Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 65
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Alghooneh, Mansoor and Wu, Christine Q. 2016. Single-support heel-off: a crucial gait event helps realizing agile and energy-efficient bipedal walking. Robotica, Vol. 34, Issue. 06, p. 1335.

    Cao, Ying Suzuki, Soichiro and Hoshino, Yohei 2016. Uphill and level walking of a three-dimensional biped quasi-passive walking robot by torso control. Robotica, Vol. 34, Issue. 03, p. 483.

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Heydari, Mahdi and Alasty, Aria 2016. Active control of a passive bipedal walking robot. International Journal of Dynamics and Control,

    Kajita, Shuuji and Ott, Christian 2016. Springer Handbook of Robotics.

    Moon, Jae-Sung Stipanović, Dušan M. and Spong, Mark W. 2016. Gait Generation and Stabilization for Nearly Passive Dynamic Walking Using Auto-distributed Impulses. Asian Journal of Control, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 1343.

    Paiman, Charlotte Lemus, Daniel Short, Débora and Vallery, Heike 2016. Observing the State of Balance with a Single Upper-Body Sensor. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, Vol. 3,

    Safa, Ali Tehrani Mohammadi, Somaye Hajmiri, Seyed Ehsan Naraghi, Mahyar and Alasty, Aria 2016. How local slopes stabilize passive bipedal locomotion?. Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 100, p. 63.

    An, Kang Fang, Zuhua Li, Yiran and Chen, Qijun 2015. Internal features in basin of attraction of the simplest walking model. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 29, Issue. 11, p. 4913.

    Gritli, Hassène Khraief, Nahla and Belghith, Safya 2015. Handbook of Research on Advanced Intelligent Control Engineering and Automation.

    Gritli, Hassène Belghith, Safya and Khraief, Nahla 2015. OGY-based control of chaos in semi-passive dynamic walking of a torso-driven biped robot. Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol. 79, Issue. 2, p. 1363.

    Oku, Hiroki Asagi, Norimasa Takuma, Takashi and Masuda, Tatsuya 2015. 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). p. 944.

    Safa, Ali Tehrani and Naraghi, Mahyar 2015. The role of walking surface in enhancing the stability of the simplest passive dynamic biped. Robotica, Vol. 33, Issue. 01, p. 195.

    Safa, Ali Tehrani Naraghi, Mahyar and Alasty, Aria 2015. 2015 International Conference on Advanced Robotics (ICAR). p. 363.

    Safa, Ali Tehrani Alasty, Aria and Naraghi, Mahyar 2015. A different switching surface stabilizing an existing unstable periodic gait: an analysis based on perturbation theory. Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol. 81, Issue. 4, p. 2127.

    Shah, Nita H. and Yeolekar, Mahesh A. 2015. Influence of Slope Angle on the Walking of Passive Dynamic Biped Robot. Applied Mathematics, Vol. 06, Issue. 03, p. 456.

    Forner-Cordero, A. Koopman, HFJM and van der Helm, FCT 2014. Mechanical model of the recovery reaction from stumbling: effect of step length on trunk control. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering,

    Iqbal, Sajid Zang, Xizhe Zhu, Yanhe and Zhao, Jie 2014. Bifurcations and chaos in passive dynamic walking: A review. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 62, Issue. 6, p. 889.

    Li, Qingdu Guo, Jianli and Yang, Xiao-Song 2014. Bifurcation and chaos in the simple passive dynamic walking model with upper body. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 033114.

    An, Kang and Chen, Qijun 2013. 2013 25th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC). p. 3166.

    Guo, Wenhao Wang, Tianshu and Wang, Qi 2013. A passive dynamic walking model with Coulomb friction at the hip joint. Robotica, Vol. 31, Issue. 08, p. 1221.


Passive dynamic walking model with upper body

  • M. Wisse (a1), A. L. Schwab (a1) and F. C. T. van der Helm (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 15 November 2004

This paper presents the simplest walking model with an upper body. The model is a passive dynamic walker, i.e. it walks down a slope without motor input or control. The upper body is confined to the midway angle of the two legs. With this kinematic constraint, the model has only two degrees of freedom. The model achieves surprisingly successful walking results: it can handle disturbances of 8% of the initial conditions and it has a specific resistance of only 0.0725(−).

Corresponding author
Corresponding author: M. Wisse. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0263-5747
  • EISSN: 1469-8668
  • URL: /core/journals/robotica
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *