Skip to main content Accessibility help

Adaptive trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot

  • Khoshnam Shojaei (a1), Alireza Mohammad Shahri (a1), Ahmadreza Tarakameh (a1) and Behzad Tabibian (a2)


This paper presents an adaptive trajectory tracking controller for a non-holonomic wheeled mobile robot (WMR) in the presence of parametric uncertainty in the kinematic and dynamic models of the WMR and actuator dynamics. The adaptive non-linear control law is designed based on input–output feedback linearization technique to get asymptotically exact cancellation for the uncertainty in the given system parameters. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller, a non-adaptive controller is compared with the adaptive controller via computer simulation results. The results show satisfactory trajectory tracking performance by virtue of SPR-Lyapunov design approach. In order to verify the simulation results, a set of experiments have been carried out on a commercial mobile robot. The experimental results also show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Emails:,


Hide All
1.Campion, G., Bastin, G. and Andrea-Novel, B. D., “Structural properties and classification of kinematic and dynamic models of wheeled mobile robots,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 12 (1), 4762 (1996).
2.Sarkar, N., Yun, X. and Kumar, V., “Control of mechanical systems with rolling constraint: Application to dynamic control of mobile robots,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 13 (1), 5569 (1994).
3.Coelho, P. and Nunes, U., “Path-following control of mobile robots in presence of uncertainties,” IEEE Trans. Robot. 21 (2), 252261 (Apr. 2005).
4.Samson, C., “Control of chained systems application to path following and time-varying point-stabilization of mobile robots,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control (1), 64–77 (1997).
5.McCloskey, R. and Murray, R., “Exponential stabilization of driftless nonlinear control systems using homogeneous feedback,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 42, 614628 (1997).
6.Coelho, P. and Nunes, U., “Lie algebra application to mobile robot control: A tutorial,” Robotica 21 (5), 483493 (2003).
7.Aguiar, J. P. P., “Trajectory-tracking and path-following of underactuated autonomous vehicles with parametric modeling uncertainty,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 52 (8), 13621379 (2007).
8.Kolmanovsky, I. and McClamroch, H., “Developments in nonholonomic control problems,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 20–36 (Dec. 1995).
9.Sastry, S. S. and Isidori, A., “Adaptive control of linearizable systems,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control AC-34, 11231131 (1989). Wit, C. C. and Khennouf, H., “Quasi-Continuous Stabilizing Controllers for Nonholonomic Systems: Design and Robustness Considerations,” Proceedings of the 3rd European Control Conference, Rome, Italy (1995) pp. 26302635.
11.Yamamoto, Y. and Yun, X., “Coordinating locomotion and manipulation of a mobile manipulator,” Recent Trends Mobile Robots, World Sci. Ser. Robot. Autom. Syst. 11, 157181 (1993).
12.Yun, X., Kumar, V., Sarkar, N. and Paljug, E., “Control of Multiple Arms With Rolling Constraints,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Nice, France (1992) pp. 21932198.
13.Andrea-Novel, B. D., Bastin, G. and Campion, G., “Dynamic Feedback Linearization of Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robots,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Nice, France (1992) pp. 25272532.
14.Oriolo, G., De Luca, A. and Vendittelli, M.WMR control via dynamic feedback linearization: Design, lmplementation, and experimental validation,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 10 (6), 835852 (2002).
15.Dixon, W. E. and Dawson, D. M., “Tracking and regulation control of a mobile robot system with kinematic disturbances: A variable structure-like approach,” Trans. ASME, J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 616–623 (2000).
16.Kim, D-H. and Oh, J-H, “Tracking control of a two-wheeled mobile robot using input-output linearization,” J. Control Eng. Pract. 7, 369373 (1999).
17.Fukao, T., Nakagawa, H. and Adachi, N.Trajectory tracking control of a nonholonomic mobile robot,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 16 (5), 609615 (2000).
18.Oya, M. and Chun-Yi Su Katoh, R.Robust adaptive motion/force tracking control of uncertain nonholonomic mechanical systems,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 19 (1), 175181 (2003).
19.Adetola, V. and Guay, M., “Finite-time parameter estimation in adaptive control of nonlinear systems,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 53 (3), 807811 (2008).
20.Dong, W. and Kuhnert, K.-D., “Robust adaptive control of nonholonomic mobile robot with parameter and nonparameter uncertainties,” IEEE Tans. Robot. 21 (2), 261266 (2005).
21.Xie, Zhaoxian, Ming, Aiguo and Li, Zhijun, “Adaptive Robust Trajectory and Force Tracking Control of Constrained Mobile Manipulators,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, IEEE, Harbin, China (2007) pp. 13511355.
22.Sastry, S. S. and Bodson, M., Adaptive Control: Stability, Convergence and Robustness (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989).
23.Ioannou, P. A. and Sun, J., Robust Adaptive Control (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996).
24.Campion, G., d'Andrea-Novel, B. and Bastin, G., “Controllability and State Feedback Stabilization of Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems,” In: Lecture Notes in Control and Information Science (de Wit, C. Canudas, ed.) (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991), vol. 162, pp. 106124.
25.Yun, X. and Yamamoto, Y., “Stability analysis of the internal dynamics of a wheeled mobile robot,” J. Robot. Syst. 14 (10), 697709 (1997).
26.Craig, J., Hsu, P. and Sastry, S., “Adaptive control of mechanical manipulators,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 6 (1987).
27.Martins, F. N., Celeste, W. C., Carelli, R., S-Filho, M. and Filho, T. F. B-, “An adaptive dynamic controller for autonomous mobile robot trajectory tracking,” J. Control Eng. Pract. 16, 13541363 (2008).
28.Pourboghrat, F. and Karlsson, M. P.Adaptive cntrol of dynamic mobile robots with nonholonomic constraints,” J. Comput. Electr. Eng. 28, 241253 (2002).
29.Martins, F. N. et al. “Dynamic Modelling and Adaptive Dynamic Compensation for Unicycle-Like Mobile Robots,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Adavanced Robotics, IEEE, Munich, (2009) pp. 16.
30.Das, T., Kar, I. N. and Chaudhury, S., “Simple neuron-based adaptive controller for a nonholonomic mobile robot including actuator dynamics,” J. Neurocomput. 69, 21402151 (2006).
31.De La Cruz, C. and Carelli, R., “Dynamic Modeling and Centralized Formation Control of Mobile Robots,” Proceedings of thirty-second annual conference of the IEEE industrial electronics society, IECON, Paris (2006) pp. 38803885.


Adaptive trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot

  • Khoshnam Shojaei (a1), Alireza Mohammad Shahri (a1), Ahmadreza Tarakameh (a1) and Behzad Tabibian (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.