Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Apple grower pollination practices and perceptions of alternative pollinators in New York and Pennsylvania

  • Mia G. Park (a1) (a2), Neelendra K. Joshi (a3) (a4) (a5), Edwin G. Rajotte (a3), David J. Biddinger (a4), John E. Losey (a1) and Bryan N. Danforth (a1)...
Abstract

Pollinator declines coupled with increasing demand for insect pollinated crops have the potential to cause future pollinator shortages for our most nutritious and valuable crops. Ensuring adequate crop pollination may necessitate a shift in pollination management, from one that primarily relies on the managed European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) to one that integrates alternative pollinators. While a growing body of scientific evidence supports significant contributions made by naturally occurring, native bees for crop pollination, translating research to practice requires buy-in from growers. The intention of agricultural extension is to address grower needs and concerns; however, few studies have assessed grower knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about native pollinators. Here we present findings from questionnaire-based surveys of over 600 apple growers in New York State and Pennsylvania, coupled with ecological data from bee surveys. This hybrid sociological and biological survey allows us to compare grower knowledge and perceptions to an actual pollinator census. While up to 93% of respondents highly valued importance of native bees, 20% growers did not know how much native bees actually contribute to their orchard pollination. Despite the uncertainty, a majority of growers were open to relying on native bees (up to 60% in NY and 67% in PA) and to making low-cost changes to their farm's management that would benefit native pollinators (up to 68 in NY and 85% in PA). Growers consistently underestimated bee diversity, but their estimates corresponded to major bee groups identifiable by lay persons, indicating accurate local knowledge about native bees. Grower reliance on honeybees increased with farm size; because native bee abundance did not measurably decrease with farm size, renting honeybees may be motivated by risk avoidance rather than grower perception of lower native bee activity. Demonstrated effectiveness of native pollinators and clear guidelines for their management were the most important factors influencing grower decision to actively manage orchards for native bees. Our results highlight a pressing need for an active and research-based extension program to support diversification of pollination strategies in the region.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Apple grower pollination practices and perceptions of alternative pollinators in New York and Pennsylvania
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Apple grower pollination practices and perceptions of alternative pollinators in New York and Pennsylvania
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Apple grower pollination practices and perceptions of alternative pollinators in New York and Pennsylvania
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the same Creative Commons licence is included and the original work is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Mia G. Park, E-mail: mia.park@und.edu
References
Hide All
Agnello, AM, Reissig, WH, Kovach, J and Nyrop, JP (2003) Integrated apple pest management in New York State using predatory mites and selective pesticides. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 94(2), 183195.
Agnello, AM, Atanassov, A, Bergh, JC, Biddinger, DJ, Gut, LJ, Haas, MJ, Harper, JK, Hogmire, HW, Hull, LA, Kime, LF, Krawczyk, G, Mcghee, PS, Nyrop, JP, Reissig, WH, Shearer, PW, Straub, RW, Villanueva, RT and Walgenbach, JF (2009) Reduced-risk pest management programs for eastern U.S. apple and peach orchards: a 4-year regional project. American Entomologist 55(3), 184197.
Aizen, MA and Harder, LD (2009) The global stock of domesticated honey bees is growing slower than agricultural demand for pollination. Current Biology 19, 915918.
Ascher, JS and Pickering, J (2013) Discover life bee species guide and world checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Apoidea_species.
Bartomeus, I, Ascher, JS, Wagner, D, Danforth, BN, Colla, S, Kornbluth, S and Winfree, R (2011) Climate-associated phenological advances in bee pollinators and bee-pollinated plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(51), 2064520649.
Biddinger, DJ and Rajotte, EG (2015) Integrated pest and pollinator management—adding a new dimension to an accepted paradigm. Current Opinion in Insect Science 10, 204209.
Biddinger, DJ, Joshi, NK, Rajotte, EG, Halbrendt, NO, Pulig, C, Naithani, KJ and Vaughn, M (2013a) An immunomarking method to determine the foraging patterns of Osmia cornifrons and resulting fruit set in a cherry orchard. Apidologie 44, 738749.
Biddinger, DJ, Robertson, JL, Mullin, C, Frazier, J, Ashcraft, SA, Rajotte, EG, Joshi, NK and Vaughn, M (2013b) Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski). PLoS ONE 8(9), e72587.
