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GERMAN EMPIRE (BERLIN)

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I have the honour to enclose to Your Lordship herewith in original and translation a Report given in yesterday's official Gazette of the proceedings in a plenary meeting of the Federal Council which took place on the 5th Instant, at which The Imperial Chancellor was present in person.

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1 Otto von Bismarck.

2 Enclosures: article (untitled) in Deutscher Reichsanzeiger und Königlich Preußischer Staatsanzeiger, 6 April 1884 and translation.

3 The liberal Deutsche Freisinnige Partei (German Free-Minded Party) was founded on 5 March 1884 as a merger of the Reichstag factions of the Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (Party of Progess, founded in 1861) and the Liberale Vereinigung (Liberal Union or ‘Secessionists’), a group that had broken away from the National Liberal Party in 1880. Their programme was disclosed on the same day.

4 Oswald von Nostitz-Wallwitz and Fidel Baur von Breitenfeld.

5 The sitting of the Federal Council of 5 April was attended by ten Prussian representatives.

6 This declaration alluded to the North German Confederation Treaty of 18 August 1866 and the ‘November Treaties’ of 1870.

7 On 5 April Bavaria was represented by Emil von Xylander and Ferdinand von Raesfeldt.

8 Gesellschaft für deutsche Kolonisation, founded on 28 March 1884.

9 Ampthill is referring to the Deutscher Kolonialverein and the trading firm owned by Adolf Lüderitz.

10 Notes on docket: 28 April 1884: ‘This is a movement that must be watched and I think no time should be lost in deciding what we tell to our Consulates [.] Copy (Conf d) to Admiralty asking that Admiral Salmon may be asked to ascertain & report what the Germans are doing. Copy to Colonial Office with copy of letter to Admiralty; Shew to Consul Hewett, Drafts, 9 May. Print (Congo and Oil Rivers). Write with compliments to Head of Berlin Chancery and tell him to number this and any subsequent dispatch on the same subject in the African Section.’ H.P.A. [Henry Percy Anderson]; G[ranville]].

11 Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung.

12 On 29 March 1884 Nachtigal was appointed imperial commissioner for West Africa (Reichskommissar) and ordered to Lisbon to await further instructions.

13 In a telegram of 24 April 1884 Bismarck instructed the German consul at Cape Town to declare that the coastal area of Angra Pequena, acquired by the Bremen merchant Adolf Lüderitz in 1883, was under German protection.

14 In his note to Granville of 31 December 1883, Münster enquired whether Britain claimed sovereignty over Angra Pequena.

15 Telegram from Lord Derby to Robinson, dated 15 July 1884. This stated that the British government was ‘not in a position to oppose’ German protection for German subjects, but ‘where no British jurisdiction already exists’ it ‘will be prepared to proclaim under British protection and authority any other places […] to which British subjects have claims’.

16 Enclosures: article ‘Politischer Tagesbericht’ in Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung and translation, both dated 18 August 1884.

17 Augusta.

18 Carl Velten.

19 Name not traceable.

20 Friedrich Wilhelm.

21 Victoria.

22 Augusta.

23 Helena.

24 Augusta (Saxe-Meiningen).

25 Edoardo de Launay, Emmerich Graf Széchényi and Alphonse Chodron de Courcel.

26 The coastal area of Angra Pequena (see n. 13 in this section) was proclaimed a German protectorate on 7 August 1884. On 6 October Lüderitz claimed that the hoisting of the German flag on mainland Africa meant that the islands in question came into German possession, and called upon the lessee to vacate them.

27 Busch was probably referring to the German chargé d'affaires’ interview with Earl Granville at the Foreign Office on 20 September. The ten islands (Ichaboe, Long Island, Seal Island, Penguin Island, Halifax, Possession Island, Albatross Rock, Pomona, Plum-pudding and Roast Beef [Sinclair] Island) had been formally annexed to the Cape Colony in 1874.

28 On 19 September 1884 Scott informed the German government of the British intention to extend British authority in New Guinea; on 9 October Scott communicated the British restriction to the south coast; on 6 November 1884 the Territory of Papua, the south-eastern part of New Guinea, became a British protectorate.

29 Bismarck was referring to Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's speech at Marseille on 26 September 1852.

30 The British proposal, based upon a modification of the Law of Liquidation of July 1880, provided details for the financial settlement between Egypt and its international creditors. It was submitted to the German government on 29 November 1884. In his conversation with the German ambassador to London, on 10 December, Earl Granville stated that further delay would render the proposal insufficient; therefore he hoped for a favourable reply at an early date. The British – as well as the German – negotiating position on the Egyptian question was largely affected by the fact that two-thirds of the debt was held by French creditors. The British role in Egypt – de facto a British protectorate since 1882 – was also affected by the Mahdist revolt against Egyptian rule in Sudan.

31 Malet is referring to Britain's concessions in colonial matters, including the formal recognition (on 22 September 1884) of German policy with regard to South West Africa (in particular, the declaration of Angra Pequena (Lüderitz Bay) as a German protectorate) and her conduct during the Berlin West Africa Conference, which opened on 15 November 1884 and aimed to regulate European trade and colonization in Africa.

32 The British Nile Expedition was sent to relieve General Gordon and his troops at the besieged city of Khartoum, Sudan. However it arrived on 28 January 1885, two days after the city had fallen to Mahdist Sudanese forces.

33 For Scott's note of 9 October 1884 and the British protectorate in New Guinea see n. 28 in this section.

34 The German protectorate of Cameroon was declared by Gustav Nachtigal on 14 July 1884.

35 In his conversation with Münster of 8 August 1884 Granville stated that ‘the extension of some form of British authority in New Guinea […] will only embrace that part of the island which specially interests the Australian colonies, without prejudice to any territorial questions beyond those limits’.

36 Talks between Herbert von Bismarck and Earl Granville took place on 14, 17, and 22 June 1884.

37 Bismarck to Münster, 24 January 1884 (sent on 26 January).

38 Münster to Bismarck, 21 January 1885.

39 For the Egyptian question see n. 30 in this section.

40 Bismarck was probably referring to the cession of territory to the Natal Boers – in exchange for the support of the proclamation of Mpande as king of the Zulus in 1840. Another cession to the Boers – land on the border between the Zulu Kingdom and the Transvaal Republic – took place in 1854.

41 The South African Republic (Transvaal) was founded in 1852.

42 Bismarck was referring to Germany's approval of the French scheme of 8 January 1885 to financially reorganize Egypt, and the French support of the Russo-German request to send representatives to the Public Debt Commission (Caisse de la Dette Publique), which supervised the repayment of Egyptian debts to foreign creditors.

43 Enclosures: extracts from Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 3 March 1885 and Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 4 March 1885 and corresponding translations.

44 Charges were brought against British traders and the acting British vice consul for stirring up the natives; against Captain Campbell and Consul Hewett for international discourtesy and disrespect towards the German authorities; and, lastly, against English missionaries, who were suspected of giving aid to rebellious natives. These German measures led to the destruction of English mission buildings and storehouses in Hickory Town.

45 The bombardment of Alexandria by the British Mediterranean Fleet (11–13 July 1882) took place during the Anglo-Egyptian War.

46 Malet's No 45 (see pp. 44–47) was published in Further Correspondence respecting New Guinea and Other Islands in the Western Pacific Ocean, in February 1885.

47 Extract from Granville to Scott, No 96 A, Secret, 9 March 1885 (on his conversation with Herbert von Bismarck about his father's speech in the Reichstag).

48 Enclosures: summary of Reichstag proceedings, 2–6 March, by Mr Gosselin, 7 March 1885; summary of Landtag proceedings 28 February-6 March, by Mr Gosselin, 7 March 1885.

49 In his speech of 2 March 1885 Bismarck deplored the lack of support for his colonial policy and criticized the obstruction of his endeavours by the British press and government. He also denied encouraging Earl Granville to annex Egypt.

50 Kusserow, on 2 March 1885, stated that the German government's policy was ‘to follow with assistance private undertakings’. On Nachtigal's mission see nn. 12 and 34 in this section.

51 The Reichstag passed the supplementary budget for the German protectorates in Africa on 2 March 1885; the recommendations concerning the consulates in Corea and Samoa were rejected on 4 March.

52 On 4 March Richter (after being informed by a telegram from the Wolff News agency) referred to the Times editorial of that same day.

53 The Russian reply to the British memorandum on the Afghan border question of 13 March was dated 29 March. The British proposal for a frontier in north-west Afghanistan was rejected and the Russians insisted on their original proposal made in January that year. The British government deemed it impossible to proceed on this basis and on 30 March Russia occupied the Panjdeh district, which belonged to the Emirate of Afghanistan.

