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Passive revolution: a universal concept with geographical seats

  • Chris Hesketh (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

In this article, I argue that Antonio Gramsci’s concept of passive revolution makes a foundational contribution to International Relations (IR), yet has been relatively under appreciated by the broader discipline. Within the Historical Sociology of International Relations, uneven and combined development has recently been postulated as a key trans-historical law that provides a social theory of the ‘international’. Drawing from, but moving beyond these debates, I will argue that passive revolution is a key conditioning factor of capitalist modernity. I will demonstrate how the concept of passive revolution is the element that explains the connection between the universal process of uneven development and the manner in which specific combinations occur within the capitalist era as geopolitical pressures, in tandem with domestic social forces become internalised into geographically specific state forms. It therefore offers a corrective to the frequently aspatial view that is found in much of the literature in IR regarding uneven and combined development. Additionally, passive revolution provides a more politicised understanding of the present as well as an important theoretical lesson in relation to what needs to be done to affect alternative trajectories of development.

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* Correspondence to: Chris Hesketh, Oxford Brookes University, Department of Social Sciences, 422a Gibbs Building, Gipsy Lane, Oxford, OX3 0BP. Author’s email: chesketh@brookes.ac.uk
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1 Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, trans. and ed. Quentin Hoare and Graham Nowell-Smith (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1971), p. 117, Q10II§61. I have followed the international standard for referring to Gramsci’s work using the notebook (Q) as well as the note number (§). The concordance table for this can be found of the International Gramsci Society website, available at: {http://www.internationalgramscisociety.org}.

2 IvesPeter and ShortNicola, ‘On Gramsci and the international: a textual analysis’, Review of International Studies, 39:3 (2013), p. 638 .

3 HallidayFred, Rethinking International Relations (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1994), pp. 127128 .

4 GermainRandall D. and KennyMichael, ‘Engaging Gramsci: International Relations theory and the new Gramscians’, Review of International Studies, 24:1 (1998), pp. 321 ; SaurinJulian, ‘The formation of neo-Gramscians in international relations and international political economy: Neither Gramsci nor Marx’, in Alison J. Ayers (ed.), Gramsci, Political Economy, and International Relations Theory: Modern Princes and Naked Emperors (New York: Palgrave, 2008).

5 CoxRobert, ‘Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: an essay in method’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 12:2 (1983), pp. 162175 ; Ives and Short, ‘On Gramsci and the international’; MortonAdam D., ‘Waiting for Gramsci: State formation, passive revolution and the international’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 35:3 (2007), pp. 597621 .

6 MortonAdam D., ‘The continuum of passive revolution’, Capital & Class, 34:3 (2010), p. 321 .

7 GramsciAntonio, Prison Notebooks, Volume II, ed. Joseph Buttigieg (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), p. 233 , Q4§60. One such effort to make the concept become a part of popular culture has come from Enrique Semo, interviewed in Mexican national newspaper La Jornada, see Ericka Montaña Garfias, ‘México vive una revolución pasiva, asegura Enrique Semo’, La Jornada (23 November 2014).

8 HobsonJohn, ‘What is at stake in the neo-Trostkyist debate? Towards a non-Eurocentric historical sociology of uneven and combined development’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 40:1 (2011), p. 141 .

9 BurawoyMichael, ‘Two methods in search of science’, Theory and Society, 18:6 (1989), p. 793 . I am indebted to Adam D. Morton for drawing my attention to this quote.

10 See also MortonAdam D., Revolution and the State in Modern Mexico: The Political Economy of Uneven Development (Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011), p. 4 .

11 WoodEllen Meiksins, ‘Modernity, postmodernity or capitalism?’, Review of International Political Economy, 4:3 (2007), pp. 539560 .

12 BurnsTony, ‘Capitalism, modernity and the nation state: a critique of Hannes Lacher’, Capital & Class, 34:2 (2002), pp. 246 , 250.

13 ThomasPeter, The Gramscian Moment: Philosophy, Hegemony and Marxism (London: Brill, 2009), pp. 155157 .

14 Halliday, Rethinking International Relations, p. 38; LyotardJean-François, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984).

