Published online by Cambridge University Press: 30 August 2019
This paper introduces a dual-user training system whose design is based on an energetic approach. This kind of system is useful for supervised hands-on training where a trainer interacts with a trainee through two haptic devices, in order to practice on a manual task performed on a virtual or teleoperated robot (e.g., for an Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) task in a surgical context). This paper details the proof of stability of an Energy Shared Control (ESC) architecture we previously introduced for one degree of freedom (d.o.f.) devices. An extension to multiple degrees of freedom is proposed, along with an enhanced version of the Adaptive Authority Adjustment function. Experiments are carried out with 3 d.o.f. haptic devices in free motion as well as in contact contexts in order to show the relevance of this architecture.
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