Amin, H. and Malik, A. S. (2013) Human memory retention and recall processes: A review of EEG and fMRI studies. Neurosciences, 18(4): 330–344.
Anderson, J. R. (1983) The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Armbruster, B. B., Anderson, T. H. and Ostertag, J. (1987) Does text structure/summarization instruction facilitate learning from expository text? Reading Research Quarterly, 22(3): 331–346. https://doi.org/10.2307/747972
Arthur, W. Jr., Bennett, W. Jr., Stanush, P. L. and McNelly, T. L. (1998) Factors that influence skill decay and retention: A quantitative review and analysis. Human Performance, 11(1): 57–101. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1101_3
Asadollahfam, H. and Shiri, P. (2013) The impact of semantic mapping instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension of expository texts. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 1(1): 95–106.
Bankó, É. M. and Vidnyánszky, Z. (2010) Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103(3): 1425–1430. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00868.2009
Bennett, G. K., Seashore, H. G. and Wesman, A. G. (1986) Differential Aptitude Tests. Windsor, UK: Psychological Corporation & NFER-Nelson.
Berkowitz, S. J. (1986) Effects of instruction in text organization on sixth-grade students’ memory for expository reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(2): 161–178. https://doi.org/10.2307/747843
Bernstein, D. A. (2016) Psychology: Foundations and frontiers. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Butchart, S., Forster, D., Gold, I., Bigelow, J., Korb, K., Oppy, G. and Serrenti, A. (2009) Improving critical thinking using web based argument mapping exercises with automated feedback. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(2): 268–291. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.1154
Cataldo, M. G. and Oakhill, J. (2000) Why are poor comprehenders inefficient searchers? An investigation into the effects of text representation and spatial memory on the ability to locate information in text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4): 791–799. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1241
Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T. and Rohrer, D. (2006) Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132: 354–380. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.3.354
Dudeney, G. (2007) The internet and the language classroom: A practical guide for teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dwyer, C. P. (2011) The evaluation of argument mapping as a learning tool. National University of Ireland, Galway, unpublished PhD. http://hdl.handle.net/10379/2617
Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J. and Stewart, I. (2010) The evaluation of argument mapping as a learning tool: Comparing the effects of map reading versus text reading on comprehension and recall of arguments. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 5(1): 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2009.05.001
Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J. and Stewart, I. (2013) An examination of the effects of argument mapping on students’ memory and comprehension performance. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 8: 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2012.12.002
Farhady, H., Hezaveh, F. S. and Hedayati, H. (2010) Reflections on foreign language education in Iran. TESL-EJ, 13(4): 1–18.
Feldmann, U. and Stemmer, B. (1987) Think aloud a__retrospective da__in C-te__taking: Diffe__languages-diff__learners-sa__approaches? In Faerch, C. & Kasper, G. (eds.), Introspection in second language research. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters, 251–67.
Griffin, C. C. and Tulbert, B. L. (1995) The effect of graphic organizers on students’ comprehension and recall of expository text: A review of the research and implications for practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 11(1): 73–89. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057356950110106
Harrell, M. (2004) The improvement of critical thinking skills in what philosophy is (Technical Report No. CMU-PHIL-158). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University. http://repository.cmu.edu/philosophy/126
Jiang, X. and Grabe, W. (2007) Graphic organizers in reading instruction: Research ﬁndings and issues. Reading in a Foreign Language, 19(1): 34–55.
Jiang, Y., Olson, I. R. and Chun, M. M. (2000) Organization of visual short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(3): 683–702. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-73126.96.36.1993
Keshavarz, M. H., Atai, M. R. and Ahmadi, H. (2007) Content schemata, linguistic simplification, and EFL readers’ comprehension and recall. Reading in a Foreign Language, 19(1): 19–33.
Lindsey, R., Mozer, M. C., Cepeda, N. J and Pashler, H (2009) Optimizing memory retention with cognitive models. In Howes, A., Peebles, D. and Cooper, R. (eds, Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM). Manchester, UK: Laird.
Mackey, A. and Gass, S. M. (2005) Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Mangen, A., Walgermo, B. R. and Brønnick, K. (2013) Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension. International Journal of Educational Research, 58: 61–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2012.12.002
Meyer, B. J. F., Brandt, D. M. and Bluth, G. J. (1980) Use of top-level structure in text: Key for reading comprehension of ninth-grade students. Reading Research Quarterly, 16(1): 72–103. https://doi.org/10.2307/747349
Miller, G. A. (1956) The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2): 81–97. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0043158
Monk, P. (2001, March 16) Mapping the future of argument. Australian Financial Review, 8–9.
Naylor, J. C. and Briggs, G. E. (1963) Effect of rehearsal of temporal and spatial aspects on the long-term retention of a procedural skill. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47(2): 120–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040215
Oliver, K. (2009) An investigation of concept mapping to improve the reading comprehension of science texts. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(5): 402–414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-009-9157-3
Paivio, A. (1983) The empirical case for dual coding. In Yuille, J. C. (ed.), Imagery, memory and cognition: Essays in honor of Allan Paivio. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 307–332.
Peterson, L. R. and Peterson, M. I. (1959) Short-term retention of individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58: 193–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0049234
Richland, L. E., Linn, M. C. and Bjork, R. A. (2007) Instruction. In Durso, F. T., Nickerson, R. S., Dumais, S., Lewandowsky, S. & Perfect, T. J. (eds.), Handbook of applied cognition (2nd ed.). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 555–583. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470713181.ch21.
Sadeghi, K. and Taghavi, E. (2014) The relationship between semantic mapping instruction, reading comprehension and recall of Iranian undergraduates reading English texts. MEXTESOL Journal, 38(1): 1–13.
Safari, P. and Pourhashemi, M. R. (2012) Toward an empowering pedagogy: Is there room for critical pedagogy in educational system of Iran? Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(12): 2548–2555. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.2.12.2548-2555
Safari, P. and Sahragard, R. (2015) Iranian EFL teachers’ challenges with the new ELT program after the reform: From dream to reality. Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 18(4): 65–88.
Schreiber, J. B. and Verdi, M. (2003) Dual coding and conjoint retention: Past, present, and future. Alternation, 10(1): 250–270.
Stearns, S. C. (2012) Integration of technology into the classroom: Effects on reading comprehension. Southern Illinois University, unpublished Master’s thesis. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/gs_rp/248/
Sweller, J. (2010) Cognitive load theory: Recent theoretical advances. In Plass, J. L., Moreno, R. & Brünken, R. (eds.), Cognitive load theory. New York: Cambridge University Press, 29–47. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511844744.004
Van Gelder, T. (2003) Enhancing deliberation through computer supported argument visualization. In Kirschner, P. A., Buckingham Shum, S. J. & Carr, C. S. (eds.), Visualizing argumentation: Software tools for collaborative and educational sense-making. London: Springer, 97–115. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-0037-9_5
Watson, S. M. R., Gable, R. A., Gear, S. B. and Hughes, K. C. (2012) Evidence-based strategies for improving the reading comprehension of secondary students: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 27(2): 79–89. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2012.00353.x
Wittrock, M. C. (1992) Knowledge acquisition and comprehension. In Alkin, M. C. (ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (6th ed.). New York: Macmillan, 699–705.
Woodman, G. F., Vecera, S. P. and Luck, S. J. (2003) Perceptual organization influences visual working memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(1): 80–87. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196470