Skip to main content

Distributed self-deployment of mobile wireless 3D robotic sensor networks for complete sensing coverage and forming specific shapes

  • Vali Nazarzehi (a1) and Andrey V. Savkin (a1)

This paper addresses a problem of complete sensing coverage in 3D environments. We propose a distributed random algorithm to drive mobile robotic sensors on the vertices of a truncated octahedral grid for complete sensing coverage of a bounded 3D area. Furthermore, we develop a distributed algorithm for the self-deployment of mobile sensors to form a desired 3D geometric shape on the vertices of the truncated octahedral grid. These algorithms are developed based on some consensus rules that only rely on local information. The proposed algorithms utilize 3D grids for the coverage task. Several simulations are conducted to illustrate the validity of the proposed distributed sensing coverage and formation building algorithms for a mobile robotic sensor network. Also, we give mathematically rigorous proof of the convergence with probability 1 of our proposed algorithms.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Hide All

This work was supported by the Australian Research Council.

Hide All
1. Senouci M. R., Mellouk A., Assnoune K. and Bouhidel F., “Movement-assisted sensor deployment algorithms: A survey and taxonomy,” Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17 (4), 24932510 (2015).
2. Sangwan A. and Singh R. P., “Survey on coverage problems in wireless sensor networks,” Wireless Personal Commun. 80 (4), 14751500 (2015).
3. Pompili D., Melodia T. and Akyildiz I. F., “Three-dimensional and two-dimensional deployment analysis for underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Ad Hoc Netw. 7 (4), 778790 (2009).
4. Akkaya K. and Newell A., “Self-deployment of sensors for maximized coverage in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Comput. Commun. 32 (7), 12331244 (2009).
5. Jalalkamali P., Distributed Tracking and Information-Driven Control for Mobile Sensor Networks (Dartmouth College, Hanover, USA, 2013).
6. Zhang S., Yu J., Zhang A., Yang L. and Shu Y., “Marine vehicle sensor network architecture and protocol designs for ocean observation,” Sensors 12 (1), 373390 (2012).
7. Khedo K. K., Perseedoss R., and Mungur A. et al., “A wireless sensor network air pollution monitoring system,” preprint, arXiv:1005.1737, 2010.
8. Mansour S., Nasser N., Karim L. and Ali A., “Wireless Sensor Network-Based Air Quality Monitoring System,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), IEEE, Hawaii, USA (2014) pp. 545–550.
9. Liu J., Wang Z., Zuba M., Peng Z., Cui J.-H. and Zhou S., “Da-sync: A doppler-assisted time-synchronization scheme for mobile underwater sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput. 13 (3), 582595 (Mar. 2014).
10. Partan J., Kurose J. and Levine B. N., “A survey of practical issues in underwater networks,” ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. 11 (4), 2333 (2007).
11. Wu F.-J., Kao Y.-F. and Tseng Y.-C., “From wireless sensor networks towards cyber physical systems,” Pervasive Mobile Comput. 7 (4), 397413 (2011).
12. Zhu C., Shu L., Hara T., Wang L., Nishio S. and Yang L. T., “A survey on communication and data management issues in mobile sensor networks,” Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. 14 (1), 1936 (2014).
13. Atkar P. N., Greenfield A., Conner D. C., Choset H. and Rizzi A. A., “Uniform coverage of automotive surface patches,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 24 (11), 883898 (2005).
14. Cortes J. and Martinez S., Distributed Control of Robotic Networks (Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA, 2009).
15. Cheng T. M., Savkin A. V. and Javed F., “Decentralized control of a group of mobile robots for deployment in sweep coverage,” Robot. Auton. Syst. 59 (7), 497507 (2011).
16. Cortes J., Martinez S., Karatas T. and Bullo F., “Coverage Control for Mobile Sensing Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 2., IEEE, Washington D.C, USA (2002) pp. 1327–1332.
17. Savkin A. V., Cheng T. M., Li Z., Javed F., Xi Z., Matveev A. S. and Nguyen H., Decentralized Coverage Control Problems For Mobile Robotic Sensor and Actuator Networks (John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, USA, 2015).
18. Bretl T. and Hutchinson S., “Robust Coverage by a Mobile Robot of a Planar Workspace,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), IEEE, Karlsruhe, Sweden (2013) pp. 4582–4587.
19. Cheng T. M. and Savkin A. V., “Self-deployment of mobile robotic sensor networks for multilevel barrier coverage,” Robotica 30 (04), 661669 (2012).
20. Savkin A. V. and Javed F., “A Method for Decentralized Self-Deployment of a Mobile Sensor Network with Given Regular Geometric Patterns,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, IEEE, Adelaide, Australia (2011) pp. 371–376.
21. Savkin A. V., Javed F. and Matveev A. S., “Optimal distributed blanket coverage self-deployment of mobile wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16 (6), 949951 (2012).
22. Cheng T. M. and Savkin A. V., “Decentralized control for mobile robotic sensor network self-deployment: Barrier and sweep coverage problems,” Robotica 29 (02), 283294 (2011).