15 CallinicosAlex, Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge: Polity, 2009), p. 6 ; MatinKamran, ‘Redeeming the universal: Postcolonialism and the inner life of Eurocentrism’, European Journal of International Relations, 19:2 (2013), pp. 353377 .

16 Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, the Cultural logic of Late Capitalism (London: Duke University Press). Drawing from Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition, invoked language games to demonstrate how different social situations acquire their own rules and intelligibility that are not transferable to other situations. However, this is to ignore the fact that we still require the over-arching knowledge of what a language game is to understand such micro-situations.

17 RosenbergJustin, ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky: Anarchy in the mirror of uneven and combined development’, International Politics, 50:2 (2013a), p. 194 .

18 RosenbergJustin, ‘The philosophical premises of uneven and combined development’, Review of International Studies, 39:03 (2013b), p. 575 .

19 Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition; Michel Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writing 1972–77, ed. Colin Gordon (New York: Pantheon Books, 1980).

20 Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks, Volume I, ed. Joseph Buttigieg (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992), pp. 128–9, Q1§43.

21 Matin, ‘Redeeming the universal’, p. 354; ShilliamRobbie, ‘The Atlantic as a vector of uneven and combined development’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1 (2009), pp. 6988 ; TanselCemal Burak, ‘Deafening silence? Marxism, international historical sociology and the spectre of Eurocentrism’, European Journal of International Relations, 21:1 (2015), p. 78 .

22 MortonAdam D., Unravelling Gramsci: Hegemony and Passive Revolution in the Global Political Economy (London: Pluto Press, 2007), pp. 4950 .

23 John Hobson, The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

24 McMichaelPhillip, ‘Incorporating comparison within a world-historical perspective: an alternative comparative method’, American Sociological Review, 55:3 (1990), pp. 385397 ; Morton, ‘Waiting for Gramsci’, p. 618.

25 Ibid., p. 386.

26 McMichaelPhillip, ‘World-systems analysis, globalization and incorporated comparison’, Journal of World Systems Research, 3 (2000), p. 671 . This partially serves as an answer to Hobson’s question (‘What is at stake in the neo-Trostkyist debate?’) about what is added in discussions of the international in these new debates that cannot be provided by previous World System’s analysis (as the latter do indeed take countries and regions as fixed units of analysis as well as the world system itself).

27 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 192, Q1§30.

28 Matin, ‘Redeeming the universal’, p. 355.

29 Gramsci, Prison Notebooks I, p. 128, Q1§43.

30 Alex Callinicos, ‘The limits of passive revolution’, Capital and Class, 34:3 (2010), p. 505.

31 SmithNeil, ‘The geography of uneven development’, in Bill Dunn and Hugo Radice (eds), 100 Years of Permanent Revolution (London: Pluto, 2006), p. 182 .

32 SassoonAnne Showstack, Gramsci’s Politics (London: Croom Helm, 1980), p. 205 .

33 Hobson, ‘What is at stake’.

34 TrotskyLeon, The Permanent Revolution and Results and Prospects (London: New Park, 1962); TrotskyLeon, The History of the Russian Revolution (London: Pluto Press, 1985); RosenbergJustinWhy is there no international historical sociology?’, European Journal of International Relations, 12:3 (2006), pp. 307340 ; RosenbergJustin, ‘Basic problems in the theory of uneven and combined development: Part II unevenness and political multiplicity’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 23:1 (2010), pp. 165189 ; Rosenberg, ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky’; Rosenberg, ‘Philosophical premises’.

35 CallinicosAlex, ‘Does capitalism need the state system?’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20:4 (2007), pp. 533549 ; KielymRay, ‘Spatial hierarchy and/or contemporary geopolitics: What can and can’t uneven and combined development explain?’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 25:2 (2013), pp. 231248 ; Hannes Lacher, Beyond Globalization: Capitalism, Territoriality and the International Relations of Modernity (London: Routledge, 2006); Benno Teschke, The Myth of 1648: Geopolitics, and the Making of Modern International Relations (London: Verso, 2003).

