Skip to main content Accessibility help

On using intelligent computer-assisted language learning in real-life foreign language teaching and learning

  • Luiz A. Amaral (a1) and Detmar Meurers (a2)

This paper explores the motivation and prerequisites for successful integration of Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) tools into current foreign language teaching and learning (FLTL) practice. We focus on two aspects, which we argue to be important for effective ICALL system development and use: (i) the relationship between activity design and restrictions needed to make natural language processing tractable and reliable, and (ii) pedagogical considerations and the influence of activity design choices on the integration of ICALL systems into FLTL practice.

Hide All
Amaral, L. (2007) Designing Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems: Integrating Natural Language Processing technology into Foreign Language Teaching. Ph.D. thesis, The Ohio State University.
Amaral, L. (2011, forthcoming) Revisiting Current Paradigms in Computer Assisted Language Learning Research and Development. Ilha do Desterro, 60.
Amaral, L.Meurers, D. (2008) From Recording Linguistic Competence to Supporting Inferences about Language Acquisition in Context: Extending the Conceptualization of Student Models for Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Computer-Assisted Language Learning, 21(4): 323338.
Amaral, L.Meurers, D. (2009) Little Things With Big Effects: On the Identification and Interpretation of Tokens for Error Diagnosis in ICALL. CALICO Journal, 26(3): 580591.
Amaral, L., Meurers, D.Ziai, R. (2011, forthcoming) Analyzing Learner Language: Towards A Flexible NLP Architecture for Intelligent Language Tutors. Computer-Assisted Language Learning, 24(1).
Atwell, E. (1998) What can SALT offer the English Teaching Professional? English Teaching Professional, 7: 4647.
Atwell, E. (1999) The Language Machine: The Impact of Speech and Language Technologies on English Language Teaching. London: British Council,
Bailey, S.Meurers, D. (2008) Diagnosing meaning errors in short answers to reading comprehension questions. In: Tetreault, J., Burstein, J. and De Felice, R. (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, held at ACL 2008. Columbus, Ohio: Association for Computational Linguistics, 107115.
Barrutia, R. (1985) Communicative CALL with Artificial Intelligence: some desiderata. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 3(1): 3742.
Canale, M.Swain, M. (1980) Theoretical Basis of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Testing. Applied Linguistics, 1: 147.
Chanier, T. (1994) Special Issue on Language Learning: Introduction. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 5(4): 417428.
Covington, M. A.Weinrich, K. B. (1991) Unification-based Diagnosis of Language Learners’ Syntax Errors. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 6(3): 149154.
Delmonte, R. (2003) Linguistic knowledge and reasoning for error diagnosis and feedback generation. CALICO Journal, 20(3): 513532.
Dodigovic, M. (2005) Artificial Intelligence in Second Language Learning: Raising Error Awareness. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Douglas, D. (2000) Assessing Languages for Specific Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005) The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ellis, N. (1994) Implicit and Explicit Language Learning - An Overview. In: Ellis, N. (ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 131.
Engel, F. L., Bouwhuis, D. G., Bosser, T.D'Ydewalle, G. (eds.) (1992) Cognitive modelling and interactive environments in language learning. No. 87 in NATO ASI series: Ser. F, Computer and systems sciences. Berlin: Springer. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Interactive Environments, held in Mierlo, The Netherlands, Nov. 5–8, 1990.
Garrett, N. (1995) ICALL and Second Language Acquisition. In: Holland, V. M., Kaplan, J. D. and Sams, M. R. (eds.) (1995) Intelligent language tutors: Theory shaping technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 345358.
Gass, S. M.Mackey, A. (2007) Input, interaction and output in SLA. In: Williams, J. and Patten, B. V. (eds.), Theories in Second Language Acquisition: An introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 175199.
Hagen, L. K. (1999) Spanish for Business Professionals. Project Web Page.
Hartley, J.Sleeman, D. H. (1973) Towards intelligent teaching systems. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 5: 215236.
Heift, T. (1998) Designed Intelligence: A Language Teacher Model. Ph.D. thesis, Simon Fraser University.
Heift, T. (2001) Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems for Grammar Practice. Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht, 6(2): 115.
Heift, T. (2003) Multiple learner errors and meaningful feedback: A challenge for ICALL systems. CALICO Journal, 20(3): 533548.
Heift, T. (2004) Inspectable Learner Reports for Web-based Language Learning. ReCALL, 16(2): 416431.
Heift, T. (2005) Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake in CALL. ReCALL, 17(1): 3246.
Heift, T.Schulze, M. (2003) Error diagnosis and error correction in CALL. CALICO Journal, 20(3): 433436.
Heift, T.Schulze, M. (2007) Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. New York: Routledge.
Hémard, D. (2004) Enhancing Online CALL Design: the case for evaluation. ReCALL, 16(2): 502519.
Hémard, D. (2006) Evaluating Hypermedia structures as a means of improving language learning strategies and motivation. ReCALL, 18(1): 2444.
