (in this volume)
Heusser, L.E. Pollen stratigraphy and paleoecologic interpretation of the 160-K.Y. record from Santa Barbara Basin, Hole 893A. Kennett, J.P., Baldauf, J.G., and Lyle, M. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. (1995). 265277.
Heusser, L.E. Rapid oscillations in western North America vegetation and climate during oxygen isotope stage 5 inferred from pollen data from Santa Barbara Basin (Hole 893A). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 161, (2000). 407421.
Heusser, L.E., and Oppo, D. Millennial- and orbital-scale climate variability in southeastern United States and in the subtropical Atlantic during marine isotope stage 5: evidence from pollen and isotopes in ODP site 1059. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 214, (2003). 483490.
Jiménez-Moreno, G., and Anderson, R.S. Pollen and macrofossil evidence of late Pleistocene and Holocene tree line fluctuations from an alpine lake in Colorado, USA. The Holocene 23, (2012). 6877.
Jiménez-Moreno, G., Anderson, R.S., and Fawcett, P.J. Orbital- and millennial-scale vegetation and climate changes of the past 225 ka from Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho (USA). Quaternary Science Reviews 26, (2007). 17131724.
Jiménez-Moreno, G., Anderson, R.S., Atudorei, V., and Toney, J.L. A high-resolution record of vegetation, climate, and fire regimes in the mixed conifer forest of northern Colorado (USA). Geological Society of America Bulletin 123, (2011). 240254.
Johnson, K.R., and Miller, I.M. Digging Snowmastodon: Discovering an Ice Age World in the Colorado Rockies. (2012). Denver Museum of Nature and Science and People's Press, Denver.
Kaufman, D.S., Bright, J., Dean, W.E., Rosenbaum, J.G., Moser, K., Anderson, R.S., Colman, S.M., Heil, C.W.J., Jimenez-Moreno, G., Reheis, M.C., and Simmons, K.R. A quarter-million years of paleoenvironmental change at Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho. Geological Society of America Special Papers 450, (2009). 311351.
Keigwin, L.D., Curry, W.B., Lehman, S.J., and Johnson, S. The role of the deep ocean in North Atlantic climate change between 70 and 130 kyr ago. Nature 371, (1994). 323325.
Kleman, J., Jansson, K., de Angelis, H., Stroeven, A.P., Hattestrand, C., Alm, G., and Glasser, N. North American ice sheet build-up during the last glacial cycle, 115–21 kyr. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, (2010). 20362051.
Krell, F.T. Pleistocene dung beetles from MIS 5 at Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae). Denver Museum of Nature and Science Annals 5, (2014). 112.
Kukla, G.J., Bender, M.L., de Beaulieu, J.-L., Bond, G., Broecker, W.S., Cleveringa, P., Gavin, J.E., Herbert, T.D., Imbrie, J., Jouzel, J., Keigwin, L.D., Knudsen, K.-L., McManus, J.F., Merkt, J., Muhs, D.R., Muller, H., Poore, R.Z., Porter, S.C., Seret, G., Shackleton, N.J., Turner, C., Tzedakis, P.C., and Winograd, I.J. Last interglacial climates. Quaternary Research 58, (2002). 213.
Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A.C.M., and Levrard, B. A long term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. Astronomy and Astrophysics 428, (2004). 261285.
Leonard, E.A., Plummer, M.A., and Carrara, P.E. Numerical modeling of the Snowmass Creek paleoglacier, Colorado, and climate in the Rocky Mountains during the Bull Lake glaciation (MIS 6). Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 533541. (in this volume)
Licciardi, J.M., and Pierce, K.L. Cosmogenic exposure age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, (2008). 814831.
Lisiecki, L.E., and Raymo, M.E. A Pliocene–Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records. Paleoceanography 20, (2005). 117.
Litwin, R.J., Smoot, J.P., Pavich, M.J., Markewich, H.W., Brook, G., and Durika, N.J. 100,000-year-long terrestrial record of millennial-scale linkage between eastern North America mid-latitude paleovegetation shifts and Greenland ice-core oxygen isotope trends. Quaternary Research 80, (2013). 291315.
Loutre, M.F., and Berger, A. Stage 11 as an analogue for the present interglacial. Global and Planetary Change 36, (2003). 209217.
Lucking, C., Johnson, K.R., Pigati, J.S., and Miller, I.M. Primary Mapping and Stratigraphic Data and Field Methods for the Snowmastodon Project. (2012). Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, CO. 102
Lyle, M., Heusser, L.E., Herbert, T., Mix, A., and Barron, J. Interglacial theme and variations: 500 k.y. of orbital forcing and associated responses from the terrestrial and marine biosphere, U.S. Pacific Northwest. Geology 29, (2001). 11151118.
Mahan, S.A., Gray, H.J., Pigati, J.S., Wilson, J., Lifton, N.A., Paces, J.B., and Blaauw, M. A geochronologic framework for the Ziegler Reservior fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 490503. (in this volume)
Martinson, D.G., Pisias, N.G., Hays, J.D., Imbrie, J., Moore, T.C.J., and Shackleton, N.J. Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice ages: development of a high-resolution 0 to 300,000-year chronostratigraphy. Quaternary Research 27, (1987). 129.