36 AnievasAlexander, ‘1914 in world historical perspective: the “uneven” and “combined” origins of World War I’, European Journal of International Relations, 19:4 (2013), pp. 721746 ; GreenJeremy, ‘Uneven and combined development and the Anglo-German prelude to World War I’, European Journal of International Relations, 18:2 (2012), pp. 345368 ; Rosenberg, ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky’.

37 Jamie Allinson, The Struggle for the State in Jordan: The Social Origins of Alliances in the Middle East (London: I. B. Tauris, 2015); Kamran Matin, ‘Uneven and combined development in world history: the international relations of state-formation in premodern Iran’, European Journal of International Relations, 13:3 (2007), pp. 419–47; Adam D. Morton, ‘Reflections on uneven development: Mexican Revolution, primitive accumulation, passive revolution’, Latin American Perspectives, 37:1 (2010), pp. 7–34.

38 BielerAndreas, ‘The EU, global Europe and processes of uneven and combined development: the problem of transnational labour solidarity’, Review of International Studies, 39:1 (2013), pp. 161183 .

39 Rosenberg, ‘Basic problems’. International is defined here as the as the ‘dimension of social reality which arises specifically from the coexistence within it of more than one society’. See Rosenberg, ‘Why is there no international historical sociology?’, p. 308.

40 TeschkeBenno, ‘Advances and impasses in Fred Halliday’s international historical sociology: a critical appraisal’, International Affairs, 87:5 (2011), pp. 10871106 .

41 Rosenberg, ‘Why is there no international historical sociology?’, p. 327.

42 Rosenberg, ‘Philosophical premises’, p. 570; WolfEric, Europe and the People Without History (London: University of California Press, 1997).

43 Rosenberg, ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky’, p. 184; Rosenberg, ‘Philosophical premises’, p. 570.

44 CallinicosAlex and RosenbergJustin, ‘Uneven and combined development: the social-relational substratum of “the international”? An exchange of letters’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21:1 (2008), p. 85 .

45 Hobson, ‘What is at stake’; Rosenberg, ‘Basic problems’; Rosenberg, ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky’.

46 Kiely, ‘Spatial hierarchy’, p. 237; RiouxSébastien, ‘Mind the (theoretical) gap: On the poverty of International Relations theorising of uneven and combined development’, Global Society, 29:4 (2015), p. 485 .

47 Callinicos and Rosenberg, ‘Uneven and combined development’, pp. 82–3.

48 AshmanSam, ‘Capitalism, uneven and combined development and the transhistoric’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1 (2009), pp. 2946 ; AllinsonJamie and AnievasAlexander, ‘The uses and misuses of uneven and combined development: an anatomy of a concept’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1 (2009), pp. 4767 ; DavidsonNeil, ‘Putting the nation back into “the international”’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:1 (2009), pp. 928 .

49 Hobson, ‘What is at stake’; Matin ‘Redeeming the universal’; Rosenberg, ‘Basic problems’, Rosenberg, ‘Kenneth Waltz and Leon Trotsky’; Rosenberg ‘Philosophical premises’.

50 Kees van der Pijl, ‘The uneven and combined development of International Historical Sociology’, in Radika Desai (ed.), Theoretical Engagements in Geopolitical Economy, Volume 30a (Bingley: Emerald Group, 2015), p. 60.

51 Rioux, ‘Mind the (theoretical) gap’, p. 499.

52 Rosenberg, ‘Philosophical premises’, p. 586.

53 Van der Pijl, ‘Uneven and combined development’, p. 47 takes issue with this mode of inquiry and claims that: ‘A Marxist critique must always relate to the present.’

54 Callinicos and Rosenberg, ‘Uneven and combined development’, p. 94.

55 Neil Smith, Uneven Development: Nature, Capital and the Production of Space (3rd edn, London: Verso, 2010), p. 135.

56 BanajiJairus, Theory as History: Essays on Modes of Production and Exploitation (Chicago: Haymarket, 2011), p. 54 .

57 BruffIan, ‘European varieties of capitalism and the international’, European Journal of International Relations, 16:4 (2010), pp. 615638 . For further evidence of this point, one can observe the concerns evident in the latest publication on U&CD, which remain overwhelmingly historical in nature, for example, Alexander Anievas and Kerem Nişancıoğlu, How the West Came to Rule (London: Pluto Press, 2015); Alexander Anievas and Kamran Matin, Historical Sociology and World History: Uneven and Combined Development over the Longue Durée (London: Roman and Littlefield International, 2016).