54 On 9 April 1885 Gladstone informed the House of Commons about the Afghan frontier negotiations with Russia, and in particular his knowledge of the Panjdeh incident.

55 Hatzfeld was probably referring to new proposals which had been sent by telegraph to the Russian ambassador to London, Baron Staal, on 7 April 1885 which were communicated to the Foreign Office on 8 April.

56 Name not traceable.

57 Malet is referring to the three emperors’ meeting at Skierniewice from 15–17 September 1884.

58 Said Pasha Kurd.

59 Anglo-Russian tensions revolved around the rivalry for supremacy in Central Asia, and in particular the Afghan border question (see previous dispatch). At the time of the dispatch it was proposed to the German Emperor to act as arbiter and judge whether Russia had departed from Nikolai de Giers’ verbal assurances of 16 March (reported to Earl Granville by Edward Thornton on the same day) that Russian forces would not advance from their positions, ‘provided the Afghans […] do not advance or attack, or unless there should be some extraordinary reason […], such as a disturbance in Penjdeh’.

60 The Berlin Congress of 1878 aimed to settle territorial claims on the Balkans and restore the balance of power after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.

61 Christian IX's first daughter Alexandra was married to Edward, Prince of Wales; his second daughter Dagmar (Maria Feodorovna) was Empress of Russia.

62 Bismarck was referring to the Russian assurances of 16 March.

63 French ‘nul et non avenu’: not having happened.

64 See MacDonell's dispatch of 15 June 1885, pp. 473–475.

65 After the death of the childless Duke Wilhelm on 18 October 1884, Ernst August, Duke of Cumberland and son of the deposed Georg V of Hanover, proclaimed himself Duke of Brunswick. On 2 July 1885, following the Prussian motion of 18 May 1885, the Federal Council declared the rule of Ernst August, who was next in the succession, to be incompatible with the principles of the treaties of August 1866 and November 1870, and the imperial constitution of 1871. The background to this was Prussian mistrust of Ernst August due to the latter's claim to the throne of Hanover, which had been annexed by Prussia in 1866. On 25 October 1885, the Brunswick diet elected Prince Albrecht of Prussia as regent.

66 The original motion of 18 May referred to Article 76 of the imperial constitution, according to which disputes between states of the confederation were to be settled by the Federal Council, at the request of one of the parties.

67 On the Brunswick succession question see n. 65 in this section.

68 On 15 and 18 July 1885.

69 The letters in question are dated 18 September 1878 (to Victoria) and 14 January 1879 (to Wilhelm).

70 Hermann von Görtz-Wrisberg, on 30 June 1885.

71 The Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung was referring to the Hannoversche Kurier.

72 On 26 March 1885, the Prussian minister of the interior, Puttkamer, in his rescript to the Oberpräsidenten of the eastern provinces ordered all Russian subjects of Polish nationality who resided in Prussia illegally to be expelled. On 26 July this order was extended to all alien residents of Polish provenance, in particular Poles from Galicia. Altogether about 32,000 people were affected.

73 Manoeuvres were scheduled for January 1886.

74 The Earl of Dufferin.

75 Otto von Bismarck.

76 On 5 September 1885 Malet presented an unofficial memorandum to Herbert von Bismarck which outlined Reuter's proposal for a railway, stretching from Rasht to the Gulf, which was to be set up under the protection of ‘certain powers’. He inquired whether the German government was disposed to join Britain in encouraging the scheme. The proposal went back to Reuter's concession of 1872 which was subsequently annulled by the shah as a result of domestic and Russian pressure.

77 See n. 72 in this section.

78 Sitting of 1 December 1885; the interpellation, which was sustained by 155 deputies, was filed by the Polish faction on 26 November.

79 On 15 and 16 January 1886.

80 Federal Council.

81 On 23 January 1886.

82 On 23 January 1886.

83 On 28 January 1886.

84 Bismarck was referring to the ‘occupation manifesto’ (Besitznahmepatent ) of 15 May 1815 and proclamation of the same date in which Friedrich Wilhelm III assured his ‘new’ subjects that they would not have to relinquish their nationality.

85 Zentrumspartei (Catholics).

86 On 9 June 1886.

87 Enclosures: extract (untitled) from Kölnische Zeitung and translation, 15 June 1886.

88 Jules Ferry's second term as prime minister was from February 1883 to April 1885.

89 Bismarck left Berlin for Gastein on 31 July and returned on 28 August 1886.

90 Malet returned to Berlin from leave of absence on 14 August 1886.

91 The League of the Three Emperors, founded in 1873 but abandoned through the Dual Alliance of 1879 (see n. 489 in this section), was renewed in the Three Emperors’ Treaty of 18 June 1881, albeit not as a formal alliance. In this, Austria, Germany and Russia agreed to maintain benevolent neutrality in the event of one signatory being at war with a fourth power, and to take into consideration their respective interests in the Balkans. Territorial changes in the European part of Turkey were subjected to prior agreement.

92 The anti-German press reports were based upon the Bulgarian crisis, in particular the alleged German support of Alexander of Bulgaria, Russia's closure of the port of Batumi, which had been declared a free port by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878, and, more generally, nationalist and economic issues with regard to Russia's role in the Balkans.

93 On 19 August 1886, in the House of Lords.

94 For the unification of Bulgaria and the Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia see n. 15 in Darmstadt section.

95 The Social Democratic faction intended to enquire whether Bismarck, in his consultations at Kissingen and Gastein that summer, had agreed to the deposition of Prince Alexander of Bulgaria and consented to the strengthening Russian influence in the Balkans. For the Bulgarian crisis see nn. 15, 25, and 27 in Darmstadt section.

96 The Reichstag reconvened on 16 September 1886.

97 Alexander I of Bulgaria.

98 Katkov, editor of the Moskovskiye Vedomosti, was awarded the Order of Saint Vladimir, 2nd class, on 10 September 1886.

99 Herbert von Bismarck.

100 Cerberus was the three-headed watchdog who guarded the gates of the underworld. Virgil's Aeneid relates how he was distracted by a sop, or drugged cake, that was given to him in order to let Aeneas slip safely past on his journey to visit his father's spirit.

101 On his way to Vienna via Dresden and Prague, Randolph Churchill also visited Berlin on 6 and 7 October 1886. He returned to London via Paris on 21 October.

102 Herbert von Bismarck.

103 Heinrich von Tschirschky und Bögendorff.

104 Herbert von Bismarck.

105 Abdul Hamid II.

106 Kaulbars was sent as special commissioner to advise the Bulgarian government and represent Russian interests. He arrived at Sofia on 25 September 1886 and was withdrawn – alongside all Russian consular officers in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia – on 17 November.

107 On 7 September 1886, the day that Alexander abdicated as prince (knyaz) of Bulgaria, he appointed a regency comprised of three members.

108 On 11 October, the second day of the elections to the national assembly, peasants from the neighbourhoods of Sofia, incited by the speech of a Russian representative, attempted to obstruct proceedings. Shots were apparently fired from the Russian consulate after they sought refuge there, which hit the walls of the British and German consular agencies.

109 Hans Lothar von Schweinitz.

110 The Grand Duke Vladimir visited Berlin on 30 November 1886 on his way to Weimar.

111 Niko I Dadiani was the last ruling prince of the Georgian principality of Megrelia which was abolished by Russia and annexed to the latter in 1866. He remained close to the Russian court and in early November 1886 Russia suggested that he be nominated for the election of Prince of Bulgaria. Article 3 of the Treaty of Berlin of 1878, which established Bulgaria as an autonomous principality of the Ottoman Empire, stipulated that no member of the reigning houses of the great European powers should be elected Prince of Bulgaria.

112 Niko Dadiani.

113 Maria Alexandrovna.

114 During the course of and after the Austro-Prussian war.

115 Abdul Hamid II.

116 Bismarck was generally referring to Gladstone's engagement with the ‘Eastern Question’ before and during his second premiership (1880–1885), and especially with regard to the question of the Ottoman Empire's territorial integrity.

117 Abdülaziz was deposed by his ministers in May 1876.

118 The Earl of Iddesleigh died on 12 January 1887; he was succeeded by Lord Salisbury on 14 January, who as well as being foreign secretary also held office as prime minster.

119 Stauffenberg proposed the amendment to the bill (introduced on 25 November 1886) on 11 January 1887. The original bill was reintroduced after the convocation of the newly elected Reichstag; it was passed on 11 March 1887 and enacted in the Imperial Military Law of 11 March 1887. It allocated supplies for a peacetime army of 468,406 men until 31 March 1894.

