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‘#Refugees can be entrepreneurs too!’ Humanitarianism, race, and the marketing of Syrian refugees

  • Lewis Turner (a1)

Abstract

In the context of a greater focus on the politics of migration, the ‘refugee entrepreneur’ has become an increasingly important figure in humanitarian, media, and academic portrayals of refugees. Through a focus on Jordan's Za‘tari refugee camp, which has been deemed a showcase for refugees’ ‘entrepreneurship’, this article argues that the designation of Syrian refugees as ‘entrepreneurs’ is a positioning of Syrians within colonial hierarchies of race that pervade humanitarian work. For many humanitarian workers in Jordan, Syrians' ‘entrepreneurship’ distinguishes them from ‘African’ refugees, who are imagined as passive, impoverished, and dependent on humanitarian largesse. Without explicit racial comparisons, humanitarian agencies simultaneously market Syrian refugees online as ‘entrepreneurs’, to enable them to be perceived as closer to whiteness, and to thereby render them more acceptable to Western audiences and donors, who are imagined as white. This article extends scholarly understandings of the understudied relationship between race and humanitarianism. Furthermore, it asks critical questions about the political work and effects of vision of the ‘refugee entrepreneur’, which it locates within the context of the increasingly neoliberalised refugee regime. ‘Refugee entrepreneurs’ do not need political support and solidarity, but to be allowed to embrace the forces of free-market capitalism.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: lewis.turner@abi.uni-freiburg.de

References

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1 USA for UNHCR, ‘Did You Hear? @ZaatariCamp Is Now Serving Pizza! #Refugees Can Be Entrepreneurs Too!’, Twitter post, available at: {https://twitter.com/UNRefugeeAgency/status/571419549318434816} accessed 20 July 2018.

2 Duffield, Mark, ‘The liberal way of development and the development – security impasse: Exploring the global life-chance divide’, Security Dialogue, 41:1 (2010), pp. 5376; Duffield, Mark, ‘Challenging environments: Danger, resilience and the aid industry’, Security Dialogue, 43:5 (2012), pp. 475–92; Easton-Calabria, Evan and Omata, Naohiko, ‘Panacea for the refugee crisis? Rethinking the promotion of “self-reliance” for refugees’, Third World Quarterly, 39:8 (2018), pp. 1458–74; Ilcan, Suzan and Rygiel, Kim, ‘“Resiliency humanitarianism”: Responsibilizing refugees through humanitarian emergency governance in the camp’, International Political Sociology, 9:4 (2015), pp. 333–51; Scott-Smith, Tom, ‘Humanitarian neophilia: the “innovation turn” and its implications’, Third World Quarterly, 37:12 (2016), pp. 2229–51.

3 See Alexander Betts, Louise Bloom, and Naohiko Omata, ‘Humanitarian Innovation and Refugee Protection’, Working Paper Series (Oxford: Refugee Studies Centre, 2012).

4 Except when quoting others, I use the spelling Za‘tari, following the International Journal of Middle East Studies (IJMES) transliteration guidelines, while using a single quotation mark ‘ in place of the diactric ʿ. Other transliterations of Arabic conform to the IJMES style, except for diacritics, which are omitted.

5 Benton, Adia, ‘African expatriates and race in the anthropology of humanitarianism’, Critical African Studies, 8:3 (2016), p. 267.

6 Solomon, Ty and Steele, Brent J., ‘Micro-moves in International Relations theory’, European Journal of International Relations, 23:2 (2017), pp. 267–91.

7 Benton, Adia, ‘Risky business: Race, nonequivalence and the humanitarian politics of life’, Visual Anthropology, 29:2 (2016), p. 187.

8 Betts, Alexander, Bloom, Louise, and Weaver, Nina, ‘Refugee Innovation: Humanitarian Innovation That Starts with Communities’ (Oxford: Refugee Studies Centre, 2015).

9 Ilcan and Rygiel, ‘“Resiliency humanitarianism”’; see also Tobin, Sarah A. and Campbell, Madeline Otis, ‘NGO governance and Syrian refugee “subjects” in Jordan’, Middle East Report, 278 (2016), pp. 411.

10 See Easton-Calabria and Omata, ‘Panacea for the refugee crisis?’; Lippert, Randy, ‘Governing refugees: the relevance of governmentality to understanding the international refugee regime’, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 24:3 (1999), pp. 295328; Scott-Smith, ‘Humanitarian neophilia’.