58 Neil Smith, ‘The geography of uneven development’, pp. 181–4.

59 Van der Pijl, ‘Uneven and combined development’, pp. 69–70.

60 Rosenberg, ‘Philosophical premises’, pp. 581–2.

61 Rioux, ‘Mind the (theoretical) gap’, p. 484.

62 HeskethChris and MortonAdam D., ‘Spaces of uneven development and class struggle in Bolivia: Transformation or trasformismo?’, Antipode, 46:1 (2014), pp. 149169 .

63 BrennerNeil, New State Spaces: Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); see also HeskethChris, ‘From passive revolution to silent revolution: Class forces and the production of state, space and scale in modern Mexico’, Capital & Class, 34:3 (2010), pp. 383407 .

64 LefebvreHenri, The Production of Space, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990), p. 129 .

65 Callincos and Rosenberg, ‘Uneven and combined development’, p. 86.

66 We can trace precisely the chronology of how Gramsci developed his thought on this concept in the Prison Notebooks. Passive revolution is initially invoked by Gramsci when he refers to a ‘revolution without revolution’ in Q1§44 (written between 1929–30). The specific term passive revolution was added by Gramsci at a later date in the margins to this entry. In Q4§57 (written between 1930–2) Gramsci goes on to make reference to cases of passive revolution beyond Italy, where the same characteristic of modernising the state through reform, but without the same political revolution that France experienced, can be observed. The concept is developed further by drawing from Edgar Quinet’s phrasing of ‘revolution-restoration’ in Q8§25 (1930–2), which is conjoined to Vincenzo Cuoco’s term ‘passive revolution’ that Gramsci had appropriated. This notion of revolution-restoration as a process led from above is further expanded across Q10I§9 (1932–3) to apply to the history of Europe following the French Revolution. In this same notebook and note, the significance of passive revolution for interpreting Fascism in Italy is discussed and the possibility of using the term to apply to broader European state formation linked to Americanism and Fordism is hinted at. The latter application of passive revolution is first suggestively written about in Q3§11 (1930), but expanded far more in 1934 in Q22§1–15.

67 Morton ‘Continuum’, p. 319.

68 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 59, Q19§24; JessopBob, State Theory: Putting Capitalist States in their Place (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990), p. 213 .

69 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 219, Q13§27.

70 ThomasPeter, ‘Modernity as “passive revolution”: Gramsci and the fundamental concepts of historical materialism’, Journal of the Canadian Historical Association/Revue de la Société historique du Canada, 17:2 (2006), p. 72 .

71 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, pp. 105–6, Q15§59.

72 Gramsci, Prison Notebooks II, p. 232, Q4 §57; Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks III, ed. Joseph Buttigieg (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), p. 60, Q6§78.

73 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 115, Q10II §61.

74 Gramsci, Prison Notebooks II, p. 180, Q4§38, emphasis added.

75 Morton, Unravelling Gramsci, p. 63.

76 Gramsci, Prison Notebooks III, p. 60, Q6§78, emphasis added.

77 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, pp. 84–5, Q19§28.

78 Antonio Gramsci, ‘Some aspects of the southern question’, in Selections from Political Writings (1921–1926), trans. and ed. Quentin Hoare (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1978); Gramsci, Prison Notebooks I, p. 143, Q1§44.

79 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 90, Q19§28.

80 Sassoon, Gramsci’s Politics, p. 207.

81 JessopBob, ‘Gramsci as a spatial theorist’, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 8:4 (2005), pp. 421437 ; KipferStefan, ‘City, country, hegemony: Antonio Gramsci’s spatial historicism’, in Michael Ekers, Gillian Hart, Stefan Kipfer, and Alex Loftus (eds), Gramsci Space, Nature, Politics (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2013), p. 85 .