120 On 11, 12, and 13 January 1887.

121 Bismarck made this speech on 11 January and was referring to Windthorst's Reichstag speech of the same day.

122 Imperial decree of 25 January 1887. The reports in question which, in part, were stirred up by Bismarck's Reichstag speech of 11 January (see preceding dispatch), referred to the French threat to peace, and in particular to the French war minister's (Georges Boulanger) anti-German policy.

123 For the Bulgarian crisis see pp. 70–73 and nn. 15 and 25 in Darmstadt section.

124 French: ‘Here I am, here I remain.’

125 Malet is referring to a speech that Count Kálnoky, the Austro-Hungarian minister for foreign affairs, made to the Hungarian Delegations at Budapest on 13 November 1886 in which he stated Austria-Hungary's readiness to act in the event of a Russian military occupation of Bulgaria. In his speech at the Lord Mayor's Banquet on 9 November 1886, Salisbury stressed the importance of the Berlin Treaty for Bulgaria's independence and stated that ‘Austria's policy will to a great extent govern that of England’.

126 For the army bill (Imperial Military Law) see preceding dispatch and n. 119 in this section.

127 An agreement to maintain the status quo in the Mediterranean was concluded between Britain and Italy – through German mediation – on 12 February 1887.

128 For the army bill (Imperial Military Law) see n. 119 in this section.

129 Elections to the Reichstag were held on 21 February 1887.

130 Victoria stayed in Aix-les-Bains from 6 to 28 April 1887.

131 The bill which amended the anti-Catholic legislation (May Laws; see n. 17 in Munich section) of 1873, 1874, and 1875, as well as the Third Mitigation Law of 11 July 1883 and the First Peace Law of 24 May 1886, was debated and passed in the Prussian upper house on 23 and 24 March 1887; the chamber of deputies followed suit on 27 April. The Second Peace Law came into effect on 29 April 1887.

132 Bismarck's speech of 1872, in which he refused to submit to Catholic influence in German affairs and used a reference to Heinrich IV's submission to the pope at Canossa in 1077 as an illustration of secular powers deferring to the Catholic Church, became renowned as the ‘we will not go to Canossa’ speech.

133 Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 27 March 1887.

134 Zentrumspartei.

135 Malet is referring to the demands for the reestablishment of temporal papal sovereignty following the takeover of the Papal States by the Italian kingdom in 1870.

136 Bismarck to Tauffkirchen, 17 April 1871.

137 In June 1871, on the occasion of Pius IX's 25th anniversary as pope (16 June).

138 Malet is referring to Antonelli's conversation with Tauffkirchen on 23 June 1871.

139 Bismarck to Tauffkirchen, 22 (telegram) and 30 June 1871.

140 Herbert von Bismarck.

141 Enclosure: confidential report No 34 by Colonel Swaine, Berlin, 20 April 1887.

142 Edward Malet.

143 Scott is referring to the struggle between the Russian foreign minister, Nikolai de Giers, and the conservative publicist Mikhail Katkov for primacy in Russian foreign policy. Katkov's anti-German agitation was paralleled in France by the minister of war, General Boulanger.

144 The bill was introduced on 22 April and passed by the Reichstag on 20 May 1887. For the underlying Imperial Military Act of 11 March 1887 see n. 119 in this section.

145 Guillaume Schnæbelé, an Alsatian-born French railway police officer, was arrested for crossing the Franco-German border on suspicion of espionage on 20 April 1887. He was subsequently released on 28 April.

146 French: ‘self-respect’.

147 Herbert von Bismarck.

148 Dated 13 and 16 April 1887.

149 Friedrich Wilhelm had cancer of the larynx. The operation (thyrotomy) was originally scheduled for 21 May, subsequently postponed and ultimately cancelled.

150 The 50th anniversary of Victoria's accession as queen was on 20 June 1887.

151 The Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung was alluding to the unresolved question of ‘Home Rule’ after the rejection of the Government of Ireland Bill in 1886.

152 Victoria.

153 The trial against three citizens from Alsace-Lorraine took place from 4 to 8 July. Two defendants, Tobias Klein and Martin Grabert, were sentenced to imprisonment for five and six years respectively; the third was acquitted. Enclosure: memorandum on treason trials at Leipzig, 9 July 1887.

154 Hermann Tessendorf.

155 For the Schnæbelé incident see pp. 83–84.

156 Herbert von Bismarck.

157 The trial against members of the Ligue Patriotique (a nationalist league founded in 1882) took place from 13 to 18 June at Leipzig and led to the conviction of four of the eight defendants (all from Alsace Lorraine).

158 The tax on foreign residents in France – on which the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung commented on 6 July – was discussed in the committee of the French chamber of deputies. It was proposed that foreigners pay a tax comparable to the fee for exemption from military service for French citizens.

159 Bismarck was referring to Article 11 of the Treaty of Frankfurt of 10 May 1871.

160 See the preceding dispatch.

161 Boulanger who, to the embarrassment of the French government had polled 100,000 votes in the Seine by-election despite not being a candidate, was appointed commander of an army corps in Clermont-Ferrand (on 28 June). About 10,000 of his supporters tried to prevent the departure of his train from Gare de Lyon on 8 July.

162 Berchem was referring to the preventive measures which had been taken against demonstrations in support of Boulanger on 14 July, and the failed interpellation regarding the government's general attitude and its position towards the royalist and clerical movements on 11 July 1887.

163 Naval manoeuvres in the Baltic took place until mid September.

164 Swaine's memorandum of 3 September 1887, enclosed in Malet's No 328, dealt with the German War Office's plans to order 1,000 large huts which would provide accommodation for an additional 50,000 men. According to Swaine's secret memorandum of 26 September (enclosure to No 360) this number was raised to 2,000 huts.

165 A border incident occurred near Raon-sur-Plaine on 24 September 1887 when a German soldier fired at a French hunting party; a servant was killed and an officer severely wounded. See also pp. 83–84 and 86–88.

166 Scott is referring to the test mobilization of the Seventeenth Army Corps, which was conducted in Toulouse on 1 September 1887.

167 Arthur Ritter von zu Eissenstein-Chotta.

168 Herbert von Bismarck.

169 Alexander III had been staying in Denmark since 26 August. On his return journey to Russia he visited Berlin, on 18 November 1887.

170 Otto von Bismarck.

171 Alexander III visited Berlin on 18 November 1887.

172 In his conversation of 1 November 1887.

173 French: ‘revenge’.

174 Herbert von Bismarck was referring to the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy of 1882 (renewed in February 1887). It pledged Austro-German support for Italy in the case of an attack by France.

175 Herbert von Bismarck – while retaining his post as first secretary in London – was attached to the embassy at St Petersburg from January to May 1884.

176 The address and the rescript to Otto von Bismarck are dated 12 March 1888; Wilhelm I died on 9 March.

177 Italian: ‘with love’.

178 Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung.

179 Kölnische Zeitung.

180 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei (see n. 3 in this section).

181 Wilhelm.

182 Enclosures: extract (untitled) from Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung and translation, 6 April 1888.

183 No enclosure in FO 64/1186.

184 Princess Viktoria and Alexander of Bulgaria became engaged in 1883. Despite dynastic and diplomatic objections concerning German relations with Russia, the marriage plan was renewed after Alexander's abdication as Prince of Bulgaria, in 1886, and again after the accession of Friedrich III. The matter was brought to public attention in April 1888 by newspaper articles which were largely directed against the German Empress, Victoria, who supported the marriage. The Kölnische Zeitung of 5 April, on the other hand, reported of rumours of Bismarck's resignation.

185 Queen Victoria was expected to visit Berlin on her return journey from Italy, and did so from 24 to 26 April 1888.

186 National-Zeitung, 14 April 1888.

187 Politische Korrespondenz (semi-official news agency from Vienna). The name of the correspondent is not traceable.

188 Victoria visited Berlin from 24 to 26 April 1888.

189 This refers to the ‘Battenberg affair’, on which see preceding dispatch.

190 Wilhelm.

191 On 25 April 1888.

192 Enclosures: original (untitled cutting), Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 27 April 1888 and translation.

193 Negotiations for a loan of 500 million roubles were entered into at St Petersburg in early April 1888. A smaller loan of 125 million roubles was finally agreed on in November 1888 between the Russian government and a French-led bank syndicate.

194 In 1885 as part of an international consortium.

195 N.M. Rothschild & Sons.

196 Kölnische Zeitung.

197 Eduardo de Launay.

198 Wilhelm I died on 9 March; Friedrich III died on 15 June 1888 and was succeeded by Wilhelm II.

199 Malet is referring to Friedrich's advanced stage of cancer of the larynx.

200 Victoria.

201 Herbert von Bismarck.

202 On 9 July 1888.

203 Mayor Hermann von Kemnitz.

204 Enclosures: original cutting of emperor's speech printed in Post, 18 August 1888 and translation.

205 Le Nord, a Russian controlled newspaper from Brussels, reported on 14 August 1888, that, according to the Danish press, a full reconciliation between Denmark and Germany was dependent on a plebiscite in the northern districts of Schleswig (as stipulated in Article 5 of the Peace of Prague of 1866).