11 Thompson, Debra, ‘Through, against and beyond the racial state: the transnational stratum of race’, in Anievas, Alexander, Manchanda, Nivi, and Shilliam, Robbie (eds), Race and Racism in International Relations: Confronting the Global Colour Line (Abingdon, Oxon and New York: Routledge, 2015), pp. 4461.

12 Solomon and Steele, ‘Micro-moves in International Relations theory’, pp. 267, 275.

13 Alexander Anievas, Nivi Manchanda, and Robbie Shilliam, ‘Confronting the global colour line: an introduction’, in Anievas, Manchanda, and Shilliam (eds), Race and Racism in International Relations, pp. 1–15; Grovogui, Siba N., ‘Come to Africa: a hermeneutics of race in international theory’, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 26:4 (2001), pp. 425–48; Vitalis, Robert, White World Order, Black Power Politics: The Birth of American International Relations (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2015). Henderson, Errol A., ‘Hidden in plain sight: Racism in International Relations theory’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26:1 (2013), pp. 7192.

14 Thompson, ‘Through, against and beyond the racial state’, p. 45.

15 Bell, Duncan, ‘Race and International Relations: Introduction’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26:1 (2013), p. 2.

16 Anievas, Manchanda, and Shilliam, ‘Confronting the global colour line’.

17 Bell, ‘Race and International Relations’; Jones, Branwen Gruffydd, ‘Race in the ontology of international order’, Political Studies, 56:4 (2008), pp. 907–27; Rutazibwa, Olivia Umurerwa, ‘From the everyday to IR: In defence of the strategic use of the R-word’, Postcolonial Studies, 19:2 (2016), pp. 191200; Sajed, Alina, ‘Fanon, Camus and the global colour line: Colonial difference and the rise of decolonial horizons’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26:1 (2013), pp. 526; Shilliam, Robbie, ‘Race and research agendas’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26:1 (2013), pp. 152–8. Similar arguments were of course made a long time ago within the discipline, although this work was often ignored and/or marginalised. See, for example, Du Bois, W. E. B., ‘Worlds of color’, Foreign Affairs, 3:3 (1925), pp. 423–44.

18 Wolfe, Patrick, Traces of History: Elementary Structures of Race (London and New York: Verso, 2016), pp. 4, 10.

19 Ibid., p. 2.

20 Prominent examples of such scholarship include Bhattacharyya, Gargi, Rethinking Racial Capitalism: Questions of Reproduction and Survival (London and Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2018); Davis, Angela, Women, Race, & Class (New York: Vintage, 1983); Johnson, Walter, ‘To remake the world: Slavery, racial capitalism, and justice’, Boston Review Forum, 1 (2017), pp. 1131; Robinson, Cedric, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000); Wekker, Gloria, White Innocence: Paradoxes of Colonialism and Race (Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2016); Wilderson, Frank B. III, Red, White & Black: Cinema and the Structure of U.S. Antagonisms (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010).

21 Benton, ‘Risky business’, p. 190.

22 Benton, ‘African expatriates and race in the anthropology of humanitarianism’; Benton, ‘Risky business’; Daley, Patricia, ‘Rescuing African bodies: Celebrities, consumerism and neoliberal humanitarianism’, Review of African Political Economy, 40:137 (2013), pp. 375–93; Mason, Corinne Lysandra, ‘Tinder and humanitarian hook-ups: the erotics of social media racism’, Feminist Media Studies, 16:5 (2016), pp. 822–37; Repo, Jemima and Yrjölä, Riina, ‘The gender politics of celebrity humanitarianism in Africa’, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 13:1 (2011), pp. 4462; Richey, Lisa Ann, ‘“Tinder humanitarians”: the moral panic around representations of old relationships in new media’, Javnost – The Public, 23:4 (2016), pp. 398414.

23 Genova, Nicholas De, ‘The “migrant crisis” as racial crisis: Do black lives matter in Europe?’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41:10 (2018), p. 1766, emphasis in original; see also Danewid, Ida, ‘White innocence in the black Mediterranean: Hospitality and the erasure of history’, Third World Quarterly, 38:7 (2017), pp. 1674–89; Mavelli, Luca, ‘Governing populations through the humanitarian government of refugees: Biopolitical care and racism in the European refugee crisis’, Review of International Studies, 43:5 (2017), pp. 809–32.