82 Morton, ‘Waiting for Gramsci’, p. 612.

83 Gramsci, Prison Notebooks II, p. 232, Q4§57.

84 Thomas, ‘Modernity as “passive revolution”’, p. 72.

85 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, pp. 118–20, Q10I§9.

86 BruffIan, ‘Germany’s Agenda 2010 reforms: Passive revolution at the crossroads’, Capital & Class, 34:3 (2010), p. 411 .

87 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, pp. 277– 318, Q22§1–15.

88 Thomas, ‘Modernity as “passive revolution”’, p. 73.

89 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 58, Q19§24.

90 Ibid., pp. 106–8, Q15§59, 17.

91 Ibid., pp. 108–9, Q15§11.

92 Ibid., p. 118, Q10I§9.

93 Morton, Unravelling Gramsci, pp. 18, 34.

94 Morton, ‘Continuum’, p. 330.

95 Kipfer, ‘City, country, hegemony’, p. 86.

96 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 115, Q10II§61.

97 SkocpolTheda and KestenbaumMeyer, ‘Mars unshackled: the French Revolution in world-historical perspective’, in Ferenc Fehér (ed.), The French Revolution and the Birth of Modernity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990).

98 Chase-DunnChristopher, ‘Globalization: a world-systems perspective’, Journal of World-Systems Research, 5:2 (1999), p. 204 .

99 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 311, Q22§13.

100 Ibid., p. 119, Q10I§9.

101 Ibid., p. 120, Q10I§9.

102 Ibid., p. 107, Q15§17.

103 ChatterjeePartha, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse (London: Zed Books, 1986), p. 50 ; Morton, Revolution and the State, p. 243.

104 Chatterjee, Nationalist Thought, p. 51.

105 MallonFlorencia, Peasant and Nation: The Making of Postcolonial Mexico and Peru (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).

106 Morton, ‘Continuum’, p. 332.

107 See also MunckRonaldo, Rethinking Latin America: Development, Hegemony, and Social Transformation (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

108 Robert Cox, ‘Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations’, p. 167.

109 Henrique Cardoso and Enzo Faletto, Dependency and Development in Latin America, trans. Marjory M. Uruidi (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).

110 James Malloy, ‘Authoritarianism and corporatism in Latin America: the modal pattern’, in James Malloy (ed.), Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America (London: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977), pp. 3–19.

111 Andrew Glyn, Alan Hughes, Alain Lipietz, and Ajit Singh, ‘The rise and fall of the Golden Age’, in Stephen Marglin and Juliet Schor (eds), The Golden Age of Capitalism: Reinterpreting the Postwar Experience (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000), p. 56.

112 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, pp. 116–17, Q10II§61, emphasis added.

113 Guillermo O’Donnell, ‘Corporatism and the question of the state’, in James Malloy (ed.), Authoritarianism and Corporatism, pp. 44–87; Munck, Rethinking Latin America, p. 87.

114 CastañedaJorge, Utopia Unarmed: The Latin American Left After the Cold War (New York: Vintage Books, 1993), pp. 5189 .

115 O’Donnell, ‘Corporatism’, p. 62.

116 OxhornPhillip, ‘From controlled inclusion to coerced marginalization’, in John Hall (ed.), Civil Society: Theory, History, Comparison (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1995).

117 Hesketh, ‘From passive revolution’; MortonAdam D., ‘Structural change and neoliberalism in Mexico: “passive revolution” in the global political economy’, Third World Quarterly, 24:4 (2003), pp. 631653 ; Morton, ‘Reflections on uneven development’; Morton, Revolution and the State.

118 Hesketh and Morton, ‘Spaces of uneven development’; Luis Tapia, El Estado de Derecho como Tiranía (La Paz: CIDES/UMSA, 2011).

119 RoioMarcos del, ‘Translating passive revolution in Brazil’, Capital & Class, 36:2 (2012), pp. 215234 ; RobertsPhillip, ‘Passive revolution in Brazil: Struggles over hegemony, religion and development 1964–2007’, Third World Quarterly, 36:9 (2015), pp. 16631681 .