206 Deutscher Reichs-Anzeiger und Königlich Preußischer Staats-Anzeiger.

207 Bennigsen stayed at Friedrichsruh from 7 August 1888.

208 For the army bill (Imperial Military Law) of 1887 see n. 119 in this section. The ‘Cartel’ (Kartell der Ordnungsparteien), a coalition and electoral alliance consisting of the Deutschkonservative Partei (Junker party), Freikonservative Partei (Reichspartei), and Nationalliberale Partei, was formed in February 1887.

209 Neue Preußische Zeitung (Kreuz-Zeitung).

210 The disputed question of denominational elementary schools was postponed until after the elections of the Prussian Landtag, which were to be held in October and November 1888. The suggestions to end the Cartel were made in the run-up to these elections.

211 Puttkammer was dismissed as minister of the interior on 8 June 1888.

212 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei; see n. 3 in this section.

213 Proclamation of 18 June 1888.

214 On 25 August 1888; the author of the article in question was Adolf Stoecker.

215 Speech at Sonnenberg on 23 August 1888.

216 Enclosures: untitled extract from Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 10 September 1885 and translation. The article was published in response to allegations made by the Russian press. Natalie had stayed in Wiesbaden from 17 May to 13 July 1888 when, against her will, her son was sent back to Belgrade upon the request of King Milan. Natalie was asked to leave 10 hours after the departure of the crown prince.

217 Otto von Bismarck.

218 12 October 1888.

219 Ernst Wilhelm Schütte.

220 Victoria.

221 The cypher book was eventually found in the Kronprinzenpalais at the end of October.

222 The Fatal Illness of Frederick the Noble (1888); the German edition (enclosure to dispatch) was published as Friedrich der Edle und seine Ärzte (1888). It was confiscated following an order of the court at Mühlheim of 14 October 1888.

223 The official report was published in July 1888 as Die Krankheit Kaiser Friedrichs III.

224 Geffcken was arrested on 29 September 1888 and prosecuted for high treason because he had published extracts of Friedrich III's diary written during the Franco-Prussian War.

225 Adolf Spaarmann.

226 French: ‘investigating magistrate’. Here, Georg Hirschfeld.

227 The article disputed that Friedrich's disagreements with the policies of Wilhelm I when he was crown prince had any political implications. It was published in the Nordddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung on 15 October 1888.

228 By-elections took place in three electoral districts before the re-opening of the Reichstag on 22 November; elections for the Prussian house of deputies were held on 30 October 1888.

229 On 16 December 1888 the Kölnische Zeitung accused Robert Morier of having betrayed Prussian military movements to Marshal Bazaine in August 1870. In his letter to Herbert von Bismarck of 19 December 1888, Morier demanded a public refutation. Bismarck, on 24 December, answered in the negative, whereupon Morier, on 31 December, declared his intention of publishing the correspondence. It was published in The Times and the Daily Telegraph on 4 January 1889.

230 Report of 2 April 1886. The report had been privately communicated to Morier by Herbert von Bismarck in March 1888.

231 Copies of Morier's letters of 25 July and 28 August 1888 (the latter containing Bazaine's denial) were sent to Hinzpeter on 5 October.

232 Reports of 2 April 1886 and 12 November 1888; they were published by the Kölnische Zeitung on 2 January 1889.

233 August Schmits.

234 The Times, 21 December 1888.

235 Herbert von Bismarck.

236 Name not traceable.

237 Swaine was military secretary of the expeditionary force to Egypt in 1882.

238 The honorary colonelcy was conferred on Victoria on 2 August 1889 on the occasion of Wilhelm II's visit to England.

239 Oberleutnant von Kotze.

240 Battle of Mars-La-Tour of 16 August 1870.

241 Enclosures: untitled extract, Deutscher Reichsanzeiger und Königlich Preußischer Staatsanzeiger, 2 October 1889 and translation, 4 October 1889.

242 On 26 September 1889.

243 Malet is referring to the National Liberals and the Free Conservatives; originally the Deutschkonservative Partei was part of the ‘Cartel’ party. See n. 208 in this section.

244 Alexander III visited Berlin from 11 to 13 October 1889.

245 On 11 October.

246 Herbert von Bismarck.

247 Wilhelm II left Potsdam for Athens and Constantinople on 18 October and returned on 15 November.

248 Abdul Hamid II.

249 The rescript addressed to Bismarck demanded the convocation of an European conference on social reform; the second proclamation of 4 February instructed ministers Berlepsch and Maybach to prepare legislation on social insurance, the regulation of working hours and conditions, and the representation of labour.

250 On 31 January 1890.

251 Elections for the Reichstag were to be held on 20 February 1890.

252 Bismarck handed in his letter of resignation on 18 March 1888. It was accepted by Wilhelm II on 20 March.

253 See preceding dispatch.

254 On 17 March 1890 (medical reasons were irrelevant).

255 Herbert von Bismarck offered his resignation on 21 March; he was dismissed on 26 March.

256 On 22 March Herbert von Bismarck suggested Alvensleben to be his successor but the latter declined, ultimately due to his lack of parliamentary and oratory skills. See also previous note.

257 On 24 March 1890.

258 Edward visited Berlin from 21 to 28 March 1889, then proceeded to Coburg. The dinner at the British embassy took place on 24 March.

259 Bismarck left Berlin for Friedrichsruh on 29 March 1890.

260 Caprivi was referring to Bismarck's interviews published in the Russian Novoye Vremya (10 May 1890) and French Le Matin (18 May 1890). See n. 316 in Dresden section.

261 Article 335a, which prohibited the unauthorized disclosure of official documents, was introduced into the Imperial Criminal Code in 1876. It was a reaction to the Arnim affair of 1874 in which the former ambassador to Paris was charged of illegally retaining diplomatic documents, and subsequently sentenced to nine months imprisonment.

262 This is referring to the Triple Alliance (see n. 174 in this section).

263 Most probably on 21 March; the day after Bismarck's dismissal.

264 Caprivi was referring to his speech in the Prussian house of deputies of 15 April 1890.

265 The Italian government, under Francesco Crispi, handed in its resignation after a parliamentary defeat over a financial bill on 31 January 1891. It was succeeded on 6 February. For the Triple Alliance see n. 174 in this section.

266 Norddeutsche Allgemeine, 2 February 1891.

267 On 4 February 1891.

268 The elections of 23 and 30 November saw the victory of the ministerial party, the Sinistra Storica.

269 Antonio Starabba di Rudini.

270 The article disputed reports that the Prussian ministerial council (Ministerrat), on 15 February 1891, had deliberated on measures against Bismarck's press activities. Enclosures: untitled cutting and translation from Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of 20 February 1891.

271 On 13 February 1891.

272 On 20 February 1891.

273 See n. 261 in this section.

274 Bismarck stood for the by-election in Kehdingen and Neuhaus (Province of Hanover) and was elected member of the Reichstag in April 1891. As with his seat in the Prussian upper house (of which he had been a member since 1849) he did not attend the sittings.

275 From 16 January to 10 March 1891.

276 Victoria.

277 Waldersee tendered his resignation at the end of January; he was dismissed on 2 February 1891.

278 Leszczynski – who had invited Bismarck for dinner on 9 January – was dismissed on 2 February; he was succeeded by Waldersee on the same day.

279 On 19 September 1890.

280 See previous dispatch.

281 The visit actually took place on 12 February 1891.

282 Victoria visited Paris on her way to London from 18 to 27 February 1891.

283 The international arts exhibition – celebrating the 50th jubilee of the Verein Berliner Künstler – was opened on 1 May under the patronage of Wilhelm II and Victoria.

284 Victoria visited the ruins of the Château de Saint-Cloud and the Palace of Versailles on 24 February. This was seen as a provocation due to the symbolism associated with their role in the Franco-Prussian War, and the subsequent proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor in 1871.

285 During Victoria's visit adherents of the Ligue des Patriotes decorated the Strasbourg statue at La Place de la Concorde with French flags and also placed a wreath on the monument of Henri Regnault, a painter who had fallen during the siege of Paris in January 1871. The wreath was removed by the government for bearing the initials of the banned Ligue (L.D.P.), but was subsequently replaced after Déroulède threatened to interpellate in the National Assembly.

286 On 28 February 1891, the imperial ministry for Alsace-Lorraine decreed the strict implementation of the passport regime which had been introduced on 22 May 1888 but subsequently relaxed. Amongst other things, the regulation imposed visa requirements on all French citizens who crossed the border to Alsace-Lorraine, but this was abrogated in September 1891.