Holland, V. M., Kaplan, J. D.Sams, M. R. (eds.) (1995) Intelligent language tutors: theory shaping technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Karlsson, F., Voutilainen, A., Heikkilä, J.Anttila, A. (eds.) (1995) Constraint Grammar: A Language-Independent System for Parsing Unrestricted Text. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Klein, P. (1998) CALICO Journal software evaluation review of “El Corrector” (‘un medio fácil para corregir rápidamente el español’). CALICO Journal, 16(1): 6475.
Krashen, S. D. (1987) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Prentice Hall International.
Krashen, S. D. (1988) Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. New York: Prentice Hall International.
Kuenning, G. (2005) International Ispell Web, Version 3.3.02.
Leaver, B. L.Willis, J. R. (2004) Task-Based Instruction in Foreign Language Education. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Lee, J.VanPatten, B. (1995) Making Communicative Language Teaching Happen. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Levy, M. (1997) Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Context and Conceptualization. New York: Oxford University Press.
L'Haire, S. (2004) Vers un feedback plus intelligent. Les enseignements du project Freetext. In: Proceedings of the Journée d’étude de l'ATALA on NLP and Language Learning. 1–12.
L'Haire, S.Faltin, A. V. (2003) Error diagnosis in the FreeText project. CALICO Journal, 20(3): 481495.
Lightbown, P. M.Spada, N. (1999) How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Long, M. H. (1988) Instructed interlanguage development. In: Beebe, L. (ed.), Issues in Second Language Acquisition: Multiple perspectives. New York: Newbury House, 115141.
Long, M. H. (1991) Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In: Bot, K. D., Kramsch, C. and Ginsberg, R. (eds.), Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 3952.
Long, M. H. (1996) The role of linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In: Ritchie, W. C. and Bhatia, T. K. (eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition. New York: Academic Press, 413468.
Lyster, R. (1998) Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classroom. Language Learning, 48: 183218.
Martins, R., Nunes, G.Hasegawa, R. (2003) Curupira: A Functional Parser for Brazilian Portuguese. In: Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language. 6th International Workshop, PROPOR 2003, Faro, Portugal, June 26–27, 2003. LNCS 2721. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 179183.
Michaud, L. N., McCoy, K. F.Pennington, C. A. (2000) An Intelligent Tutoring System for Deaf Learners of Written English. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International ACM SIGCAPH Conference on Assistive Technologies (ASSETS 2000). Washington, DC.
Michaud, L. N., McCoy, K. F.Stark, L. A. (2001) Modeling the Acquisition of English: An Intelligent CALL Approach. In: Proceedings of The 8th International Conference on User Modeling. Sonthofen, Germany, 1425.
Nagata, N. (1993) Intelligent Computer Feedback for Second Language Instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 77(3): 330339.
Nagata, N. (1996) Computer vs Workbook Instruction in Second Language Acquisition. CALICO Journal, 14(1): 5375.
Nagata, N. (1997) An Experimental Comparison of Deductive and Inductive Feedback Generated by a Simple Parser. System, 25(4): 515534.
Nagata, N. (2002) BANZAI: An Application of Natural Language Processing to Web based Language Learning. CALICO Journal, 19(3): 583599.
Nagata, N. (2009) Robo-Sensei's NLP-Based Error Detection and Feedback Generation. CALICO Journal, 26(3): 562579.
Norris, J.Ortega, L. (2000) Effectiveness of L2 Instruction: A Research Synthesis and Quantitative Meta-Analysis. Language Learning, 50(3): 417528.
Ramsay, A.Mirzaiean, V. (2005) Content-based support for Persian learners of English. ReCALL, 17(1): 139154.
Reuer, V. (2003) Error recognition and feedback with Lexical Functional Grammar. CALICO Journal, 20(3): 497512.
Schmidt, R. (1995) Consciousness and foreign language: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In: Schmidt, R. (ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 163.
Schwind, C. B. (1995) Error Analysis and Explanation in Knowledge Based Language Tutoring. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 8(4): 295324.
Sleeman, D. (1982) Inferring (mal) rules from pupil's protocols. In: Proceedings of ECAI 82. Orsay, France, 160164.
Swartz, M. L.Yazdani, M. (eds.) (1992) Intelligent tutoring systems for foreign language learning: The bridge to international communication. Berlin: Springer.
Tschichold, C. (1999) Grammar Checking for CALL: Strategies for Improving Foreign Language Grammars. In: Cameron, K. (ed.), CALL: Media, Design, and Applications. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, 203222.
Tschichold, C. (2003) Lexically driven error detection and correction. CALICO Journal, 20(3): 549559.
Vandeventer, A. (2001) Creating a grammar checker for call by constraint relaxation: a feasibility study. ReCALL, 13(1): 110120.
Weischedel, R. M., Voge, W. M.James, M. (1978) An Artificial Intelligence Approach to Language Instruction. Artificial Intelligence, 10(3): 225240.
Wiggins, G. (1998) Educative Assessment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Willis, D.Willis, J. (2007) Doing Task-based Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0958-3440
  • EISSN: 1474-0109
  • URL: /core/journals/recall
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed