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Pouvoir, puissance, and politics: Hans Morgenthau's dualistic concept of power?

  • FELIX RÖSCH
Abstract

Hans Morgenthau's concept of power is widely debated among scholars of International Relations. Superficial accounts present Morgenthau's concept of power in the Hobbesian tradition as a means of self-preservation; however, more thorough investigations demonstrate Morgenthau's psychogenic and praxeological understanding. By referring to Sigmund Freud and Max Weber, such accounts identify Morgenthauian power as the ability to dominate others. This article contributes to this discourse by demonstrating that Morgenthau separated power into two dualistic conceptualisations. Although analytically Morgenthau worked with a concept of power understood as domination, normatively – in reference to Friedrich Nietzsche and Hannah Arendt – he promoted a concept of power that focused on the will and ability to act together. Elaborating this dualistic concept has wider implications for current International Relations because it reminds scholars to be self-reflexive. In addition, it is argued that a Morgenthauian scholarship helps scholars to gain a more profound understanding of depoliticising tendencies in Western democracies.

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1 Morgenthau, Hans J., ‘Reflections on the State of Political Science’, Review of Politics, 17:4 (1955), p. 434 and Politics in the Twentieth Century. Volume I. The Decline of Democratic Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), p. 19.

2 Hoffmann, Stanley, ‘An American Social Science: International Relations’, Daedalus, 106 (1977), p. 44; Fromkin, David, ‘Remembering Hans Morgenthau’, World Policy Journal, 10:3 (1993), p. 81; and Art, Robert J., ‘Hans J. Morgenthau: The Visionary Realist’, in Hacke, Christianet al. (eds), The Heritage, Challenge and Future of Realism: in Memoriam Hans J. Morgenthau (1904–1980) (Göttingen: V & R, 2005), p. 77.

3 See, for example, Wasserman, Benno, ‘The Scientific Pretensions of Professor Morgenthau's Theory of Power Politics’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 13:1 (1959).

4 Pichler, Hans-Karl, ‘The Godfathers of “Truth”: Max Weber and Carl Schmitt in Morgenthau's Theory of Power Politics’, Review of International Studies, 24:2 (1998); Williams, Michael C., The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Turner, Stephen P., ‘Hans J. Morgenthau and the Legacy of Max Weber’, in Bell, Duncan (ed.), Political Thought and International Relations. Variations on a Realist Theme (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); and Turner, Stephen and Mazur, George, ‘Morgenthau as a Weberian Methodologist’, European Journal of International Relations, 15:3 (2009).

5 Petersen, Ulrik Enemark, ‘Breathing Nietzsche's Air: Morgenthau's Concepts of Power and Human Nature’, Alternatives, 24:1 (1999); Frei, Christoph, Hans J. Morgenthau. An Intellectual Biography (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001); and Neacsu, Mihaela, Hans J. Morgenthau's Theory of International Relations: Disenchantment and Re-enchantment (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).

6 Schuett, Robert, ‘Freudian Roots of Political Realism: the Importance of Sigmund Freud to Hans J. Morgenthau's Theory of International Power Politics’, History of the Human Sciences, 20:4 (2007). Schuett, repeats this argument in his recent monograph: Political Realism, Freud, and Human Nature in International Relations. The Resurrection of the Realist Man (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).

7 Turner and Mazur interpreted Morgenthau's mentioning of Standortgebundenheit to be referring to Weber. However, the concept of Standortgebundenheit was introduced by Karl Mannheim to German sociology. See Turner and Mazur, ‘Morgenthau as a Weberian Methodologist’, pp. 487–8.

8 In an early manuscript Morgenthau called power to be of ‘durchgehende[r] Geistigkeit’ (absolute intellectuality). Hans J. Morgenthau, ‘Über die Herkunft des Politischen aus dem Wesen des Menschen’, 1930 (Container 151, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC), p. 43.

9 Morgenthau, Hans J., Scientific Man vs. Power Politics (London: Latimer House, 1947), p. 153.

10 Morgenthau, ‘Über die Herkunft des Politischen aus dem Wesen des Menschen’, p. 9; La Notion du ‘Politique’ et la Théorie des Différends Internationaux (Paris: Recueil Sirey, 1933); and ‘Über den Sinn der Wissenschaft in dieser Zeit und über die Bestimmung des Menschen’, 1934 (Container 151, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC), p. 33. There is no evidence why Morgenthau only negligently defined his concept of power in his English writings. One explanation might be that the term ‘power' in English entails empirical and normative components as power can be used to describe any human effort to achieve a specific end. In German and French, power is more narrowly defined. See Geuss, Raymond, Philosophy and Real Politics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008), p. 27.