Biddinger, DJ, Leslie, TW and Joshi, NK (2014) Reduced-risk pest management programs for eastern U.S. peach orchards: effects on arthropod predators, parasitoids, and select pests. Journal of Economic Entomology 107(3), 10841091.
Biesmeijer, JC, Roberts, SPM, Reemer, M, Ohlemüller, R, Edwards, M, Peeters, T, Schaffers, AP, Potts, SG, Kleukers, R, Thomas, CD, Settele, J and Kunin, WE (2006) Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands. Science 313(5785), 351354.
Blitzer, EJ, Gibbs, J, Park, MG and Danforth, BN (2016) Pollination services for apple are dependent on diverse wild bee communities. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 221, 17.
Bosch, J and Blas, M (1994) Foraging behaviour and pollinating efficiency of Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera on almond (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae and Apidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 29(1), 19.
Brittain, C, Kremen, C and Klein, A-M (2013) Biodiversity buffers pollination from changes in environmental conditions. Global Change Biology 19(2), 540547.
Brittain, WH (1935) Studies in bee activity during apple bloom. Journal of Economic Entomology 28, 553559.
Burkle, LA, Marlin, JC and Knight, TM (2013) Plant-pollinator interactions over 120 years: loss of species, co-occurrence, and function. Science 339(6127), 16111615.
Cameron, SA, Lozier, JD, Strange, JP, Koch, JB, Cordes, N, Solter, LF and Griswold, TL (2011) Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(2), 662667.
Damos, PT and Savopoulou-Soultani, M (2010) Development and statistical evaluation of models in forecasting moth phenology of major lepidopterous peach pest complex for Integrated Pest Management programs. Crop Protection 29(10), 11901199.
Decourtye, A, Mader, E and Desneux, N (2010) Landscape enhancement of floral resources for honey bees in agro-ecosystems. Apidologie 41(3), 264277.
Donovall, L and vanEngelsdorp, D (2008) Pennsylvania Native Bee Survey: Citizen Scientist Pollinator Monitoring Guide. Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 36 p.
Eilers, EJ, Kremen, C, Greenleaf, SS, Garber, AK and Klein, A-M (2011) Contribution of pollinator-mediated crops to nutrients in the human food supply. PLoS ONE 6(6), e21363.
ESRI (2011) ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute.
Free, JB (1993) Insect Pollination of Crops. 2nd edn.. London, UK: Academic Press.
Gaines-Day, HR and Gratton, C (2017) Understanding barriers to participation in cost-share programs for pollinator conservation by Wisconsin (USA) Cranberry Growers. Insects 8(3), 79.
Gallai, N, Salles, J-M, Settele, J and Vaissière, BE (2009) Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics 68(3), 810821.
Gardner, KE and Ascher, JS (2006) Notes on the native bee pollinators in New York apple orchards. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 114(1), 8691.
Garibaldi, LA, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Kremen, C, Morales, JM, Bommarco, R, Cunningham, SA, Carvalheiro, LG, Chacoff, NP, Dudenhöffer, JH, Greenleaf, SS, Holzschuh, A, Isaacs, R, Krewenka, K, Mandelik, Y, Mayfield, MM, Morandin, LA, Potts, SG, Ricketts, TH, Szentgyörgyi, H, Viana, BF, Westphal, C, Winfree, R and Klein, AM (2011) Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits. Ecology Letters 14(10), 10621072.
Garibaldi, LA, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Winfree, R, Aizen, MA, Bommarco, R, Cunningham, SA, Kremen, C, Carvalheiro, LG, Harder, LD, Afik, O, Bartomeus, I, Benjamin, F, Boreux, V, Cariveau, D, Chacoff, NP, Dudenhöffer, JH, Freitas, BM, Ghazoul, J, Greenleaf, S, Hipólito, J, Holzschuh, A, Howlett, B, Isaacs, R, Javorek, SK, Kennedy, CM, Krewenka, KM, Krishnan, S, Mandelik, Y, Mayfield, MM, Motzke, I, Munyuli, T, Nault, BA, Otieno, M, Petersen, J, Pisanty, G, Potts, SG, Rader, R, Ricketts, TH, Rundlöf, M, Seymour, CL, Schüepp, C, Szentgyörgyi, H, Taki, H, Tscharntke, T, Vergara, CH, Viana, BF, Wanger, TC, Westphal, C, Williams, N and Klein, AM (2013) Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. Science 339(6127), 16081611.
Gibbs, J, Joshi, NK, Wilson, JK, Rothwell, NL, Powers, K, Haas, M, Gut, L, Biddinger, DJ and Isaacs, R (2017) Does passive sampling accurately reflect the bee (Apoidea: Anthophila) communities pollinating apple and sour cherry orchards?. Environmental Entomology 46(3), 579588.
Goulson, D (2003) Bumblebees: Behaviour and Ecology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hanes, SP, Collum, KK, Hoshide, AK and Asare, E (2015) Grower perceptions of native pollinators and pollination strategies in the lowbush blueberry industry. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 30(2), 124131.
Hutson, R (1926) Relation of the honeybee to fruit pollination in New Jersey. Bull. NJ Agric. Exp. Stn. 434, p. 34.
IBM Corp (2013) IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Isaacs, R, Williams, N, Ellis, J, Pitts-Singer, TL, Bommarco, R and Vaughan, M (2017) Integrated crop pollination: combining strategies to ensure stable and sustainable yields of pollination-dependent crops. Basic and Applied Ecology 22, 4460.
Jones, VP, Brunner, JF, Grove, GG, Petit, B, Tangren, GV and Jones, WE (2010) A web-based decision support system to enhance IPM programs in Washington tree fruit. Pest Management Science 66(6), 587595.
Joshi, NK, Hull, LA, Rajotte, EG, Krawczyk, G and Bohnenblust, E (2011) Evaluating sex-pheromone- and kairomone-based lures for attracting codling moth adults in mating disruption versus conventionally managed apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Pest Management Science 67(10), 13321337.
Joshi, NK, Leslie, T, Rajotte, EG, Kammerer, MA, Otieno, M and Biddinger, DJ (2015) Comparative trapping efficiency to characterize bee abundance, diversity, and community composition in apple orchards. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 108(5), 785799.
Joshi, NK, Otieno, M, Rajotte, EG, Fleischer, SJ and Biddinger, DJ (2016) Proximity to woodland and landscape structure drives pollinator visitation in apple orchard ecosystem. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 4, 38. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2016.00038.
Kammerer, MA, Biddinger, DJ, Rajotte, EG and Mortensen, DA (2016a) Local plant diversity across multiple habitats supports a diverse wild bee community in Pennsylvania apple orchards. Environmental Entomology 45(1), 3238.
Kammerer, MA, Biddinger, DJ, Joshi, NK, Rajotte, EG and Mortensen, DA (2016b) Modeling local spatial patterns of wild bee diversity in Pennsylvania apple orchards. Landscape Ecology 31, 24592469.
Kasina, M, Kraemer, M, Wittmann, D and Martius, C (2009) Farmers’ knowledge of bees and their natural history in Kakamega district, Kenya. Journal of Apicultural Research 48(2), 126133.
Kennedy, CM, Lonsdorf, E, Neel, MC, Williams, NM, Ricketts, TH, Winfree, R, Bommarco, R, Brittain, C, Burley, AL, Cariveau, D, Carvalheiro, LG, Chacoff, NP, Cunningham, SA, Danforth, BN, Dudenhöffer, J-H, Elle, E, Gaines, HR, Garibaldi, LA, Gratton, C, Holzschuh, A, Isaacs, R, Javorek, SK, Jha, S, Klein, AM, Krewenka, K, Mandelik, Y, Mayfield, MM, Morandin, L, Neame, LA, Otieno, M, Park, M, Potts, SG, Rundlöf, M, Saez, A, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Taki, H, Viana, BF, Westphal, C, Wilson, JK, Greenleaf, SS and Kremen, C (2013) A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecology Letters 16(5), 584599.
Klein, A-M (2009) Nearby rainforest promotes coffee pollination by increasing spatio-temporal stability in bee species richness. Forest Ecology and Management 258(9), 18381845.
Klein, A-M, Vaissière, BE, Cane, JH, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Cunningham, SA, Kremen, C and Tscharntke, T (2007) Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274(1608), 303313.