23. Dong H., Zhang K. and Zhu L., “An Algorithm of 3d Directional Sensor Network Coverage Enhancing Based on Artificial Fish-Swarm Optimization,” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Circuits and System Technology (MMWCST), IEEE, Chengdu, China (2012) pp. 1–4.
24. Huang C.-F., Tseng Y.-C. and Lo L.-C., “The coverage problem in three-dimensional wireless sensor networks,” J. Interconnect. Netw. 8 (03), 209227 (2007).
25. Liu B., Dousse O., Nain P. and Towsley D., “Dynamic coverage of mobile sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 24 (2), 301311 (2013).
26. Watfa M. K. and Commuri S., “The 3-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Problem,” Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, IEEE, Florida, USA (2006) pp. 856–861.
27. Pompili D., Melodia T. and Akyildiz I. F., “Deployment Analysis in Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, ACM, Los Angeles, USA (2006) pp. 48–55.
28. Boufares N., Khoufi I., Minet P., Saidane L. and Ben Saied Y., “Three Dimensional Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks Redeployment Based on Virtual Forces,” Proceedings of the International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), IEEE, Dubrovnik, Croatia (2015) pp. 563–568.
29. Stirling T., Wischmann S. and Floreano D., “Energy-efficient indoor search by swarms of simulated flying robots without global information,” Swarm Intell. 4 (2), 117143 (2010).
30. Feng L., Qiu T., Sun Z., Xia F. and Zhou Y., “A coverage strategy for wireless sensor networks in a three–dimensional environment,” Int. J. Ad Hoc Ubiquitous Comput. 15 (1), 8394 (2014).
31. Zhu C., Zheng C., Shu L. and Han G., “A survey on coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks,” J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 35 (2), 619632 (2012).
32. Nazarzehi V., Savkin A. V. and Baranzadeh A., “Distributed 3d dynamic search coverage for mobile wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 19 (4), 633636 (Apr. 2015).
33. Nazarzehi V. and Savkin A. V., “Decentralized Control of Mobile Three-Dimensional Sensor Networks for Complete Coverage Self-Deployment and Forming Specific Shapes,’ Proceedings of the IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control (MSC), IEEE, Sydney, Australia (2015) pp. 301–306.
34. Jeremic A. and Nehorai A., “Design of chemical sensor arrays for monitoring disposal sites on the ocean floor,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 23 (4), 334343 (1998).
35. Borhaug E., Pavlov A. and Pettersen K. Y., “Straight Line Path Following for Formations of Underactuated Underwater Vehicles,” Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, New Orleans, USA (2007) pp. 2905–2912.
36. Heidemann J., Stojanovic M. and Zorzi M., “Underwater sensor networks: Applications, advances and challenges,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 370 (1958), 158175 (2012).
37. Alam S. N. and Haas Z. J., “Coverage and connectivity in three-dimensional networks with random node deployment,” Ad Hoc Netw. 34, 157169 (2014).
38. Al-Turjman F. M., Hassanein H. S. and Ibnkahla M. A., “Efficient deployment of wireless sensor networks targeting environment monitoring applications,” Comput. Commun. 36 (2), 135148 (2013).
39. Kottege N. and Zimmer U. R., “Underwater acoustic localization for small submersibles,” J. Field Robot. 28 (1), 4069 (2011).
40. Alam S. and Haas Z. J., “Coverage and Connectivity in Three-Dimensional Networks,” Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, ACM, Los Angeles, USA (2006) pp. 346–357.
41. Zhao Y., Li B., Qin J., Gao H. and Karimi H. R., “Consensus and synchronization of nonlinear systems based on a novel fuzzy model,” IEEE Trans. Cybern. 43 (6), 21572169 (2013).
42. Qing X., Karimi H. R., Niu Y. and Wang X., “Decentralized unscented {K}alman filter based on a consensus algorithm for multi-area dynamic state estimation in power systems,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 65, 2633 (2015).
43. Karimi H. R. and Gao H., “New delay-dependent exponential synchronization for uncertain neural networks with mixed time delays,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B: Cybern. 40 (1), 173185 (2010).
44. Alam S. and Haas Z. J., “Coverage and connectivity in three-dimensional underwater sensor networks,” Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. 8 (8), 9951009 (2008).
45. Jadbabaie A., Lin J. and Morse A. S., “Coordination of groups of mobile autonomous agents using nearest neighbor rules,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 48 (6), 9881001 (2003).
46. Savkin A. V., Matveev A. S., Hoy M. and Wang C., Safe Robot Navigation Among Moving and Steady Obstacles (Elsevier, Butter worth-Heinemann, UK, 2015).
47. Hoy M., Matveev A. S. and Savkin A. V., “Algorithms for collision-free navigation of mobile robots in complex cluttered environments: A survey,” Robotica 33 (03), 463497 (2015).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0263-5747
  • EISSN: 1469-8668
  • URL: /core/journals/robotica
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 82 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 299 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 26th April 2017 - 17th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.