287 The Boulangist movement declined in 1889 after Boulanger, fearing arrest for conspiracy and treason, fled to Brussels and then London. He was tried in absentia for treason later that year.

288 The imperial ukase prohibiting the export of rye, rye flour, and bran was issued on 11 August and came into effect on 27 August.

289 Sitting of the Prussian state ministry (Staatsministerium) on 15 August 1891.

290 The commercial treaties with Austria-Hungary and Italy were signed on 6 December and passed by the Reichstag on 18 December 1891.

291 On 15 August 1891.

292 A bull market being a buoyant period when prices rise; a bear market being when prices fall and financial pessimism sets in.

293 Deutscher Reichs-Anzeiger und Königlich Preußischer Staats-Anzeiger of 14 August 1891.

294 The reduction in tariffs was agreed during the negotiations for the new commercial treaty in March and April 1891 at Vienna. The draft treaty to which Malet is referring to was concluded on 3 May; the final treaty was signed on 6 December 1891.

295 Leo XIII.

296 The elementary school bill made significant concessions to clerical and Catholic interests; it was introduced in the Prussian house of deputies on 15 January 1892.

297 Malet is here referring to Caprivi's speeches in the house of deputies on 22 and 29 January 1892.

298 Caprivi handed in his resignation as Prussian minister president and foreign minister, as well as German chancellor, on 18 March 1892. On 24 March he was dismissed as minister president but retained his two other posts.

299 The article dated 27 April (Enclosure: ‘The Triple Alliance’, The Times, 28 April 1892) reported a rumour that the Italian prime minister ‘will intimate … that Italy can no longer support the burden of armaments … and the consent of the German Government would be necessary before any reduction could be carried out without a breach of Italy's written engagements’. Furthermore, the Italian proposal would be followed by a similar one from Austria. For the Triple Alliance see n. 174 in this section.

300 Name not traceable. The last correspondent, J.B. Richards, died on 5 April 1892.

301 Umberto I and Margherita visited Potsdam and Berlin from 20 to 24 June 1892.

302 Auguste Viktoria.

303 Enclosures: original cuttings ‘Fürst Bismarck in Jena’, Post, 1 August 1892 and untitled extract from Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 2 August 1892; précis of Prince Bismarck's speeches at Jena on 30 and 31 July 1892.

304 Enclosure: untitled extract, Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 4 August 1892 and translation.

305 See pp. 138–139.

306 Archibald Primrose, the 5th Earl of Rosebery, became foreign secretary on 18 August 1892.

307 Leo von Caprivi.

308 Enclosures: untitled cutting from Deutscher Reichsanzeiger und Königlich Preußischer Staatsanzeiger, 13 August 1892 and translation.

309 In early July 1892.

310 Malet was on leave of absence from 15 July and stayed at Homburg until 10 September when he left for England.

311 Diplomatic relations were interrupted on 16 October 1892 in the course of the ‘Zappa Affair’, a dispute over the will of a Greek merchant who had resided and died in Romania in 1865, and to whose estate the Greek government laid claim.

312 The army bill stipulated a reduction in military service from three to two years (infantry) and allocated supplies for a perpetual peacetime army of 492,086 men (an increase of 72,037 men) for seven years. It was introduced in the Reichstag on 23 November 1892.

313 Article 57 of the imperial constitution of 1871.

314 The ‘civil employment’ of German soldiers and sailors was regulated by decrees of 10 September 1882 and 20 June 1885. Enclosure: report No 1 by Colonel Swaine on the state employment of all soldiers and sailors, Berlin, 3 January 1893.

315 On 10 June 1892.

316 Enclosure: translation of letter by Albrecht of Prussia which appeared in Vorwärts on 13 May 1893.

317 The monument was unveiled by Wilhelm II on 18 May 1893.

318 Heinrich von Stephan.

319 Commercial treaties were concluded with Austria-Hungary, Italy, Belgium, Switzerland (all December 1891 and put into effect from February 1892), with Servia (August 1892, effected in January 1894), Spain (August 1893, but not ratified by Spain), Rumania (October 1893, in effect from January 1894), and Russia (February 1894, effected in March 1894). All treaties were based on a most favoured nation clause and set to last until 31 December 1903.

320 The Reichstag was dissolved on 6 May 1893. For the rejection of the army bill see n. 322 in this section.

321 Elections to the Reichstag were held on 15 June 1893.

322 The army bill (see n. 312 in this section) and the ‘Huene compromise’ proposed by Karl von Hoiningen-Huene (which reduced the intended increase of army strength from 72,037 to 59,198 men) were rejected by the Reichstag on 6 May 1893. A revised bill was introduced in the newly elected Reichstag on 7 July and passed on 14 July.

323 The treaty with Serbia was signed on 21 August 1892; the treaty with Romania was initialled on 9 April and signed on 21 October 1893. Negotiations with Russia started in October 1893. For the commercial treaties see also n. 319 in this section.

324 Schorlemmer-Alst was candidate for the electoral district Bochum-Witten.

325 Alexander Condie Stephen.

326 Alfred succeeded as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 22 August 1893.

327 On 26 August the Reichsbote stated that the thought of a foreigner on a German throne was intolerable.

328 Article 9 of the constitution of 1852 (Staatsgrundgesetz für die Herzogtümer Coburg und Gotha).

329 Alfred took the oath on 23 August at Reinhardsbrunn Castle. See pp. 152–153.

330 Wilhelm visited the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine from 3 to 9 September 1893.

331 Monsieur Dory, on 3 September.

332 On 3 September.

333 Enclosure: confidential memorandum by Colonel Swaine, Metz, 5 September 1893.

334 Vittorio Emanuele.

335 Adolf Freiherr Marschall von Bieberstein.

336 Alfred succeeded as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 22 August 1893. Enclosures: oath taken by Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha upon his accession to the ducal throne printed in Deutscher Reichs-Anzeiger, 26 August 1893 and translation.

337 Both Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha each had their own Landtag; the joint Landtag consisted of the members of the two assemblies.

338 Preamble of the imperial constitution of 1871.

339 The festivities referred to took place on the first day of the visit of a Russian naval squadron at Toulon from 13 to 28 October; a delegation of 50 Russian officers visited Paris from 17 to 27 October.

340 The French naval squadron visited Kronstadt between 23 July and 8 August 1891.

341 French: ‘One wished, so it would seem, to water down the French wine.’

342 On 13 October 1893.

343 French: ‘outstanding acumen’.

344 Frederick.

345 Bülow was appointed on 20 December 1883.

346 Maria von Bülow was the daughter of Domenico Beccadelli di Bologna.

347 Wilhelm II visited Rome from 20 to 27 April 1883. Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy's wedding anniversary was on 21 April; the garden party at the British embassy was on 24 April.

348 Herbert von Bismarck.

349 Francesco Crispi took office as prime minister on 15 December 1893.

350 For the Triple Alliance see n. 174 in this section.

351 The Italian irredentist movement demanded the cession of the Italian speaking parts of Austria-Hungary to the Italian kingdom.

352 Malet is referring to the second Brazilian naval revolt against the central government in Rio de Janeiro which broke out in September 1893 and was suppressed in March 1894. Wilhelm II was sympathetic to the allegedly royalist insurgents.

353 French: ‘bluntly’.

354 The commercial treaty with Russia – based on a most favoured nation clause – was concluded on 10 February 1894 and passed by the Reichstag on 16 March. It came into effect on 20 March.

355 On 26 February 1894.

356 Leo von Caprivi.

357 On 20 March 1894.

358 Notes on docket: ‘This draft note is good and civil, but it would be certain to be answered, perhaps unpleasantly. Our real object is to anticipate a joint attack by Germany and France resp[ecting] the Niger Navigation. It might be best that Sir E. Malet should send the regulations with a note in the sense of the bracketed passages of the draft and speak in the sense of the remainder when he thinks it advisable.’ H.P.A. [Henry Percy Anderson]; ‘I quite agree. The note would only irritate and produce a long winded reply in the “best” German Chancery style.’ K[imberley], 18 April; ‘Dft [draft] accordingly’, 21 April].

359 Malet is referring to the German agreement with Great Britain of 14 April and 15 November 1893 respecting the borders of the German Cameroon colony, and the agreements with France of 4 February and 15 March 1894.

360 The revised regulations for the Royal Niger Company were issued on 19 April 1894. According to Kimberley, in his dispatch to Malet of 11 April 1894, these regulations were ‘at least as favourable to foreign trade as those [that] apply to any other river open to general navigation’. Notwithstanding German accusations against the Niger Company and complaints that navigating the Niger was ‘next to impossible’, ‘Great Britain as the riparian Power, has done its utmost to assist the passage of vessels engaged in peaceful commerce’.

361 Enclosure: Draft, Malet to Marschall, Berlin, April 1894.

362 Malet is probably referring to Kayser's complaints about the attitude of the Royal Niger Company, which he made in a conversation with Martin Gosselin on 6 April 1894.

363 Latin: ‘for further consideration’.

364 Note on docket: ‘Sir E. Hertslet as to the point of international law. As reflecting the views of the Colonial Office the articles are not satisfactory.’ C.Ll.H. [Clement Lloyd Hill]; ‘We must await what the German Govt may say after more mature reflection. The point of international law is not made officially. There are two mistakes. The frontiers of the Congo State have not been settled by international agreement. The frontier with the German sphere will not be altered unless our road runs along it which is unnecessary. It should be an interior road.’ H.P.A. [Henry Percy Anderson], 20 May; ‘The Germans did not consult us when they gave the French access to the Niger.’ K[imberley], 29 May.

365 The treaty with Leopold II of 12 May 1894 settled the limits of the Congo Free State. It granted the Congo access to the Nile valley (while recognizing British sovereign rights) and stipulated the lease to Britain of a corridor of land from Lake Tanganyika to Lake Edward, thus linking British ‘possessions’ in southern Africa and Uganda.

366 On the basis of the Final Act of the Berlin West Africa Conference (26 February 1885) Leopold II declared the Congo Free State to be permanently neutral; its neutrality, however, was not internationally guaranteed.

367 On 25 May 1894.

368 Enclosures: précis of article ‘England's agreement with the Congo State’, National Zeitung, 25 May 1894; précis of article ‘Germany, England and the Congo State’, National Zeitung, Evening Edition, 25 May 1894.

369 On 24 June Carnot was stabbed by an Italian anarchist and died the following day.

370 Telegram to Cécile Carnot of 25 June 1894.

371 On 1 July Wilhelm II pardoned Robert Degouy and Jacques Delguey de Malavas – two French naval officers who, in December 1893, had been sentenced to six and four years imprisonment respectively for espionage.

372 Herbette visted Wilhelm II on 28 June 1894.

373 Jacques Delguey de Malavas.

374 French: ‘staging’.

375 The funeral was on 1 July.

376 Article 4.

377 For the commercial treaties see nn. 319 and 354 in this section.

378 Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst and Köller were appointed on 29 October 1894. For Caprivi's resignation as chancellor see the following dispatch.

379 Caprivi handed in his resignation on 23 October and was dismissed on 26 October 1894.

380 Federal Council, on 24 October 1894.

381 The so-called ‘subversion bill’ (bill for the amendment and amplification of the Criminal Code, the Military Penal Code, and the Press Law), drafted by the Imperial Office for Justice and more moderate than Eulenberg's proposal, was discussed in the Prussian council of ministers (Staatsministerium) on 19 October and found approval in the Federal Council on 25 October 1894. It was introduced in the Reichstag on 5 December 1894 and subsequently rejected on 11 May 1895.

382 Hugo Graf von Lerchenfeld, Wilhelm Graf von Hohenthal, Axel Freiherr Varnbüler, and Eugen von Jagemann.

383 On 26 October 1894.

384 Hohenlohe was appointed on 29 October.

385 French: ‘at a distance’.

386 Eulenburg, who, in contrast to Caprivi, was prepared to impose anti-socialist measures and advocated a coup d’état against the Reichstag, resigned as Prussian minister president on 24 October and was dismissed on 26 October.

387 On 5 November 1894.

388 Probably H. Gale, director of Railway and Works Contractor Ltd.

389 The South West Africa Company Limited, an Anglo-German joint venture in German South West Africa, was founded in 1892 under English law and had its headquarters in London.

390 Malet was on leave from 16 October to 26 November 1894.

391 Marschall was referring to the editorial in the Standard of 12 November 1894. It pointed to the imminent isolation of Germany on the basis of Rosebery's Guildhall speech on foreign policy of 9 November, and the Anglo-Russian agreement on Central Asia.

392 Rhodes, prime minister of the Cape Colony, had attempted to buy Delagoa Bay (Maputo Bay) – the terminus of the railway line from Pretoria – from Portugal.

393 Marschall was referring to the failed Samoa conference at Washington in 1887.

394 On 3 December 1894 Grover Cleveland, in his State of the Union address, signalled American intentions to withdraw from the condominium governing the Samoan Islands (composed of Germany, the United States, and Great Britain) which had been created by the Treaty of Berlin in 1889.

395 In their conversation of 26 January Malet and Marschall discussed the implications of the German ‘tendency to coquetry with the Government’ of the South African Republic (Transvaal) and Germany's plan to send a naval ship to Delagoa Bay for the opening of the railway line to the Transvaal. From Marschall's point view this was a ‘mere act of courtesy’; however, it could not, in Malet's opinion, ‘fail to raise hopes in the mind of President Krüger which might do harm’.

396 Marschall was referring to Rhodes's undisguised ambition to incorporate the South African Republic into the Cape Colony.

397 The account of the interview was published in the Neue Preußische Zeitung (Kreuzzeitung) of 27 January 1895. The correspondent's name is not traceable.

398 Cape Colony.

399 Speech at the Imperial Institute, London, on 28 January 1878.

400 In his private letter of 30 January Kimberley referred to President Kruger's toast to the Kaiser on the occasion of Wilhelm II's birthday (on 27 January 1895) and addressed the ambivalent German position towards the South African Republic.

401 Article 4 of the London Convention of 27 February 1884 stipulated that the ‘South African Republic will conclude no treaty or engagement with any State or nation other than the Orange Free State … until the same has been approved by Her Majesty the Queen.’

402 French: ‘badly brought up gentleman’.

403 Malet was referring Jameson's idea of a future ‘commercial union, amalgamation, or federation of all South African States’ as brought forward in the speech of 28 January.

404 French: ‘black spot’.

405 Walvis Bay was an enclave in German South West Africa which had been in British hands since 1878, before being formally annexed to the Cape Colony in 1884.

406 On 23 March 1895. The proposal was made by the president of the Reichstag, Albert von Levetzow. Bismarck's birthday was on 1 April.

407 Zentrumspartei (Catholics).

408 Gosselin is referring to the ‘subversion bill’ (Umsturzvorlage) which had been introduced in the Reichstag on 5 December 1894. See n. 381 in this section.

409 On 23 March 1895.

410 See n. 208 in this section.

411 See preceding dispatch.

412 Wilhelm.

413 Walther Bronsart von Schellendorff.

414 Wilhelm von Hahnke, Gustav von Senden-Bibran, and Hermann von Lucanus.

415 The Kiel Canal (Kaiser Wilhelm-Kanal) linked Brunsbüttel and Kiel.

416 On 19 and 21 June 1895.

417 Only one French admiral, Rear Admiral Ménard, was present.

418 Jules Herbette.

419 Note on docket: ‘Thank for interesting resumé’, C.Ll.H [Clement Lloyd Hill]; ‘The various communications between Lord Kimberley and Count Hatzfeldt might be added. On one point Mr Gosselin is mistaken. The arrangement between the steamship companies allows the British Companies to run to Lorenzo Marques but not north of it. Mr Donald Curne tells me that both his line and the Union line will continue to trade in Delagoa Bay. This might be explained.’ H.P.A. [Henry Percy Anderson], 31 October. ‘Done’, 11 November; S[alisbury].

420 British sovereignty over Amatongaland (Tongaland) was proclaimed on 23 April and publicly announced on 11 June. Marschall's answer is dated 25 October and contained, apart from the customary acknowledgements, the observation that the South African Republic had protested against this annexation of territories.

421 The revolts and attempted attacks by the population, here derogatively called ‘Kaffirs’, on Lourenço Marques (Maputo), a Portuguese port in Delagoa Bay, stemmed from resistance to Portuguese taxation and interference in a succession dispute.

422 On 1 March 1895.

423 The cruiser Seeadler was ordered from Kilwa on 15 October 1894; Condor left Germany on 16 October and arrived at Lourenço Marques on 15 December.

424 Walter Freiherr von Bissing.

425 See pp. 171–173.

426 Pfeil was appointed commissary consul at Lourenço Marques on 29 January 1895.

427 On 27 June 1895.

428 The Delagoa-Pretoria Railway was opened at Pretoria on 8 and 9 July. A deputation of German naval officers from the Condor visited Pretoria on 8 July 1895.

429 Dated 17 July 1895; Kruger visited the Condor on the same day.

430 Convention of 10 April 1895.

431 ‘Die Wiedergeburt Ägyptens im Lichte eines aufgeklärten Islam’, Berliner Rundschau, No 24, 10 July 1895.

432 See n. 379 in this section.

433 Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.

434 Latin: ‘to that extent’.

435 Nicholas married Alix of Hesse (Alexandra Feodorovna) on 26 November 1894.

436 On 1 July 1895 the territory that had been claimed by the British East Africa Company in 1888 was placed under the protectorate of Great Britain (East Africa Protectorate). Zanzibar and Pemba had already become a British protectorate, following the Anglo-German agreement of 1 July 1890, known as the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, which amongst other things, regulated the frontiers of East Africa. In return for the recognition of British interests in the Zanzibar region Britain ceded the islands of Heligoland to Germany.

437 Helmuth von Moltke; the picture was presented to the tsar on 30 September.

438 Enclosure: cutting of image entitled Völker Europas wahrt eure heiligsten Güter (Peoples of Europe, Protect Your Most Sacred Possessions), designed by Kaiser Wilhelm II; lithograph by Hermann Knackfuss, 1895.

439 On 1 November 1895.

440 Köller handed in his resignation on 2 December 1895; he was dismissed on 8 December.

441 Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.

442 See n. 381 in this section.

443 On 29 November 1895 the Berlin police dissolved 11 social democratic associations (Vereine), including the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party.

444 Delbrück, in an article entitled‘Politische Korrespondenz’, dated 20 September 1895, which appeared in the October issue of Preußische Jahrbücher, termed the measures against Social Democrats ‘Thorheiten der Polizei’ (the foolishness of the police). At Köller's instigation he was charged with defamation on 2 November.

445 On 30 November 1895.

446 Köller was the only Prussian minister who opposed the reform of military criminal procedure, in particular the introduction of public trials. The dispute culminated when Bronsart von Schellendorf, in the sittings of the war ministry of 13 and 18 November, accused Köller of indiscretions and suspected him of leaking internal matters to the press.

447 French: ‘an outgoing minister’.

448 Bund der Landwirte. Details of the letter could not be established.

449 Enclosure: confidential memorandum by Cecil Spring-Rice recording his conversation with Dr Sieveking, undated.

450 The crossing into the Transvaal (‘Jameson Raid’) started on 29 December 1895 and ended on 2 January 1896 when the invading force, under Jameson, the administrator general of the chartered company for Matabeleland, surrendered. It aimed to incite an uprising among the foreign (and especially British) residents of the South African Republic (Uitlanders) who, amongst other things, demanded citizenship and voting rights.

451 The telegram, dated 31 December 1894, stated Chamberlain's intention ‘to avert violence and restore tranquillity’ in South Africa.

452 Telegram of 31 December from Marschall to Paul von Hatzfeldt.

453 Telegram of 1 January 1896 on Hatzfeld's conversation with Salisbury of the same day.

454 See n. 401 in this section.

455 Delagoa Bay railway line, opened on 8 July 1895.

456 Enclosure: untitled extract from the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of 5 January 1896.

457 Henry Cockayne-Cust; telegram of 4 January 1896.

458 In his telegram of 3 January 1896 Wilhelm II congratulated the president of the South African Republic, Kruger, on repelling the ‘Jameson Raid’ (see n. 450 in this section), on restoring peace and maintaining the independence of the country without appealing to the help of friendly powers.

459 See n. 401 in this section.

460 The Pretoria Convention (3 August 1881) was the peace treaty between the South African Republic and the United Kingdom which ended the First Boer War.

461 Correspondence respecting the Convention Concluded with the South African Republic on the 27th February 1884, March 1884.

462 The draft was submitted on 26 November 1883; it was rejected by the Earl of Derby in his letter to the Transvaal deputation of 29 November 1883.

463 Frank C. Lascelles’ Telegram No 3 to Salisbury, marked Africa, 6 January 1896, was drawn up in consultation with Marschall.

464 Victoria to Wilhelm II, dated Osborne, 5 January 1896.

465 For the so-called Kruger telegram see n. 458 in this section.

466 Lascelles is referring to Grierson's conversation with Wilhelm II as they attended the wedding of Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Ernst II, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, which took place on 20 April 1896.

467 According to a report from Barberton, printed in the Times of 20 April 1896, uniforms and other military equipment had been found in the luggage of German passengers on board the Bundesrath, which had landed at Delagoa Bay on 14 April.

468 Marschall was referring to Chamberlain's speech at the Constitutional Club, London, on 22 April 1896.

469 Aktenstücke betreffend die Südafrikanische Republik, published on 12 February 1896.

470 Outlander or Uitlander; Afrikaans for ‘foreigner’ (see n. 450 in this section).

471 In his speech of 22 April Chamberlain characterized the Transvaal government as ‘defective and corrupt’.

472 On 18 June 1896.

473 Enclosures: ‘Reichstags- Verhandlungen’ (‘Reichstag proceedings’), Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 19 June 1896. Report entitled ‘The Bashford Case’ based on an uncited Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung article of 17 June 1896. Précis by Spring-Rice entitled ‘Interpellation of the Antisemites on the subject of Mr Bashford’, 18 June 1896.

474 Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.

475 On 2 June G. Seymour Fort resigned from his post as managing director at Warmbad as a result of an article on the ‘Jameson Raid’ (see n. 450 in this section), published in the June issue of The Nineteenth Century, In this he insinuated secret understandings between Germany and the Transvaal.

476 Notes on docket (also printed as official Minutes on Berlin No 124, Africa, July 15 1896). ‘See typed copy of following: The subject is one that requires very careful consideration. I will submit an expression of my views separatly [sic], or rather a compromise between my own views & those of Mr Alfred Sharpe, as I find there is some divergence between them and that Mr Sharpe in his recent private correspondence can adduce good reasons for not following me more than a certain distance in my desire to control the destruction of certain animals.’ H.H.J. [Henry Hamilton Johnston]; ‘I have not read Major von Wissmann's proposals, but in principle I think it very desirable that a sort of “park” should be marked out, within which certain animals should be sacred. I have discussed this question with several Officials at Mombasa & think we should reserve a certain district in Kikuyu and another in Ukambani and perhaps another on the Tana. We should have to have 3 European rangers whose business it would be to see that our regulations were observed. When the railway is made, Africa will be flooded with Sportsmen making for the Athi plains. We should not lose in B.E.A. [British East Africa] by the diversion of trade to Portuguese Africa – our ivory hunters would not go so far South. There is already a Company's regulation prohibiting the killing of cow-elephants & I believe the tusks can be distinguished from the bulls’, so there ought to be no difficulty in enforcing it. I would suggest sending Major von Wissmann's proposals to Mr Crawford & asking him to draft a set of regulations for B.E.A. following the German lines wherever practicable or advisable.’ A.H.H. [Arthur Henry Hardinge]; ‘Sir John Kirk thinks that we should do better by keeping sportsmen out of certain large areas than by attempting to control what foes are within them. He would strictly enforce against sportsmen the regulations of the Brussels Act as to stamping arms & the regulations as to licenses already existing. He thinks the areas should not be traversed by a main road, shd not be near a foreign frontier & shd not be in too thickly inhabited districts & that they shd be large. He suggests that one might be near the Tana, and then in the Kenia ranges, & a third on the Man heights, but agrees in asking local advice. We have already called special local attention to the matter & might now, as suggested by Mr Hardinge, tell Mr Crawford to draft regulations for approval.’ C.Ll. H. [Clement Lloyd Hill], 3 August; S[alisbury]; Draft, 14 August & Draft, Sir F. Lascelles, No 132, 17 August].

477 On 7 May 1896 Hermann von Wissmann, governor of German East Africa, issued a wildlife ordinance which stipulated restrictive regulations for hunting. A Runderlaß (circular directive) of the same day justified these measures and proposed the establishment of game reserves; the first two were to be west of Mount Kilimanjaro and on the Rufiji River.

478 Wissmann had left Africa on 11 May 1896 and visited Berlin in early July.

479 Enclosure: précis of a leading article in the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of 22 July 1896 on the question of deporting criminals to South West Africa.

480 On 30 May 1896 the general meeting of the Colonial Society referred the question of penal settlements to the society's standing committee.

481 Kayser was referring to the Bagne de Cayenne (Devil's Island), a penal colony in French Guiana.

482 Hatzfeldt was on leave of absence from 1 September. He returned from Sommerberg to London in mid November 1896.

483 Hatzfeldt was referring to Britain's policy towards Turkey since 1895. As he understood it, Great Britain – in light of the Turkish policy towards the Armenian people and the Hamidian massacres – was considering the division of the Ottoman Empire and thus abandoning the leading principle of her Eastern policy.

484 Khalid succeeded to the position of Sultan of Zanzibar without British consent, on 25 August 1896. On the day of the one-day Anglo-Zanzibar War, on 27 August, he took refuge at the German consulate. On 2 October he was brought to Dar es Salaam (German East Africa) where he sought political asylum.