Kovach, J and Tette, JP (1988) A survey of the use of IPM by New York apple producers. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 20(2), 101108.
Kremen, C, Williams, NM and Thorp, RW (2002) Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(26), 1681216816.
Kremen, K, Williams, NM, Bugg, R, Fay, J and Thorp, RW (2004) The area requirements of an ecosystem service: crop pollination by native bee communities in California. Ecology Letters 7(11), 11091119.
Levin, MD (1983) Value of bee pollination to U.S. agriculture. Bulletin of the ESA 29(4), 5051.
Mallinger, RE and Gratton, C (2015) Species richness of wild bees, but not the use of managed honeybees, increases fruit set of a pollinator-dependent crop. Journal of Applied Ecology 52(2), 323330.
Mallinger, RE, Werts, P and Gratton, C (2015) Pesticide use within a pollinator-dependent crop has negative effects on the abundance and species richness of sweat bees, Lasioglossum spp., and on bumble bee colony growth. Journal of Insect Conservation 19(5), 9991010.
Martins, KT, Gonzalez, A and Lechowicz, MJ (2015) Pollination services are mediated by bee functional diversity and landscape context. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 200, 1220.
McArt, SH, Fersch, AA, Milano, NJ, Truitt, LL and Böröczky, K (2017) High pesticide risk to honey bees despite low focal crop pollen collection during pollination of a mass blooming crop. Scientific Reports 7, 46554.
McGregor, SE (1976) Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
Mogren, CL and Lundgren, JG (2016) Neonicotinoid-contaminated pollinator strips adjacent to cropland reduce honey bee nutritional status. Scientific Reports 6, 29608.
Morse, RA and Calderone, N (2000) The value of honey bees as pollinators of U.S. crops in 2000. Bee Culture 128(3), 15.
Munyuli, T (2011) Farmers’ perceptions of pollinators’ importance in coffee production in Uganda. Agricultural Sciences 2(3), 318333.
National Research Council (2007) Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
Oldroyd, BP (2007) What's killing American honey bees? PLoS Biology 5((6), e168.
Park, MG, Danforth, BN and Orr, MC (2010) The role of native bees in apple pollination. New York Fruit Quarterly 18(1), 2125.
Park, MG, Blitzer, EJ, Gibbs, J, Losey, JE and Danforth, BN (2015) Negative effects of pesticides on wild bee communities can be buffered by landscape context. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282, 20150299.
Park, MG, Raguso, RA, Losey, JE and Danforth, BN (2016) Per-visit pollinator performance and regional importance of wild Bombus and Andrena (Melandrena) compared to the managed honey bee in New York apple orchards. Apidologie 47(2), 145160.
Partap, UMA, Partap, TEJ and Yonghua, HE (2001) Pollination failure in apple crop and farmers’ management strategies in Hengduan mountains, China. Acta Horticulturae 561, 225230.
Phillips, EF (1933) Insects collected on apple blossoms in western New York. Journal of Agricultural Research 46, 851862.
Pinheiro, J, Bates, D and Sarkar, D and R Core Team (2017) nlme: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1-131.1, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=nlme.
Potts, SG, Biesmeijer, JC, Kremen, C, Neumann, P, Schweiger, O and Kunin, WE (2010) Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25(6), 345353.
Potts, SG, Biesmeijer, JC, Bommarco, R, Felicioli, A, Fischer, M, Jokinen, P, Kleijn, D, Klein, A-M, Kunin, WE, Neumann, P, Penev, LD, Petanidou, T, Rasmont, P, Roberts, SPM, Smith, HG, Sørensen, PB, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Vaissière, BE, Vilà, M, Vujić, A, Woyciechowski, M, Zobel, M, Settele, J and Schweiger, O (2011) Developing European conservation and mitigation tools for pollination services: approaches of the STEP (Status and Trends of European Pollinators) project. Journal of Apicultural Research 50(2), 152164.
R Core Team (2013) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/.
Rajotte, EG, Bowser, T, Travis, JW, Crassweller, RM, Musser, W, Laughland, D and Sachs, C (1992) Implementation and adoption of an agricultural expert system: the Penn State Orchard Consultant. Acta Horticulturae 313, 227232.
Ricketts, TH, Regetz, J, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Cunningham, SA, Kremen, C, Bogdanski, A, Gemmill-Herren, B, Greenleaf, SS, Klein, AM, Mayfield, MM, Morandin, LA, Ochieng’, A and Viana, BF (2008) Landscape effects on crop pollination services: are there general patterns? Ecology Letters 11(5), 499515.
Ritz, A, Biddinger, D, Rajotte, E, Sahli, H and Joshi, N (2012) Quantifying the efficacy of native bees for orchard pollination in Pennsylvania to offset the increased cost and decreased reliability of honey bees. Penn Fruit News 92, 666.
Robinson, WS, Nowogrodzki, R and Morse, RA (1989) The value of honey bees as pollinators of United States crops. 2. American Bee Journal 129(7), 477487.
Russo, L, Park, M, Gibbs, J and Danforth, B (2015) The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards. Ecology and Evolution 5(17), 35313540.
Russo, L, Park, MG, Blitzer, EJ and Danforth, BN (2017) Flower handling behavior and abundance determine the relative contribution of pollinators to seed set in apple orchards. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 246, 102108.
Southwick, EE and Southwick, L (1992) Estimating the economic value of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as agricultural pollinators in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology 85(3), 621633.
USDA NASS (US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service) (2016a) 2015–2016 Agricultural Statistics Annual Bulletin, New York. Available at www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/New_York/Publications/Annual_Statistical_Bulletin/2016/2015-2016%20NY%20Annual%20Bulletin.pdf.
USDA NASS (US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service) (2016b) 2015–2016 Agricultural Statistics Annual Bulletin, Pennsylvania. https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Pennsylvania/Publications/Annual_Statistical_Bulletin/2015_2016/2015-2016%20PA%20Annual%20Bulletin.pdf.
van der Zee, R, Pisa, L, Andonov, S, Brodschneider, R, Charrière, J-D, Chlebo, R, Coffey, MF, Crailsheim, K, Dahle, B, Gajda, A, Gray, A, Drazic, MM, Higes, M, Kauko, L, Kence, A, Kence, M, Kezic, N, Kiprijanovska, H, Kralj, J, Kristiansen, P, Martin Hernandez, R, Mutinelli, F, Nguyen, BK, Otten, C, Özkırım, A, Pernal, SF, Peterson, M, Ramsay, G, Santrac, V, Soroker, V, Topolska, G, Uzunov, A, Vejsnæs, F, Wei, S and Wilkins, S (2012) Managed honey bee colony losses in Canada, China, Europe, Israel and Turkey, for the winters of 2008–9 and 2009–10. Journal of Apicultural Research 51(1), 100114.
vanEngelsdorp, D, Evans, JD, Saegerman, C, Mullin, C, Haubruge, E, Nguyen, BK, Frazier, M, Frazier, J, Cox-Foster, D, Chen, Y, Underwood, R, Tarpy, DR and Pettis, JS (2009) Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study. PLoS ONE 4(8), e6481.
Venables, WN and Ripley, BD (2002) Modern Applied Statistics with S. 4th edn. New York: Springer.
Watson, JC, Wolf, AT and Ascher, JS (2011) Forested landscapes promote richness and abundance of native bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in Wisconsin apple orchards. Environmental Entomology 40(3), 621632.
Whittingham, MJ (2011) The future of agri-environment schemes: biodiversity gains and ecosystem service delivery? Journal of Applied Ecology 48(3), 509513.
Westwood, MN (1993) Temperate-Zone Pomology: Physiology and Culture. 3rd ed. Portland: Timber Press.
Winfree, R (2008) Pollinator-dependent crops: an increasingly risky business. Current Biology 18(20), 968969.
Zuur, AF, Hilbe, JM and Leno, EN (2013) A Beginner's Guide to GLM and GLMM with R: A Frequentist and Bayesian Perspective for Ecologists. Newburgh, UK: Highland Statistics Ltd.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
  • ISSN: 1742-1705
  • EISSN: 1742-1713
  • URL: /core/journals/renewable-agriculture-and-food-systems
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Park et al. supplementary material
Park et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (715 KB)
715 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 16
Total number of PDF views: 61 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 291 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 25th April 2018 - 18th June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.