24 See, for example, Heron, Barbara, Desire for Development: Whiteness, Gender, and the Helping Imperative (Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007); Sabaratnam, Meera, Decolonising Intervention: International Statebuilding in Mozambique (London and Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2017); Wilson, Kalpana, Race, Racism and Development: Interrogating History, Discourse and Practice (London and New York: Zed Books, 2012).

25 Mayblin, Lucy, Asylum after Empire: Colonial Legacies in the Politics of Asylum Seeking (London and New York: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2017); Rajaram, Prem Kumar, ‘Refugees as surplus population: Race, migration and capitalist value regimes’, New Political Economy, 23:5 (2018), pp. 627–39.

26 Chimni, B. S., ‘Geopolitics of refugee studies: a view from the south’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 11 (1998), p. 351; see also Loescher, Gil, The UNHCR and World Politics: A Perilous Path (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

27 Johnson, Heather L., ‘Click to donate: Visual images, constructing victims and imagining the female refugee’, Third World Quarterly, 32:6 (2011), p. 1016; see also Malkki, Liisa H., ‘Speechless emissaries: Refugees, humanitarianism, and dehistoricization’, Cultural Anthropology, 11:3 (1996), pp. 377404; Methmann, Chris, ‘Visualizing climate-refugees: Race, vulnerability, and resilience in global liberal politics’, International Political Sociology, 8:4 (2014), pp. 416–35.

28 Johnson, ‘Click to donate'.

29 Kimberlé W. Crenshaw, ‘Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics’, University of Chicago Legal Forum (1989), pp. 139–67.

30 Glasman, Joël, ‘Seeing like a refugee agency: a short history of UNHCR classifications in Central Africa (1961–2015)’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 30:2 (2017), pp. 337–62.

31 Hyndman, Jennifer and Giles, Wenona, ‘Waiting for what? The feminization of asylum in protracted situations’, Gender, Place & Culture, 18:3 (2011), pp. 361–79.

32 Pruitt, Lesley, Berents, Helen, and Munro, Gayle, ‘Gender and age in the construction of male youth in the European migration “crisis”’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 43:3 (2018), pp. 687709.

33 Knight, Melanie, ‘“New markets must be conquered”: Race, gender, and the embodiment of entrepreneurship within texts’, The Canadian Geographer [Le Géographe Canadien], 57:3 (2013), p. 345. For a related analysis of the figure of homo oeconomicus, see Wynter, Sylvia, ‘Unsettling the coloniality of being/power/truth/freedom: Towards the human, after man, its overrepresentation – an argument’, CR: The New Centennial Review, 3:3 (2003), pp. 257337.

34 Knight, ‘“New markets must be conquered”’, p. 348.

35 Wilson, Race, Racism and Development, p. 17.

36 Ibid., p. 38.

37 Karam, John Tofik, ‘A cultural politics of entrepreneurship in nation-making: Phoenicians, Turks, and the Arab commercial essence in Brazil’, Journal of Latin American Anthropology, 9:2 (2004), p. 339.

38 Wilson, Race, Racism and Development, p. 39.

39 See Bhattacharyya, Rethinking Racial Capitalism.

40 Ong, Aihwa, Neoliberalism as Exception: Mutations in Citizenship and Sovereignty (Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2006); Pascucci, Elisa, ‘Refugees in the IT sector: Young Syrians’ economic subjectivities and familial lives in Jordan’, Geographical Review, 109:4 (2018), pp. 580–97; Sukarieh, Mayssoun, ‘On class, culture, and the creation of the neoliberal subject: the case of Jordan’, Anthropological Quarterly, 89:4 (2016), pp. 1201–25.

41 See, for example, Bedford, Kate, Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank (Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2009); Wilson, Kalpana, ‘“Race”, gender and neoliberalism: Changing visual representations in development’, Third World Quarterly, 32:2 (2011), pp. 315–31.

42 Sukarieh, ‘On class, culture, and the creation of the neoliberal subject’.

43 Wilson, Race, Racism and Development, p. 3.

44 Ilcan and Rygiel, ‘“Resiliency humanitarianism”’; see also Hanno Brankamp, ‘TEDx comes to the refugee camp (AKA think your way out of oppression!)’, African Arguments, available at: {https://africanarguments.org/2018/06/12/tedx-comes-kakuma-refugee-camp-aka-think-your-way-oppression/} accessed 8 July 2018; Scott-Smith, ‘Humanitarian neophilia’.

45 Neocleous, Mark, ‘Resisting resilience’, Radical Philosophy: Journal of Socialist Feminist Philosophy, 178 (2013), pp. 27.

46 Bardelli, Nora, ‘The shortcomings of employment as a durable solution’, Forced Migration Review, 58 (2018), pp. 54–5.

47 See Betts, Alexander and Collier, Paul, Refuge: Transforming a Broken Refugee System (London: Penguin UK, 2017).

48 All population figures for Syrian and other refugees are taken are from the UNHCR Syria Refugee Response Inter-Agency Information Sharing Portal, available at: {http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/country.php?id=107} accessed 14 September 2019.

49 See Katharina Lenner, ‘Blasts from the Past: Policy Legacies and Memories in the Making of the Jordanian Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis’, EUI Working Papers (Florence: European University Institute, 2016).

50 Betts, Bloom, and Weaver, ‘Refugee Innovation’; Author's interview with ex-international agency employee, Amman, Jordan, 13 November, 2015; Harrell-Bond, Barbara, ‘Camps: Literature review’, Forced Migration Review, 2 (1998), pp. 22–3; Turner, Lewis, ‘Explaining the (non-)encampment of Syrian refugees: Security, class and the labour market in Lebanon and Jordan’, Mediterranean Politics, 20:3 (2015), pp. 386404.

51 Jacobsen, Karen, The Economic Life of Refugees (Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2005).

52 REACH, ‘Market Assessment in Al Zaʿatari Refugee Camp in Jordan: Assessment Report’ (Amman: REACH, November 2014), p. 8.

53 ‘Jordan – Zaatari Camp Fact Sheet June 2018’, UNCHR, available at: {https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/63931} accessed 6 August 2018.

54 Sara Elizabeth Williams, ‘Profit and Loss on the “Champs-Élysées” of a Syrian Refugee Camp’, The Business of Fashion, available at: {https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/global-currents/profit-loss-champs-elysees-syrian-refugee-camp} accessed 10 August 2018.

55 ‘Market Assessment in Al Zaʿatari Refugee Camp in Jordan’, REACH, pp. 12–15, 18.

56 Field notes, 3 December 2015, 30 June and 21 July 2016.

57 ‘Zaatari Governance Plan’, UNHCR, available at: {http://reliefweb.int/report/jordan/zaatari-governance-plan-june-2013} accessed 3 January 2015.

58 Author's interview with ex-international agency employee (2015); Author's interview with ex-NGO worker, Amman, Jordan, 10 December 2015; Author's interview with ex-UNHCR employee, Amman, Jordan, 6 February 2016.

59 For Palestinian camps in Jordan, see Luigi Achilli, ‘Al-Wihdat refugee camp: Between inclusion and exclusion’, Jadaliyya, available at: {http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/20831/al-wihdat-refugee-camp_between-inclusion-and-exclu} accessed 19 February 2015.

60 Field notes, 27 October and 3 November 2015, 21 July 2016.

61 Field notes, 21 July and 1 August 2016.

62 Betts and Collier, Refuge.

63 Duffield, ‘The liberal way of development and the development’.

64 Author's interview with human rights activist, Amman, Jordan, 6 December 2015.

65 Heaven Crawley, ‘Why we need to protect refugees from the “big ideas” designed to save them’, The Independent, available at: {https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/refugee-immigration-europe-migrants-refugia-self-governance-a8467891.html} accessed 10 August 2018.

66 Author's interview with humanitarian worker, Amman, Jordan, 28 March 2016.

67 Field notes, 27 October 2015.

68 Author's interview with human rights activist (2015).

69 Benton, ‘Risky business’, p. 194.

70 Wolfe, Traces of History, p. 16.

71 Field notes, 18 December 2015.

72 Kibreab, Gaim, ‘The myth of dependency among camp refugees in Somalia 1979–1989’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 6:4 (1993), p. 321; see also see Easton-Calabria and Omata, ‘Panacea for the refugee crisis?’.

73 Harrell-Bond, Barbara, Imposing Aid: Emergency Assistance to Refugees (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986); Kibreab, ‘The myth of dependency among camp refugees in Somalia 1979–1989’.

74 See Lewis Turner, ‘Challenging Refugee Men: Humanitarianism and Masculinities in Zaʿtari Refugee Camp’ (PhD thesis, SOAS University of London, 2018).

75 Field notes, 15 October, 27 October, 12 December, and 18 December 2015, 18 January and 9 June 2016; for debates on UNHCR in ‘middle-income’ contexts, see Betts, Bloom, and Weaver, ‘Refugee Innovation’; Crisp, Jeff, ‘Finding space for protection: an inside account of the evolution of UNHCR's urban refugee policy’, Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, 33:1 (2017), pp. 8796.

76 Benton, ‘Risky business’, p. 190.

77 Ibid., p. 190.

78 Daley, ‘Rescuing African bodies’, p. 376.

79 Benton, ‘African expatriates and race in the anthropology of humanitarianism’, p. 268.

80 See Gahutu, A. M., ‘Towards grim voyeurism: the poetics of the gaze on Africa’, Rwanda Journal, Series A: Arts and Humanities, 1:1 (2016), pp. 7789; Grovogui, ‘Come to Africa’; Heron, Desire for Development; Repo and Yrjölä, ‘The gender politics of celebrity humanitarianism in Africa’; Wilson, Race, Racism and Development.

81 Author's interview with ex-UNHCR employee (2016).

82 Author's interview with ex-NGO worker (2015).

83 Field notes, 15 November, 28 November and 18 December 2015, 9 April, 9 June and 25 July 2016.

84 Davis, Rochelle, Benton, Grace, Todman, Will, and Murphy, Emma, ‘Hosting guests, creating citizens: Models of refugee administration in Jordan and Egypt’, Refugee Survey Quarterly, 36:2 (2017), pp. 132.

85 ‘Jordan: Deporting Sudanese Asylum Seekers’, Human Rights Watch, available at: {https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/12/16/jordan-deporting-sudanese-asylum-seekers} accessed 13 September 2019.

86 See Davis, Rochelle, Taylor, Abbie, Todman, Will, and Murphy, Emma, ‘Sudanese and Somali refugees in Jordan’, Middle East Report, 279 (2016), pp. 210.

87 Ibid., p. 3.

88 Powell, Eve Troutt, A Different Shade of Colonialism: Egypt, Great Britain, and the Mastery of the Sudan (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003).

89 Tilley, Lisa and Shilliam, Robbie, ‘Raced markets: an introduction’, New Political Economy, 23:5 (2018), pp. 534–43.

90 See fns 17 and 20.

91 See Benton, ‘African expatriates and race in the anthropology of humanitarianism’; Benton, ‘Risky business’; Escobar, Arturo, Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994); Wilson, Race, Racism and Development.

92 Benton, ‘Risky business’, p. 194.

93 See Kamal, Amr, ‘Ghostly labor: Ethnic classism in the Levantine prism of Jacqueline Kahanoff's Jacob's Ladder’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 49:2 (2017), pp. 255–75.

94 Karam, ‘A cultural politics of entrepreneurship in nation-making’, p. 320.

95 Akyeampong, Emmanuel K., ‘Race, identity and citizenship in black Africa: the case of the Lebanese in Ghana’, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 76:3 (2006), p. 308.

96 Curtis Ryan, ‘Refugee Need and Resilience in Zaatari’, Middle East Research and Information Project, available at: {http://www.merip.org/refugee-need-resilience-zaatari} accessed 4 August 2014.

97 UNHCR, ‘A Day in the Life: Zaʿatari – Episode 1: Welcome to Zaʿatari’, YouTube, available at: {https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4OIVW0waEo&list=PLtPw-Y91GlmWQ442W6zA-oeeXxYI1W3HF} accessed 17 January 2017.

98 Betts, Bloom, and Weaver, ‘Refugee Innovation’, p. 19.

99 Lenner, Katharina and Turner, Lewis, ‘Making refugees work? The politics of integrating Syrian refugees into the labor market in Jordan’, Middle East Critique, 28:1 (2019), pp. 6595.

100 Chalcraft, John, ‘Labour in the Levant’, New Left Review, 45 (2007), p. 39.

101 Author's interview with Jared Kohler, photographer formerly contracted to UNHCR Jordan, Amman, Jordan, 28 March 2016.

102 UNHCR Innovation, ‘#Innovation Starts with Affected Communities. Great Examples from @ZaatariCamp’, Twitter post, available at: {https://twitter.com/UNHCRInnovation/status/641627674562183168} accessed 13 February 2017.

103 Dina Rickman, ‘The story behind the first refugee camp on Twitter’, indy100, available at: {http://indy100.independent.co.uk/article/the-story-behind-the-first-refugee-camp-on-twitter--xJzo1hh3vl} accessed 28 February 2017.

104 @ZaatariCamp, ‘Zaʿatari Camp’, Twitter post, available at: {https://twitter.com/ZaatariCamp} 28 February 2017.

105 @ZaatariCamp, ‘One of the 2000+ Shops Run by @Refugees in #Zaatari. This Market Helped Refugees in Finding Normalcy in Displacement’, Twitter post, available at: {https://twitter.com/ZaatariCamp/status/687273642200305664} accessed 9 March 2017.

106 @ZaatariCamp, ‘“I Needed to Live and I Need to Work … I Also Needed to Change the Smell of This Place.” Respect. #entrepreneur’, Twitter post, available at: {https://twitter.com/ZaatariCamp/status/395468308469661696} accessed 24 September 2017.

107 Hall, Stuart, ‘The spectacle of the “other”’, in Hall, Stuart (ed.), Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997), p. 232.

108 Charlie Dunmore, ‘Syrian Refugee Starts Pizza Delivery Service in Zaʿatari Camp’, UNHCR, available at: {http://www.unhcr.org/54f43af26.html} accessed 18 June 2016.

109 Ibid.

110 Lauren Parater, ‘10 Refugees Who Will Change Your Perception of Entrepreneurship’, UNHCR Innovation, available at: {http://www.unhcr.org/innovation/10-refugees-who-will-change-your-perception-of-entrepreneurship/} accessed 2 August 2018.

111 ‘Jordan’, UNHCR Innovation, available at: {http://www.unhcr.org/innovation/jordan/} accessed 8 October 2018. I am grateful to Mirjam Twigt for drawing my attention to this webpage.

112 Megan Specia, ‘Syrian refugee camp gets pizza delivery service’, Mashable, available at: {http://mashable.com/2015/02/17/syrian-refugee-pizzeria/} accessed 20 February 2015.

113 Spence, Lester K., Knocking the Hustle: Against the Neoliberal Turn in Black Politics (Brooklyn, NY: Punctum Books, 2015).

114 Turner, ‘Challenging Refugee Men’.

115 See Betts, Bloom, and Weaver, ‘Refugee Innovation’; Parater, ‘10 Refugees’.

116 Turner, ‘Challenging Refugee Men’.

117 Pruitt, Berents, and Munro, ‘Gender and age in the construction of male youth’.

118 See Johnson, ‘Click to donate’; Loescher, The UNHCR and World Politics.

119 Author's interview with Jared Kohler (2016).

120 Field notes, 21 July 2016.

121 Author's interview's with ex-NGO worker (2015).

122 Ibid.

123 Field notes, 21 July and 1 August 2016.

124 Turner, ‘Challenging Refugee Men’.

125 See Amy Guttman, ‘Syrian entrepreneurs thrive in refugee camp’, ABC News, available at: {http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-11-22/syrian-entrepreneurs-thrive-in-zaatari-refugee-camp/8009324} accessed 3 February 2017; Mark Tran, ‘Jordan's Zaatari refugee camp mushrooms as Syrians set up shop’, The Guardian, available at: {https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/nov/18/jordan-zaatari-refugee-camp-syria-shops} accessed 3 February 2017.

126 See, for example, Beehner, Lionel, ‘Are Syria's do-it-yourself refugees outliers or examples of a new norm?’, Journal of International Affairs, 68:2 (2015), pp. 157–75; Dale Gavlak, ‘Zaatari Syrian refugee camp fertile ground for small businesses’, BBC News, available at: {http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28541909} accessed 18 June 2016; Robert King, ‘Strolling the Champs-Élysées with 120,000 Syrian refugees’, Vice, available at: {https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/strolling-the-champs-elysees-with-120000-syrian-refugees-0000116-v20n10} accessed 2 February 2017; Denis Sullivan and Sarah Tobin, ‘Security and Resilience Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan’, Middle East Research and Information Project, available at: {http://merip.org/mero/mero101414} accessed 7 November 2014.

127 Gavlak, ‘Zaatari Syrian refugee camp fertile ground for small businesses’.

128 Betts, Bloom, and Weaver, ‘Refugee Innovation’; Gatter, Melissa N., ‘Rethinking the lessons from Zaʿatari refugee camp’, Forced Migration Review, 57 (2018), pp. 22–4.

129 Toufic Beyhhum and Nadim Dimechkie, ‘The Champs-Élysées in Zaatari camp’, Middle East Revised, available at: {https://middleeastrevised.com/2015/10/09/the-champs-elysees-in-zaatari-camp/} accessed 2 February 2017.

130 Beehner, ‘Are Syria's do-it-yourself refugees outliers or examples of a new norm’, pp. 157, 168; for scholarship on the public sector and civil society in Syria, see, for example, Aarts, Paul and Cavatorta, Francesco (eds), Civil Society in Syria and Iran: Activism in Authoritarian Contexts (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2012); de Elvira, Laura Ruiz and Zintl, Tina, ‘The end of the Baʿthist social contract in Bashar Al-Asad's Syria: Reading sociopolitical transformations through charities and broader benevolent activism’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 46:2 (2014), pp. 329–49; Haddad, Bassam, ‘The political economy of Syria: Realities and challenges’, Middle East Policy, 18:2 (2011), pp. 4661.

131 Beehner, ‘Are Syria's do-it-yourself refugees outliers or examples of a new norm’, pp. 160–1.

132 Ibid., pp. 160, 161, 171.

133 Ibid., p. 171.

134 See, for example, Betts, Bloom, and Weaver, ‘Refugee Innovation’; Marlen de la Chaux, ‘Rethinking refugee camps: Turning boredom into innovation’, The Conversation, available at: {http://theconversation.com/rethinking-refugee-camps-turning-boredom-into-innovation-47718} accessed 17 August 2018; Gatter, ‘Rethinking the lessons from Zaʿatari refugee camp’; Sarah Deardorff Miller, ‘Assessing the Impacts of Hosting Refugees’, World Refugee Council Research Papers (Centre for International Governance Innovation, 2018).

135 Helen Storey, ‘Zaʿatari Refugee Camp: How to Be an Entrepreneur in Hell’, Centre for Sustainable Fashion, available at: {http://sustainable-fashion.com/blog/zaatari-refugee-camp-how-to-be-an-entrepreneur-in-hell/} accessed 13 August 2018.

136 See Parater, ‘10 Refugees’.

137 See, for example, Betts, Bloom, and Weaver, ‘Refugee Innovation’; Evan Easton-Calabria, ‘“Refugees Asked to Fish for Themselves”: The Role of Livelihoods Trainings for Kampala's Urban Refugees’, New Issues in Refugee Research (Geneva: UNHCR, 2016); Ritchie, Holly A., ‘Gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings: Female empowerment amidst male emasculation – a challenge to local integration?’, Disasters, 42:1 (2018), pp. 4060.

138 Thompson, ‘Through, against and beyond the racial state’, p. 50.

139 Bardelli, ‘The shortcomings of employment as a durable solution’; Knight, ‘“New markets must be conquered”’; Wilson, Race, Racism and Development.

140 See, for example, Brankamp, ‘TEDx Comes to the Refugee Camp’.

141 Betts, quoted in Suzanne Bearne, ‘Refugees turned entrepreneurs: “I needed to think about the future”’, The Guardian, available at: {http://www.theguardian.com/small-business-network/2017/feb/28/refugees-turned-entrepreneurs-future-business-perserverance} accessed 8 August 2018.

142 ‘Soft Skills Can Come the Hard Way’, Social-Bee, available at: {http://www.employ-refugees.de/} accessed 8 August 2018, translation by Benjamin Schütze. I am grateful to Katharina Lenner for drawing my attention to Social-Bee.

143 Sabaratnam, Decolonising Intervention, p. 8.

144 Crawley, Heaven, ‘Migration: Refugee economics’, Nature, 544 (2017), p. 27.

Keywords

‘#Refugees can be entrepreneurs too!’ Humanitarianism, race, and the marketing of Syrian refugees

  • Lewis Turner (a1)

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