11 This manuscript was Morgenthau's first attempt to further conceptualise the political; a study which he had announced in his doctoral thesis the year before (See Morgenthau, Hans J., Die internationale Rechtspflege, ihr Wesen und ihre Grenzen (Leipzig: Robert Noske, (1929), p. 72). Morgenthau provided a more substantial elaboration with La notion du ‘Politique’ in 1933. The English translation of this book was recently published and I will refer to this translation throughout the rest of the article: Morgenthau, Hans J., The Concept of the Political, ed. Behr, Hartmut and Rösch, Felix (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

12 Morgenthau, ‘Über die Herkunft des Politischen aus dem Wesen des Menschen’, p. 5, author's translation.

13 Ibid., p. 15.

14 Gay, Peter, Freud. A Life of our Time (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1988); Scheuerman, William E., ‘Realism and the Left: the Case of Hans J. Morgenthau’, Review of International Studies, 34:1 (2008).

15 Container 151, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

16 Schuett, ‘Freudian Roots of Political Realism’, p. 59.

17 Morgenthau, Hans J., ‘Fragment of an Intellectual Autobiography: 1904–1932’, in Thompson, Kenneth W. and Myers, Robert J. (eds), Truth and Tragedy. A Tribute to Hans J. Morgenthau (New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1984), p. 14.

18 Freud, Sigmund, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Volume XXI. The Future of an Illusion. Civilization and its Discontents and Other Works (London: Hogarth Press, 1961), p. 117.

19 Morgenthau, ‘Über die Herkunft des Politischen aus dem Wesen des Menschen’, pp. 5–6, author's translation. Similar: Schuett, ‘Freudian Roots of Political Realism’, p. 59.

20 Morgenthau, Scientific Man vs. Power Politics, p. 165.

21 For a detailed discussion of the relation between love and power, see Solomon, Ty, ‘Human Nature and the Limits of the Self: Hans Morgenthau on Love and Power’, International Studies Review, 14:2 (2012).

22 Examples are Ringmar, Erik, Identity, Interest and Action. A Cultural Explanation of Sweden's Intervention in the Thirty Years War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 50; and Forndran, Erhard, ‘Grenzen des Realismus. Zu Erklärungsversuchen internationaler Beziehungen. Teil II: Zur Reichweite realistischer Argumentation’, Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft, 7:1 (1997).

23 See, for example, Good, Robert C., ‘The National Interest and Political Realism: Niebuhr's “Debate” with Morgenthau and Kennan’, Journal of Politics, 22:4 (1960), p. 612; Murray, A.J.H., ‘The Moral Politics of Hans Morgenthau’, Review of Politics, 59:1 (1996), p. 84; Frei, Hans J. Morgenthau, p. 127; Williams, Michael C., ‘Why Ideas Matter in International Relations: Hans Morgenthau, Classical Realism, and the Moral Construction of Power Politics’, International Organization, 58:4 (2004), p. 634; Miyashita, Yutaka, ‘From International Law to International Morality, or was Hans J. Morgenthau a Realist before the Exile?’, Bulletin of Niigata University of International and Information Studies, 12 (2009), pp. 134–5; and Molloy, Seán, ‘Hans J. Morgenthau Versus E. H. Carr: Conflicting Conceptions of Ethics in Realism’, in Bell, Duncan (ed.), Political Thought and International Relations. Variations on a Realist Theme (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 97101.

24 Morgenthau, Hans J., ‘Dilemmas of Politics’, International Affairs, 35:4 (1959), p. 502.

25 Morgenthau, ‘Über die Herkunft des Politischen aus dem Wesen des Menschen’, p. 6, author's translation.

26 Ibid., pp. 26–7.

27 Ibid., pp. 31–2.

28 Morgenthau, Hans J., Science: Servant or Master? (New York: New American Library, 1972), p. 31.

29 Lebow, Richard Ned, The Tragic Vision of Politics. Ethics, Interests, and Orders (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), ch. 6 and Tragedy, Politics and Political Science’, in Lebow, Richard Ned and Erskine, Toni (eds), Tragedy and International Relations (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012). Also other scholars suggest this aspect; see, for example, Chou, Mark, ‘Morgenthau, the Tragic. On Tragedy and the Transition from Scientific Man to Politics Among Nations’, Telos, 157 (2011).