485 British South Africa Company (founded 1889). Hatzfeldt was referring to conflicts with the German colonial authorities in German South West Africa (Namibia) from 1888, when Hendrik Witbooi became chief of the |Khowesin (Witbooi) people. He conditionally surrendered in 1894.

486 Lascelles is referring to the Hamidian massacres against the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire; see also n. 557 in Dresden section.

487 The secret Reinsurance Treaty between Germany and Russia of 18 June 1887 – and its non-renewal in 1890 – was exposed in the Hamburger Nachrichten of 24 October 1896. The notice in the Deutscher Reichs-Anzeiger und Königlich Preußischer Staats-Anzeiger was published on 27 October. Enclosure: clipping entitled ‘Deutschland. Die Hamburger Enthüllungen’, and translation (both undated).

488 13 March 1881.

489 In the secret treaty of 7 October 1879 (published on 3 February 1888), which brought about the so-called Dual Alliance, Austria and Germany pledged to aid one another in the case of an attack by Russia, or in the event of an attack by a Russian-supported power. In all other cases it was agreed to observe benevolent neutrality.

490 See pp. 303–304.

491 The date of the Reinsurance Treaty (1887) was not disclosed by the Hamburger Nachrichten and still unknown at the time of the dispatch.

492 Enclosure: secret memorandum recording conversation between Spring-Rice and Mr Detring, undated.

493 Alexander Michie.

494 Qing dynasty.

495 The Taiping Rebellion of 1850–1864 was a civil war between the Qing government and the religious-social movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace in southern China.

496 Guangxu Emperor; he was enthroned as emperor despite belonging to the same generation as his predecessor and cousin, Tongzhi Emperor.

497 Lascelles is referring to the Reichstag debate of 16 November 1896. For the disclosure of the existence of the Russo-German Reinsurance Treaty, and its non-renewal in 1890, see n. 487 in this section.

498 Zentrumspartei (Catholics).

499 The so-called Triple Intervention of 23 April 1895 demanded the return of the Liaodong Peninsula from Japan to China, which had previously been ceded by China in the peace treaty of Shimonoseki of 17 April 1896. In his Reichstag speech Marschall stated that German overseas interests would probably provide future opportunity for the co-operation of the three powers.

500 In his speech Marschall expressed the general German desire for friendly relations with ‘other powers with that respect for their rights which they may accord to ours’.

501 Victoria.

502 Leo von Caprivi.

503 Sayyid Khalid; see n. 484 in this section.

504 The Hamburg dock strike began on 21 November 1896 and ended, unsuccessfully, on 6 February 1897.

505 Tom Mann, a British trade unionist, who had been evicted from Hamburg on 15 September, returned on 23 November. He was arrested on 26 November.

506 Lascelles is referring to Marschall's speech of 8 February 1897 which dealt with future German trade policy and commercial treaties. For the communication of the emperor see n. 508 below.

507 Lascelles is referring to the editorial titled Unsere Handelspolitk (Our Trade Policy) in the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of 11 February 1897.

508 On 11 February 1897 Wilhelm II presented the Reichstag library with tables that he had drawn up himself, which compared the naval strength of Germany, France, Russia, the United States, Japan, and France.

509 Lascelles is referring to the Sino-French War when, in February 1885, France declared rice as contraband. Unlike Great Britain, Germany did not protest against this measure.

510 Board of Trade, Memorandum on the Comparative Statistics of Population, Industry, and Commerce in the United Kingdom and some Leading Foreign Countries, presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, January 1897 [C.8322].

511 Lascelles is referring to the Reichstag motion by August Bebel of 12 May 1897 to abolish the classification of lèse-majesty as criminal offence and to the bill respecting the right of assembly and association, introduced in the Prussian house of deputies on 13 May 1897.

512 Lascelles is probably referring to Wilhelm's telegram to his brother Heinrich of 20 April, in which he reprimanded the Reichstag and insulted its deputies for having rejected large parts the navy budget. The letter's content was leaked to the public after having been read out by Heinrich to the crew of his cruiser.

513 Walther Bronsart von Schellendorff; on 14 August 1896.

514 Lascelles is referring to a trial against two journalists at the end of which, on 7 December 1896, Eugen von Tausch, superintendent of the political police, was arrested for perjury. Tausch, who had sold confidential information to the press and disseminated political misinformation, was on trial from 24 May to 4 June 1897 and was ultimately acquitted.

515 The Military Penal Code was presented to the Federal Council by Prussia on 8 May 1897. See n. 186 in Munich section.

516 On 27 June 1896.

517 Lascelles is referring to the bill respecting the right of assembly and association introduced in the Prussian house of deputies on 13 May 1897. It was rejected on 24 July.

518 The navel estimates, which reflected Wilhelm II's intention to expand the German navy, were decreased by the budget committee and passed by the Reichstag on 28 March 1897.

519 Wilhelm II on 14 May 1889, at an audience with a delegation of striking coal miners.

520 Wilhelm II, in a speech to the members of the provincial diet of Brandenburg, on 24 February 1894 .

521 Wilhelm II, in a telegram to Prince Heinrich of 20 April 1897.

522 Not a literal quote. Lascelles is referring to Wilhelm's telegram to Bismarck of 23 March 1885, after the Reichstag refused to congratulate Bismarck on his 80th birthday.

523 Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.

524 Lascelles is referring to anti-Greek policy (and Wilhelm II's plan to blockade Greece) in the run-up to, and during, the Greco-Turkish War (5 April to 8 May 1897).

525 The bill was passed on 19 May 1897; it came into effect (as the law of 9 June 1897) on 1 April 1898.

526 Paul Förster.

527 Lascelles is referring to Marschall's Reichstag speech in the second reading of the navy estimates on 18 March 1897.

528 Victoria celebrated the 60th anniversary of her reign (her Diamond Jubilee) on 22 June 1897.

529 ‘In the entourage of’; an honorary military title with no official position.

530 Auguste Viktoria.

531 Marschall was officially dismissed on 19 October 1897. Enclosure: translation of Wolff's telegraphic correspondence, Kiel, 28 June 1897.

532 For the Tausch trial see n. 514 in this section.

533 Marschall was on leave of absence from 4 June 1897.

534 24 June 1897.

535 On 28 June 1897.

536 The naval bill, which authorized the maintenance of nineteen battleships and the building of seven vessels, was introduced in the Reichstag on 30 November 1897 and passed on 28 March 1898. It became law on 10 April 1898.

537 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei.

538 On 18 June 1897.

539 The eight Siegfried class vessels, built between 1888 and 1896, were coastal defence ships (displacement of 3,500 tons).

540 The final law stipulated the fiscal year 1903.

541 Deutscher Reichsanzeiger und Königlich Preußischer Staatsanzeiger, 11 November 1897. The imperial rescript was dated 10 November.

542 For the imperial naval bill see n. 536 in this section; for the German Military Penal Code see n. 186 in Munich section.

543 Elections were held on 16 June 1898.

544 The last sitting of the Reichstag was on 25 June 1897.

545 Lascelles is referring to the elections of the Baden Landtag on 28 October 1897. For the events in Bavaria see pp. 550–552; for the Brunswick succession question, which was kept in discussion by the Guelph Braunschweigisch Landes-Rechts-Partei, see n. 65 in this section.

546 Lascelles is referring to the Landtag elections in Saxony of September and October 1897 when all candidates of the Freisinnige Volkspartei failed to win seats. The dispute was brought about by Richter's refusal to cooperate with the liberal Demokratische Volkspartei (Progressives) in order to avoid competing candidatures in the Reichstag elections of 1898.

547 Lascelles is referring to the conference of the Sozialdemokratische Partei at Hamburg from 3 to 9 October 1897; the resolution concerning the candidacy for Landtag elections was passed on 6 October.

548 The elections for the Prussian house of deputies were held on 3 November 1898.

549 In a conversation with Hohenlohe on 28 October Ernst Lieber – in exchange for the Zentrum’s support of the navy bill – demanded that Article 2 of the Anti-Jesuit Law (of 4 July 1872) be rescinded. This made it possible to restrict freedom of residence for Jesuits and to banish foreign members of the Jesuit order from Germany.

550 Elections took place on 15 June 1893.

551 By-election in the electoral district of Westprignitz on 8 November 1897.

552 Lascelles is referring to the replacements of Boetticher as vice chancellor and state secretary of the imperial office of the interior, Hollmann as state secretary of the naval office, and Marschall as state secretary for foreign affairs.

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Royal Historical Society Camden Fifth Series
  • ISSN: 0960-1163
  • EISSN: 1478-5110
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