Hostname: page-component-588bc86c8c-br67x Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-11-30T15:54:26.092Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Identity and security: Buzan and the Copenhagen school*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 1996


Since the publication in 1983 of the first edition of People, States and Fear, Barry Buzan's work has established itself—for European scholars, at least—as the canon and indispensable reference point for students of security. His book and the revisions of the second edition (1991) have been the stimulus for further exploration of the security problem at the Centre for Peace and Conflict Research in Copenhagen. Together with Buzan, the collaborators have produced several publications on the security theme, sufficiently interrelated to warrant the collective shorthand, the ‘Copenhagen school’ of security studies.

Review articles
Copyright © British International Studies Association 1996

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1 Identity, Migration. To avoid confusion due to common authorship, the authors of this book will be referred to in the text as Waever et al. Similarly, Buzan (1991) will distinguish Buzan's authorship of the second edition of People, States and Fear.

2 Booth, Ken, ‘xSecurity and Emancipation’, Review of International Studies, 17 (1991), pp. 313–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

3 Ibid.; Smith, Steve, ‘Mature Anarchy, Strong States and Security’, in Arms Control, 12 (1991), pp. 325–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Shaw, Martin, ‘There is no such Thing as Society: Beyond Individualism and Statism in International Security Studies’, in Review of International Studies, 19 (1993), pp. 159–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

4 Waever et al., Identity, Migration, p. 25.

5 Giddens, Anthony, Sociology (Cambridge, 1989), p. 32Google Scholar.

6 Waever et al., Identity, Migration, p. 21.

7 Ibid., p. 24 (emphasis added).

8 Ibid., p. 6 (emphasis added).

9 Ibid., p. 23.

10 Ibid., p. 24.

11 Ibid., p. 18; Buzan, People, States and Fear, pp. 35ff.

12 Waever et al., Identity, Migration, p. 187.

13 Ibid., p. 189.

14 Ibid., p. 26.

15 Ibid., p. 185.

16 Ibid., p. 188.

17 Ibid., p. 26.

18 Ibid., p. 24.

19 Ibid., p. 20.

20 Ibid., p. 20.

21 Ibid., p. 185.

22 Hakan Wiberg, ‘Societal Security and the Explosion of Yugoslavia’, in Waever et al., Identity, Migration, ch. 5, pp. 93–109.

23 Ibid., pp. 99, 101,98.

24 Ibid., p. 105.

25 Ibid., p. 106.

26 Ibid., p. 108.

27 Though the authors raise the question, ‘When (if ever) can national identity be replaced by another identity?’ (p. 28), the only discussion of this possibility concerns the overlaying of a European on a national identity. Ibid., ch. 4; see also Buzan et at., European Security Order, pp. 36ff.

28 Waever et al., Identity, Migration, pp. 187–9.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid., p. 188.

31 See the discussion of personal freedom, from which this analogy is drawn, in Hollis, Martin, Invitation to Philosophy (Oxford, 1989), pp. 138ffGoogle Scholar.

32 Waever et al., Identity, Migration, p. 21.

33 Berger, Peter and Luckmann, Thomas, Social Construction of Reality, Pt 2 (London, 1969)Google Scholar,

34 Buzan, People, States and Fear, ch. 2.

35 While security-complex analysis is adopted in Waever et al., Identity, Migration, ch. 7 on ‘Europe and the Middle East’, it is not integrated with the identity concerns of the book. As with Wiberg's discussion of Yugoslavia, ch. 7 imposes an ‘identity’ relevance on an essentially traditional security discussion.

36 Waever et al., Identity, Migration, p. 24.

37 Smith, ‘Mature Anarchy’.

38 Buzan, People, States and Fear, pp. 374ff.