Skip to main content
×
×
Home

WiFi SLAM algorithms: an experimental comparison

  • F. Herranz (a1), A. Llamazares (a1), E. Molinos (a1), M. Ocaña (a1) and M. A. Sotelo (a2)...
Summary

Localization and mapping in indoor environments, such as airports and hospitals, are key tasks for almost every robotic platform. Some researchers suggest the use of Range-Only (RO) sensors based on WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) technology with SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) techniques to solve both problems. The current state of the art in RO SLAM is mainly focused on the filtering approach, while the study of smoothing approaches with RO sensors is quite incomplete. This paper presents a comparison between filtering algorithms, such as EKF and FastSLAM, and a smoothing algorithm, the SAM (Smoothing And Mapping). Experimental results are obtained in indoor environments using WiFi sensors. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the smoothing approach using WiFi sensors in an indoor environment.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail: fernando.herranz@depeca.uah.es
References
Hide All
1.Bahl, P. and Padmanabhan, V. N., “RADAR: An In-Building RF-Based User Location and Tracking System,” Proceedings of the IEEE Infocom 2000, vol. 2 (IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 2000) pp. 775–784.
2.Ocaña, M., Bergasa, L. M., Sotelo, M. Á., Flores, R. F., Llorca, D. F. and Schleicher, D., “Automatic training method applied to a WiFi+ultrasound POMDP navigation system,” Robotica 27 (07), 10491061 (Dec. 2009).
3.Matellán, V., Cañas, J. M. and Serrano, O., “WiFi localization methods for autonomous robots,” Robotica 24 (4), 455461 (2006).
4.Thrun, S., Burgard, W. and Fox, D., Probabilistic Robotics (Intelligent Robotics and Autonomous Agents) (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2005).
5.Montemerlo, M., Thrun, S., Koller, D. and Wegbreit, B., “FastSLAM: A Factored Solution to the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Problem,” Proceedings of the AAAI National 2002 (Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Edmonton, Canada, 2002) pp. 593–598.
6.Thrun, S., Burgard, W., Fox, D.et al., Probabilistic Robotics, vol. 1 (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2005).
7.Dellaert, F. and Kaess, M., “Square root SAM: Simultaneous localization and mapping via square root information smoothing,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 25 (12), 11811203 (2006).
8.Djugash, J. and Singh, S., “A Robust Method of Localization and Mapping Using Only Range,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics 2008 (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, Athens, Greece, 2008) pp. 341–351.
9.Djugash, J., Hamner, B. and Roth, S., “Navigating with ranging radios: Five data sets with ground truth,” J. Field Robot. 26 (1), 689695 (Sep. 2009).
10.Djugash, J., Singh, S. and Corke, P., “Further Results with Localization and Mapping Using Range from Radio,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Field & Service Robotics 2005 (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, Port Douglas, Australia, 2005) pp. 231–242.
11.Blanco, J.-L., González, J. and Fernández-Madrigal, J.-A., “A Pure Probabilistic Approach to Range-only SLAM,” Proceedings of the Internaitonal Conference on Robotics and Automation, Pasadena, USA (May 19–23, 2008) pp. 1436–1441.
12.Blanco, J. L., Fernandez-Madrigal, J. A. and Gonzalez, J., “Efficient Probabilistic Range-only SLAM,” Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, Nice, France, 2008) pp. 1017–1022.
13.Ferris, B., Fox, D. and Lawrence, N., “Wifi-slam Using Gaussian Process Latent Variable Models,” Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence 2007, vol. 7 (Hyderabad, India, 2007) pp. 2480–2485.
14.Huang, J., Millman, D., Quigley, M., Stavens, D., Thrun, S. and Aggarwal, A., “Efficient, Generalized Indoor WiFi Graphslam,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2011 (IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, Shanghai, China, 2011) pp. 1038–1043.
15.Kotanen, A., Hannikainen, M., Leppakoski, H. and Hamalainen, T., “Positioning with Ieee 802.11b Wireless Lan,” Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Conference on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications 2003, vol. 3 (IEEE, Beijing, China, 2003) pp. 2218–2222.
16.Herranz, F., Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Range Only Sensors, Ph.D. Dissertation (Alcalá de Henares, Spain: University of Alcalá, Sep. 2013).
17.Leonard, J. J. and Durrant-Whyte, H. F., “Simultaneous Map Building and Localization for an Autonomous Mobile Robot,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Workshop on Intelligent Robots and Systems 1991 (IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, Osaka, Japan, 1991) pp. 1442–1447.
18.Olson, E., Leonard, J. and Teller, S., “Robust Range-only Beacon Localization,” Proceedings of the IEEE/OES Conference on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles 2004 (IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, 2004) pp. 66–75.
19.Herranz, F., Ocaña, M., Bergasa, L., Hernández, N., Llamazares, A. and Fernández, C., “Mapping Based on a Noisy Range-Only Sensor,” In: Computer Aided Systems Theory–EUROCAST 2011 (Moreno-Diaz, R., Pichler, F. and Quesada-Arencibia, A.) (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012) pp. 420425.
20.Mardia, K. V., “Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications,” Biometrika 57 (3), 519530 (1970).
21.Montemerlo, M., Thrun, S., Koller, D. and Wegbreit, B., “FastSLAM: A Factored Solution to the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Problem,” Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence 2002 (Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Edmonton, Canada, 2002) pp. 593–598.
22.Kschischang, F. R., Frey, B. J. and Loeliger, H.-A., “Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47, 498519 (1998).
23.Eustice, R. M., Singh, H. and Leonard, J. J., “Exactly Sparse Delayed-state Filters,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2005 (IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, Barcelona, Spain, 2005) pp. 2417–2424.
24.Davis, T. A., Gilbert, J. R., Larimore, S. I. and Ng, E. G., “A column approximate minimum degree ordering algorithm,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 30 (3), 353376 (Sep. 2004).
25.Lu, F. and Milios, E., “Globally consistent range scan alignment for environment mapping,” Auton. Robots 4 (4), 333349 (1997).
26.Burgard, W., Stachniss, C., Grisetti, G., Steder, B., Kummerle, R., Dornhege, C., Ruhnke, M., Kleiner, A. and Tardós, J., “A Comparison of SLAM Algorithms Based on a Graph of Relations,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2009 (IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, St. Louis, USA, 2008) pp. 2089–2095.
27.Grisetti, G., Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W., “Improved techniques for grid mapping with rao-blackwellized particle filters,” IEEE Trans. Robot. 23 (1), 3446 (2007).
28.Bailey, T., Nieto, J. and Nebot, E., “Consistency of the Fastslam Algorithm,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2006 (IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, Orlando, USA, 2005) pp. 424–429.
29.Paz, L. M., Tardos, J. and Neira, J., “Divide and conquer: EKF SLAM in O(n),” IEEE Trans. Robot. 24 (5), 11071120 (Oct. 2008).
30.Kaess, M., Ranganathan, A. and Dellaert, F., “iSAM: Incremental smoothing and mapping,” IEEE Trans. Robot. 24 (6), 13651378 (2008).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Robotica
  • ISSN: 0263-5747
  • EISSN: 1469-8668
  • URL: /core/journals/robotica
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed