Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Designing oral participation in Second Life – a comparative study of two language proficiency courses

  • Mats Deutschmann (a1), Luisa Panichi (a2) and Judith Molka-Danielsen (a3)

The following paper presents two stages of an action research project involving two oral proficiency courses held in the virtual world Second Life. Course 1 was conducted during the Autumn of 2007. Based on the experiences of this course, we redesigned many aspects of it in order to improve student activity in terms of oral participation and gave the course again in Spring 2008. By analysing the recordings of four 90-minute sessions, two from each course, we were able to measure student participation based on floor space, turn lengths and turn-taking patterns, and in the study we discuss how different changes in design may have contributed to more favourable outcomes. Results seem to indicate that meaning focussed task design, which involves authenticity and collaborative elements, has a direct impact on learner participation and engagement. Furthermore, our results seem to suggest that technical and social initiations into a complex environment such as SL are important factors that have to be worked into the course design.

Hide All
Chanier T., Vetter A., Betbeder M.-L. Reffay C. (2006) Retrouver le chemin de la parole en environnement audio-graphique synchrone. In: Dejean-Thircuir, C. and Mangenot, F. (eds.), Les échanges en ligne dans l’apprentissage et la formation. Le Français dans le Monde, Recherche et applications, 40: 139150.
Chapelle C. A. (2000) Innovative language learning: achieving the vision. ReCALL, 13(1): 314.
Ciekanski M. Chanier T. (2008) Developing online multimodal verbal communication to enhance the writing process in an audio-graphic conferencing environment. ReCALL, 20(2): 162182.
Colpaert J. (2006) Pedagogy-driven design for online language teaching and learning. CALICO Journal, 23(3): 477497.
Conole G. (2008) Listening to the learner voice: The ever changing landscape of technology use for language students. ReCALL, 20(2): 124140.
Erard M. (2007) A Boon to Second Life Language Schools – New technology will allow high-quality audio in a virtual world. Technology Review, 10-04-2007.
Felix U. (2003) Pedagogy on the line: Identifying and closing the missing links. In: Felix, U. (ed.), Language learning online: Towards best practice. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 147170.
Hampel R. (2003) Theoretical perspectives and new practices in audio-graphic conferencing for language learning. ReCALL, 15(1): 2136.
Hampel R. (2006) Rethinking task design for the digital age: A framework for language teaching and learning in a synchronous online environment. ReCALL, 18(1): 105121.
Hampel R. Baber E. (2003) Using internet-based audio-graphic and video conferencing for language teaching and learning. In: Felix, U. (ed.), Language Learning Online: Towards Best Practice. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 171191.
Hampel R. Hauck M. (2004) Towards an effective use of audio conferencing in distance language courses. Language Learning and Technology, 8(1): 6682.
Hauck M. Hampel R. (2005) The challenges of implementing online tuition in distance language courses: Task design and tutor role. In: Holmberg, B., Shelley, M. A. and White, C. (eds.), Languages and Distance Education: evolution and change. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 258277.
Hauck M. Youngs B. L. (2008) Telecollaboration in multimodal environments: the impact on task design and learner interaction. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(2): 87124.
Hudson B., Owen D. van Veen K. (2006) Working on educational research methods with Masters students in an international online learning community. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4): 577603.
Hutchby I. (2001) Conversation and Technology: From the telephone to the internet. Cambridge: Polity.
Jauregi K. Bañados E. (2008) Virtual interaction through video-web communication: A step towards enriching and internationalizing language learning programs. ReCALL, 20(2): 183207.
Jones C. M. Youngs B. L. (2006) Teacher Preparation for Online Language Instruction. In: Hubbard, P. and Levy, M. (eds.), Teacher Education in CALL. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 267280.
Kern R. Warschauer M. (2000) Theory and practice of network-based language teaching. In: Warschauer, M. and Kern, R. (eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 119.
Koenraad T. (2008) How can 3D Virtual Worlds contribute to language education? Focus on the Language Village format.*7MJbyUkJudaD*7qqocEaXrW8umBawAn/worldcallpdf.pdf
Krashen S. D. (1987) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. London: Prentice-Hall International.
Lamy M. (2004) Oral conversations online: Redefining oral competence in synchronous environments. ReCALL, 16(2): 520538.
Meskill C. (1999) Computers as Tools for Sociocollaborative Language Learning. In: Cameron, K. (ed.), Computer assisted language learning (CALL): media, design and applications. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 141162.
Molka-Danielsen J., Carter B. W., Richardson D. Jæger B. (forthcoming) Teaching and Learning Affectively within a Virtual Campus. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organization, Special Issue: Toward Virtual Universities..
Molka-Danielsen J., Richardson D., Deutschmann M. Carter B. (2007) Teaching Languages in a Virtual World. In: Habib, L. (ed.), NOKOBIT 2007. Trondheim: Tapir, 97110.
Nardi H. (2006) Strangers and Friends: Collaborative Play in World of Warcraft. Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on Computer supported cooperative work.
Örngren Berglund T. (2006) Att mötas online: Muntliga realtidsträffar i nätverket ITAS. In: Svensson, P. (ed) Från vision till praktik: Språkutbildning och informationsteknik. Stockholm: Nätuniversitetet.
Panichi L., Deutschmann M. Molka-Danielsen J. (2008) Virtual reality, real engagement? Exploring engagement in Second Life language-learning environments. Paper presented at the 9th International Conference of the Association of Language Awareness. University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 26th–29th June.
Peterson M. (2006) Learner Interaction Management in an Avatar and Chat-based Virtual World. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19(1): 79103.
Salmon G. (2004) E-moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online. London: Taylor & Francis.
Schwienhorst K. (1998) The “third place”: virtual reality applications for second language learning. ReCALL, 10(1): 118126.
Second Life English Community.
Seidlhofer B. (2005) English as a lingua franca. ELT Journal, 59: 339341.
Seidlhofer B. (2007) English as a lingua franca and communities of practice. In: Volk-Birke, S. and Lippert, J. (eds.), Anglistentag 2006 Halle Proceedings. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 307318.
Stevens V. (2006) Second Life in Education and Language Learning. TESL-EJ, 10(3).
Stockwell G. (2007) A review of technology choice for teaching language skills and areas in the CALL literature. ReCALL, 19(2): 105120.
Svensson P. (2003) Virtual worlds as arenas for language learning. In: Felix, U. (ed.), Language learning online: towards best practice. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 123142.
Svensson P. (2004) Dispelling the Myth of the Real in Educational Technology. Paper presented at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
Toyoda E. Harrison R. (2002) Categorization of text chat communication between learners and native speakers of Japanese. Language Learning and Technology, 6: 8299.
van Lier L. (2004) The Ecology and Semiotics of Language Learning: a Sociocultural Perspective. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Vicker H. (no date) Language Teaching Gains Second Life: Virtual Worlds Offer New Methods to Teach Languages. Omniglot.
Warschauer M. (1997) Computer-Mediated Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice. The Modern Language Journal, 81(4): 470481.
White C. (2003) Language Learning in Distance Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0958-3440
  • EISSN: 1474-0109
  • URL: /core/journals/recall
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 83 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 479 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.