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  • Cited by 2
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chester, David K. and Duncan, Angus M. 2010. Responding to disasters within the Christian tradition, with reference to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Religion, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 85.

    Gelinas, Luke 2009. The Problem of Natural Evil I: General Theistic Replies. Philosophy Compass, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, p. 533.


Unknowable worlds: solving the problem of natural evil

  • FRANK J. MURPHY (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2005

This paper draws attention to the way free choice participates in the occurrence of what is usually called natural evil. While earthquakes are natural phenomena, they injure only those who have chosen to live in places where they occur. But if God could not foresee these choices, then God could not foresee much about the amount and distribution of natural evil. Combining a libertarian notion of freedom with a denial of middle knowledge allows God to be much less implicated in the occurrence of natural evil. This gives some of the familiar theistic replies to the problem, such as Hick's soul-making theodicy, enhanced plausibility.

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Religious Studies
  • ISSN: 0034-4125
  • EISSN: 1469-901X
  • URL: /core/journals/religious-studies
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