120 MottaSara, ‘The Chilean Socialist Party (PSCh): Constructing consent and disarticulating dissent to neo-liberal hegemony in Chile’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 10:2 (2008), pp. 303327 .

121 Massimo Modonesi, ‘Revoluciones pasivas en América Latina: una aproximación gramsciana a la caracterización de los gobiernos progresistas de inicio de siglo’, in M. Modonesi (ed.), Horizontes Gramscianos: Estudios en torno al pensamiento de Antonio Gramsci (México DF: UNAM, 2013).

122 BohleDorothee, ‘Neoliberal hegemony, transnational capital and the terms of the EU’s eastward expansion’, Capital & Class, 30:1 (2006), pp. 5786 ; ShieldsStuart, ‘Historicizing transition: the Polish political economy in a period of global structural change – Eastern Central Europe’s passive revolution?’, International Politics, 43:4 (2006), pp. 474499 ; SimonRick, ‘Passive revolution, perestroika, and the emergence of the new Russia’, Capital & Class, 34:3 (2010), pp. 429448 .

123 TugalCihan, Passive Revolution: Absorbing the Islamic Challenge to Capitalism (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009).

124 AllinsonJamie and AnievasAlexander, ‘The uneven and combined development of the Meiji Restoration: a passive revolutionary road to capitalist modernity’, Capital & Class, 34:3 (2010), pp. 469490 ; GrayKevin, ‘Labour and the state in China’s passive revolution’, Capital & Class, 34:3 (2010), pp. 449467 .

125 AbrahamsenRita, ‘The victory of popular forces or passive revolution? A neo-Gramscian perspective on democratisation’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 35:1 (1997), pp. 129152 ; Gillian Hart, Rethinking the South African Crisis: Nationalism, Populism, Hegemony (London: University of Georgia Press, 2014); NashFiona, ‘Participation and passive revolution: the reproduction of neoliberal water governance mechanisms in Durban, South Africa’, Antipode, 45:1 (2015), pp. 101120 ; BrooksAndrew and LoftusAlex, ‘Africa’s passive revolution: crisis in Malawi’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 41:3 (2016), pp. 258272 .

126 BruffIan, ‘The rise of authoritarian neoliberalism’, Rethinking Marxism, 26:1 (2014), pp. 113129 .

127 John Plender, ‘The return of the state: how government is back at the heart of economic life’, Financial Times (21 August 2008).

128 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 184.

129 HeskethChris, ‘Producing state space in Chiapas: Passive revolution and everyday life’, Critical Sociology, 42:2 (2016), pp. 211228 .

130 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, pp. 67–8, Q19§24, 119–20, Q10I§9; see also Hesketh and Morton, ‘Spaces of uneven development’, for a discussion of Bolivia along a similar line.

131 Morton, Revolution and the State, p. 239, emphasis added.

132 Van der Pijl, Uneven and combined development’, p. 72.

133 Wolf, Europe and the People.

134 Thomas, ‘Modernity as “passive revolution”’, p. 75.

135 Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, p. 114, Q15§62.

136 Morton, Unravelling Gramsci, pp. 191, 197; Sassoon, Gramsci’s Politics, p. 216.

137 GillStephen, Power and Resistance in the New World Order (2nd edn, Basinstoke: Palgrave, 2008), p. 58 .

138 Sassoon, Gramsci’s Politics, p. 204.

139 MarxKarl, ‘Critique of the Gotha Programme’, in David McLellan (ed.), Karl Marx: Selected Writings (2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); LeninVladamir Ilyich, ‘The state and revolution’, in Henry M. Christman (ed.), Essential Works of Lenin (New York: Dover Publications 1987), p. 301 .

140 LefebvreHenri, The Survival of Capitalism: Reproduction of the Relations of Production, trans. Frank Bryant (London: Allison and Busby, 1976), p. 125 .

141 Henri Lefebvre ‘Space and state’, in Neil Brenner, Bob Jessop, Martin Jones, and Gordon Macloed (eds), State/Space: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003), p. 96, emphases added.

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