30 Morgenthau, ‘Über die Herkunft des Politischen aus dem Wesen des Menschen’, p. 70.

31 Morgenthau, Die internationale Rechtspflege, pp. 126–7, author's translation.

32 Ibid., p. 71; ‘The Evil of Politics and the Ethics of Evil’, Ethics, 56:1 (1945), p. 13; Scientific Man vs. Power Politics, p. 166.

33 Morgenthau, Die internationale Rechtspflege, pp. 75–7 and Freud, Civilization and its Discontents and Other Works, p. 117.

34 Morgenthau, Scientific Man vs. Power Politics, p. 165.

35 Morgenthau, Hans J., ‘Positivisme mal Compris et Théorie Réaliste du Droit International’, in Zavala, Silvio A. (ed.), Colección de Estudios Históricos, Jurídicos, Pedagógicos y Literarios : Homenaje a D. Rafael Altamira (Madrid: C. Bermejo, 1936), p. 5.

36 Hans J. Morgenthau, ‘Der Selbstmord mit gutem Gewissen. Zur Kritik des Pazifismus und der neuen deutschen Kriegsphilosophie’, 1930 (Container 96, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC); ‘Über den Sinn der Wissenschaft’; and Hans J. Morgenthau, ‘Kann in unserer Zeit eine objektive Moralordnung aufgestellt werden? Wenn ja, worauf kann sie gegründet werden? Kennwort: Metaphysik’, 1937 (Container 112, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC).

37 Rösch, Felix, ‘The Human Condition of Politics: Considering the Legacy of Hans J. Morgenthau for International Relations’, Journal of International Political Theory, 9:12 (2013).

38 Snyder, Jack, ‘Tensions with Realism: 1945 and after’, in Guilhot, Nicolas (ed.), The Invention of International Relations Theory. Realism, the Rockefeller Foundation and the 1954 Conference on Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), p. 58.

39 Morgenthau, Hans J., ‘The Social Crisis in America: Hedonism of Status Quo’, Chicago Review, 14:2 (1960). Equally: ‘Letter to Bryon Dobell’, 9 July 1968 (Container 43, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC).

40 Weber, Max, Economy and Society. An Outline of Interpretative Sociology. Volume I (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), p. 53.

41 Morgenthau, Hans J., Politics Among Nations. The Struggle for Power and Peace (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985), p. 32.

42 Morgenthau, Hans J., La Réalité des Normes. En particulier des Normes du Droit International. Fondement d'une Théorie des Normes (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1934). This point is also raised in: Molloy, Seán, ‘Realism: a Problematic Paradigm’, Security Dialogue, 34:1 (2003), p. 83.

43 Morgenthau, Hans J., Political Theory and International Affairs. Hans J. Morgenthau on Aristotle's The Politics, ed. Lang, Anthony F. Jr. (Westport: Praeger, 2004), p. 36.

44 Schuett, ‘Freudian Roots of Political Realism’, pp. 61–6; Scheuerman, William E., Hans Morgenthau. Realism and Beyond (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009), pp. 37–8. A critical discussion of this point is provided in Scheuerman, William E., The Realist Case for Global Reform (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2011), pp. 4953.

45 Morgenthau, ‘Der Selbstmord mit gutem Gewissen’.

46 Shilliam, Robbie, ‘Morgenthau in Context: German Backwardness, German Intellectuals and the Rise and Fall of a Liberal Project’, European Journal of International Relations, 13:3 (2007), p. 312.

47 Weber, Max, The Vocation Lectures. Science as a Vocation. Politics as a Vocation (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2004), p. 33.

48 Frei, Hans J. Morgenthau, p. 130 and Morgenthau, Die internationale Rechtspflege, p. 59.

49 Morgenthau, The Concept of the Political, p. 106.

50 Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations, p. 52.

51 Examples are Barkawi, Tarak, ‘Strategy as a Vocation: Weber, Morgenthau and Modern Strategic Studies’, Review of International Studies, 24:2 (1998); Pichler, ‘The Godfathers of “Truth”’; and Turner, ‘Hans J. Morgenthau and the Legacy of Max Weber’.

52 Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics in the Twentieth Century, p. 65.

53 Ibid., p. 69. See as well: Molloy, Seán, ‘Truth, Power, Theory: Hans Morgenthau's Formulation of Realism’, Diplomacy and Statecraft, 15:1 (2004), pp. 67.

54 Behr, Hartmut, A History of International Political Theory: Ontologies of the International (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), p. 215. More on Politics Among Nations: Molloy, Seán, The Hidden History of Realism. A Genealogy of Power Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006), pp. 82–5.

55 Politics Among Nations was only later transformed into a textbook because of the lack of textbooks on International Relations at that time, its unprecedented success, when numerous American colleges and universities adopted it as the textbook for their undergraduate courses on International Politics, and the insistence of Morgenthau's publisher Knopf. To adjust Politics Among Nations more to the requirements of a textbook the ‘Six Principles of Political Realism’ were added to the second edition. See the correspondence in Container 121, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

56 See, for example, Lebow, Richard Ned, ‘The Ancient Greeks and Modern Realism: Ethics, Persuasion and Power’, in Bell, Duncan (ed.), Political Thought and international Relations. Variations on a Realist Theme (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 37; Jütersonke, Oliver, Morgenthau, Law and Realism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 139; and Rengger, Nicholas, ‘Tragedy or Scepticism? Defending the Anti-Pelagian Mind in World Politics’, in Lebow, Richard Ned and Erskine, Toni (eds), Tragedy and International Relations (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), p. 57.

57 Hans J. Morgenthau, ‘Letter to Michael Oakeshott’, 22 May 1948 (Container 44, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC).

58 Hans J. Morgenthau, ‘Letter to Richard S. Cohen’, 4 October 1962 (Container 10, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC).

59 Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics in the Twentieth Century, p. 110.

60 Morgenthau, Hans J., ‘Power as a Political Concept’, in Young, Roland (ed.), Approaches to the Study of Politics (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1971), p. 75.

61 Solomon, ‘Human Nature and the Limits of the Self’, p. 211.

62 This optimism is also acknowledged in Lebow, Richard Ned's recent ‘German Jews and American Realism’, Constellations, 18:4 (2011).

63 Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth, Hannah Arendt. For Love of the World (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), p. 324.

64 Nietzsche, Friedrich, The Gay Science: With a Prelude in German Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 157.

65 Nietzsche, Friedrich, Thus Spoke Zarathustra. A Book for Everyone and No One (London: Penguin, 1969), p. 234.

66 Morgenthau, Scientific Man vs. Power Politics, p. 176.

67 Nietzsche, Friedrich, The Will to Power (New York: Vintage Books, 1968), p. 336.

68 Spinks, Lee, Friedrich Nietzsche (London: Routledge, 2003), p. 131.

69 Lukács, György, The Theory of the Novel: A Historic-Philosophical Essay on the Forms of Great Epic Literature (London: Merlin Press, 1963), p. 41.

70 Ontological security is understood here in Anthony Giddens's sense. Ideologies furnish people in their yearning to give meaning to the social world and establish their identity within it not only with the ontological framework that allows them to do so and thereby gain security, but there is also a reification of the ideology through social structures and institutions. Giddens, Anthony, The Constitution of Reality. Outline of the Theory of Structuration (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1984), p. 375.

71 Neacsu, Hans J. Morgenthau's Theory of International Relations, p. 99.

72 Morgenthau, Science: Servant or Master?, pp. 48–9.

73 Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, p. 111.

74 Ibid., pp. 84–6.

75 Morgenthau, ‘Letter to Bryon Dobell’.

76 Morgenthau, The Concept of the Political and ‘Einige logische Bemerkungen zu Carl Schmitt's Begriff des Politischen’, 1934–5 (Container 110, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC).

77 Morgenthau, Science: Servant or Master?, p. 144.

78 Ibid., pp. 144–5.

79 Frei, Christoph, Hans J. Morgenthau. Eine intellektuelle Biographie (Bern: Paul Haupt, 1994), p. 102.

80 Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, p. 85.

81 Morgenthau, The Concept of the Political, p. 106.

82 Morgenthau, Science: Servant or Master?, p. 146.

83 Simmel, Georg, Philosophie der Mode. Die Religion. Kant und Goethe. Schopenhauer und Nietzsche. Gesamtausgabe Band 10 (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1995), pp. 361–2 and Frei, Hans J. Morgenthau, p. 100.

84 Morgenthau, ‘Kann in unserer Zeit eine objektive Moralordnung aufgestellt werden?’, p. 88, author's translation.

85 Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt, p. xv.

86 Rohde, Christoph, Hans J. Morgenthau und der weltpolitische Realismus (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2004), p. 98.

87 Owens, Patricia, ‘The Ethic of Reality in Hannah Arendt’, in Bell, Duncan (ed.), Political Thought and international Relations. Variations on a Realist Theme (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

88 Klusmeyer, Douglas, ‘Hannah Arendt's Critical Realism: Power, Justice, and Responsibility’, in Lang, Anthony F. Jr. and Williams, John (eds), Hannah Arendt and International Relations (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005); ‘Beyond Tragedy: Hannah Arendt and Hans Morgenthau on Responsibility, Evil, and Political Ethics’, International Studies Review, 11 (2009).

89 Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt, pp. 424–5.

90 Arendt, Hannah, On Violence (Orlando: Harcourt, 1970), p. 44.

91 Ibid., p. 41.

92 Ibid., p. 51; Arendt, Hannah, Denken ohne Geländer. Texte und Briefe (Munich: Piper, 2005), pp. 92–3; Morgenthau, Die internationale Rechtspflege, p. 51; and The Concept of the Political, pp. 106–7. See as well: Williams, ‘Why Ideas Matter’, p. 645.

93 Hans J. Morgenthau, ‘But are they allowed to do that?’, Christian Science Monitor (19 July 1968), p. 9.

94 Rohde, Hans J. Morgenthau und der weltpolitische Realismus, p. 98; Owens, ‘The Ethic of Reality in Hannah Arendt’, p. 110.

95 Morgenthau, Political Theory and International Affairs, p. 30.

96 Ibid., p. 56.

97 Hans J. Morgenthau, ‘Letter to Edward Dew’, 22 August 1958 (Container 17, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC).

98 Morgenthau, Hans J., Human Rights and Foreign Policy (New York: Council on Religion and International Affairs, 1979), p. 25.

99 Another example for the flexibility of Morgenthau's concepts is his understanding of the national interest, as remarked in Lebow, The Tragic Vision of Politics, p. 245. This conceptual flexibility repeatedly caused academic discomfort and particularly Morgenthau's concept of power was criticised as not being scientific enough. See, for example, Keohane, Robert O., ‘Realism, Neorealism, and the Study of World Politics’, in Keohane, Robert O. (ed.), Neorealism and its Critics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), p. 10.

100 Morgenthau, Politics in the Twentieth Century, pp. 72–3.

101 Morgenthau, The Concept of the Political, pp. 123–6.

102 Morgenthau, Political Theory and International Affairs, p. 91.

103 Guilhot, Nicolas, ‘The Realist Gambit: Postwar American Political Science and the Birth of IR Theory’, International Political Sociology, 2:4 (2008).

104 Bain, William, ‘Deconfusing Morgenthau: Moral Inquiry and Classical Realism Reconsidered’, Review of International Studies, 26:3 (2000); Behr, Hartmut, ‘Misreading in International Relations Theory. Ideologiekritische Anmerkungen zum Realismus und Neo-Realismus’, Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft, 15:1 (2005); Behr, Hartmut and Heath, Amelia, ‘Misreading in IR Theory and Ideology Critique: Morgenthau, Waltz, and Neo-Realism’, Review of International Studies, 35:2 (2009).

105 This aspect is increasingly of interest for International Relations scholarship, as evidenced in Brown, Chris, ‘The “Practice Turn”, Phronesis, and Classical Realism: Towards a Phronetic International Political Theory’, Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 40:3 (2012); Solomon, ‘Human Nature and the Limits of the Self’; or Rösch, ‘The Human Condition of Politics’. Recently, also the Leverhulme Trust granted a research network with the intention to further examine this aspect: {http://research.ncl.ac.uk/classicalrealism}.

106 The latter is largely forgotten today in International Relations. However, there was a recent reassessment of his life and work. See Thümmler, Ellen, Katholischer Publizist und amerikanischer Politikwissenschaftler. Eine intellektuelle Biografie Waldemar Gurians (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2011).

107 Crouch, Colin, Post-Democracy (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004), ch. 1 and The Strange Non-Death of Neoliberalism (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2011), ch. 7.

108 Mouffe, Chantal, On the Political (London: Routledge, 2005), p. 12.

109 Examples are Council of Europe, White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue. ‘Living Together as Equals in Dignity’ (Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2008) and European Commission, Highlights of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue 2008 (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009).

110 Radtke, Frank-Olaf, Kulturen sprechen nicht. Die Politik grenzüberschreitender Dialoge (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2011), pp. 1225.

111 Morgenthau, The Concept of the Political, p. 126.

* I would like to thank Hartmut Behr, Peter Wadey, and the audience of the New Voices Seminar Series at the Newcastle University for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this article. I also would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive and engaging comments.

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