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Development and analysis of an operator steering model for teleoperated mobile robots under constant and variable latencies

  • Steve Vozar (a1), Justin Storms (a2) and D. M. Tilbury (a2)


Latency hinders a mobile robot teleoperator's ability to perform remote tasks. However, this effect is not well modeled. This paper develops a model for teleoperator steering behavior as a PD controller based on projected lateral displacement, which was tuned to reflect user performance determined by a 31-subject user study under constant and variable latency (having mean latencies between 0 and 750 ms). Additionally, we determined that operator performance under variable latency could be mapped to the expected performance of an equivalent constant latency. We then tested additional latency distributions in simulation and demonstrated equivalent steering performance among several different latency distributions.


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