Amichai-Hamburger Y., Wainapel G. and Fox S. (2002) “On the Internet no one knows I’m an introvert”: Extroversion, neuroticism, and Internet interaction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5(2): 125–128. https://doi.org/10.1089/109493102753770507
Bandura A. (1994) Self-efficacy. In Ramachaudran, V. S. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Behaviour. Vol. 4. New York: Academic Press, 71–81.
Bogdan R. C. and Biklen S. K. (2006) Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education Group.
Brown H. D. (2000) Principles of language learning and teaching (4th ed.). New York: Longman.
Charle Poza M. I. (2005) The effects of asynchronous computer voice conferencing on learners’ anxiety when speaking a foreign language. West Virginia University, unpublished PhD thesis.
Childs M. (2010) Learners’ experience of presence in virtual worlds. University of Warwick, unpublished PhD.
Clément R., Gardner R. C. and Smythe P. C. (1977) Motivational variables in second language acquisition: A study of francophones learning English. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 9(2): 123–133. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0081614
Council of Europe (2001) Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Strasbourg: Language Policy Unit.
Creswell J. W. and Plano Clark V. L. (2007) Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
De los Arcos B., Coleman J. A. and Hampel R. (2009) Learners’ anxiety in audiographic conferences: A discursive psychology approach to emotion talk. ReCALL, 21(1): 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344009000111
Dickey M. D. (2005) Three-dimensional virtual worlds and distance learning: Two case studies of Active Worlds as a medium for distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(3): 439–451. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2005.00477.x
Field A. (2009) Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (3rd ed.). London: Sage.
Gregory S., Lee M. J. W., Delgarno B. & Tynan B. (eds.) (2016) Learning in virtual worlds: Research and applications. Edmonton: AU Press.
Hammick J. K. and Lee M. J. (2014) Do shy people feel less communication apprehension online? The effects of virtual reality on the relationship between personality characteristics and communication outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 33: 302–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.046
Hampel R., Felix U., Hauck M. and Coleman J. A. (2005) Complexities of learning and teaching languages in a real-time audiographic environment. German as a Foreign Language Journal, 3(3): 1–30.
Henderson M., Huang H., Grant S. and Henderson L. (2009) Language acquisition in Second
Life: Improving self-efficacy beliefs. In Atkinson, R. J. & McBeath, C. (eds.), Same Places, Different Spaces. Proceedings Ascilite Auckland 2009. Auckland: University of Auckland, 464–474, 6–9 December 2009.
Jauregi K., Canto S., de Graaf R., Koenraad T. and Moonen M. (2011) Verbal interaction in Second Life: Towards a pedagogic framework for task design. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(1): 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2010.538699
Joinson A. N. (2004) Self-Esteem, interpersonal risk, and preference for e-mail to face-to-face communication. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 7(4): 472–478. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2004.7.472
Keipi T., Oksanen A. and Räsänen P. (2015) Who prefers anonymous self-expression online? A survey-based study of Finns aged 15–30 years. Information, Communication & Society, 18(6): 717–732. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2014.991342
Kitano K. (2001) Anxiety in the college Japanese language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 85(4): 549–566. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00125
Koch A. S. and Terrell T. D. (1991) Affective reactions of foreign language students to natural approach activities and teaching techniques. In Horwitz, E. K. & Young, D. J. (eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 109–126.
Lan Y.-J. (2016) The essential components of game design in 3D virtual worlds: From a language learning perspective. In Spector, M. J., Lockee, B. B. & Childress, M. D. (eds.), Learning, design, and technology. Basel: Springer International, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17727-4_24-1
Lapidot-Lefler N. and Barak A. (2012) Effects of anonymity, invisibility, and lack of eye-contact on toxic online disinhibition. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2): 434–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.10.014
MacIntyre P. D., Noels K. A. and Clément R. (1997) Biases in self ratings of second language proficiency: The role of language anxiety. Language Learning, 47(2): 265–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.81997008
McNeil L. (2014) Ecological affordance and anxiety in an oral asynchronous computer-mediated environment. Language Learning & Technology, 18(1): 142–159.
Panichi L. (2015) A critical analysis of learner participation in virtual worlds: How can virtual worlds inform our pedagogy? In Helm, F., Bradley, L., Guarda, M. & Thouësny, S. (eds.), Critical CALL – Proceedings of the 2015 EUROCALL Conference, Padova, Italy. Dublin: Research-publishing.net, 464–469. https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2015.000376
Paulhus D. L. and Vazire S. (2007) The self-report method. In Robins, W. R., Fraley, R. C. & Krueger, R. F. (eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology. New York: The Guilford Press, 224–239.
Rosell-Aguilar F. (2005) Task design for audiographic conferencing: Promoting beginner oral interaction in distance language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(5): 417–442. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588220500442772
Schroeder R. (2008) Defining virtual worlds and virtual environments. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 1(1): 1–3.
Spielberger C. D. (1983) Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Steinberg F. S. and Horwitz E. K. (1986) The effect of induced anxiety on the denotative and interpretive content of second language speech. TESOL Quarterly, 20(1): 131–136. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586395
Stritzke W. G. K., Nguyen A. and Durking K. (2004) Shyness and computer-mediated communication: A self-presentational theory perspective. Media Psychology, 6(1): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532785xmep0601_1
Wehner A. K., Gump A. W. and Downey S. (2011) The effects of Second Life on the motivation of undergraduate students learning a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(3): 277–289. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2010.551757
Young D. J. (1999) Affect in foreign language and second language learning. A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Zheng D., Young M. F., Brewer R. A. and Wagner M. (2010) Attitude and self-efficacy change: English language learning in virtual worlds. CALICO Journal, 27(1): 205–231. https://doi.org/10.11139/cj.27.1.205-231