Miller, D.M., Miller, I.M., and Jackson, S.T. Biogeography of Pleistocene conifer species from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 567574. (in this volume)
Muhs, D.R., Ager, T.A., and Begét, J.E. Vegetation and paleoclimate of the last interglacial Period, central Alaska. Quaternary Science Reviews 20, (2001). 4161.
Muhs, D.R., Simmons, K.R., and Steinke, B. Timing and warmth of the Last Interglacial Period: new U-series evidence from Hawaii and Bermuda and a new fossil compilation for North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 21, (2002). 13551383.
Peteet, D., Rind, D., and Kukla, G.J. Wisconsin ice-sheet initiation: Milankovitch forcing, paleoclimatic data, and global climate modeling. Geological Society of America Special Papers 270, (1992). 5370.
Pigati, J.S., Miller, I.M., Johnson, K.R., Honke, J.S., Carrara, P.E., Muhs, D.R., Skipp, G., and Bryant, B. Geologic setting and stratigraphy of the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 477489. (in this volume)
Pinsof, J.D. Current status of North American Sangamonian local faunas and vertebrate taxa. Stewart, K.M., and Seymour, K.L. Palaeoecology and Palaeoenvironments of Late Cenozoic Mammals. (1996). University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 156190.
Pinsof, J.D. A Late Pleistocene Sangamonian vertebrate fauna from eastern Texas. Texas Journal of Science 491, (1997). 322.
Pisias, N.G., Mix, A.C., and Heusser, L.E. Millennial scale climate variability of the northweast Pacific Ocean and northwest North America based on radiolaria and pollen. Quaternary Science Reviews 20, (2001). 15611567.
Reheis, M.C., Bright, J., Lund, S.P., Miller, D.M., Skipp, G., and Fleck, R.J. A half-million-year record of paleoclimate from the Lake Manix core, Mojave Desert, California. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 365–366, (2012). 1137.
Rohling, E.J., Braun, K., Grant, K., Kucera, M., Roberts, A.P., Siddall, M., and Trommer, G. Comparison between Holocene and marine isotope stage-11 sea-level histories. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 291, (2010). 97105.
Sánchez Goñi, M.F., Eynaud, F., and Shackleton, N.J. High resolution palynological record off the Iberian margin: direct land–sea correlation of the Last Interglacial complex. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 171, (1999). 123137.
Scherer, R.P., Bohaty, S.M., Dunbar, R.B., Esper, O., Flores, J.-A., Gersonde, R., Harwood, D.M., Roberts, A.P., and Taviani, M. Antarctic records of precession-paced insolation-driven warming during early Pleistocene marine isotope stage 31. Geophysical Research Letters 35, (2008). (L03505)
Scott, W.E., Pierce, K.L., Bradbury, J.P., and Forester, R.M. Revised Quaternary stratigraphy and chronology in the American Falls area, southeastern Idaho. Bonnichsen, B., and Breckenridge, R.M. Cenozoic Geology of Idaho. (1982). Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin, Moscow, ID. 581595.
Sertich, J.J.W., Stucky, R., McDonald, H.G., Newton, C., Fisher, D.C., Scott, E., Demboski, J.R., Lucking, C., McHorse, B.K., and Davis, E.B. High-elevation late Pleistocene (MIS 6–5) vertebrate faunas from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 504517. (in this volume)
Sharpe, S.E., and Bright, J. A high-elevation MIS 5 hydrologic record using mollusks and ostracodes from Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 604617. (in this volume)
Strickland, L.E., Baker, R.G., Thompson, R.S., and Miller, D.M. Last interglacial plant macrofossils and climates from Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 553566. (in this volume)
Tzedakis, P.C. The MIS 11–MIS 1 analogy, southern European vegetation, atmospheric methane and the “early anthropogenic hypothesis”. Climate of the Past 6, (2010). 131144.
Whitlock, C., and Bartlein, P.J. Vegetation and climate change in northwest America during the past 125 kyr. Nature 388, (1997). 5761.
Williams, J.W., and Jackson, S.T. Novel climates, no-analog plant communities, and ecological surprises: past and future. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5, (2007). 475482.
Williams, J.W., Shuman, B.N., Webb, T. III, Bartlein, P.J., and Leduc, P.L. Late-Quaternary vegetation dynamics in North America: scaling from taxa to biomes. Ecological Monographs 74, (2004). 309334.
Winograd, I.J., Coplen, T.B., Landwehr, J.M., Riggs, A.C., Ludwig, K.R., Szabo, B.J., Kolesar, P.T., and Revesz, K.M. Continuous 500,000-year climate record from vein calcite in Devils Hole, Nevada. Science 258, (1992). 255260.
Woolfenden, W.B.A. 180,000-Year record from Owens Lake, CA: terrestrial vegetation change on orbital scales. Quaternary Research 59, (2003). 430444.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Miller et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 Unknown (1.9 MB)
1.9 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 27 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 242 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 20th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.