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1 British Envoys to Germany, 1818–1866, Royal Historical Society, Camden Fifth Series, 4 vols (Cambridge, 2000–2010).

2 Kennedy, Paul M., The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism, 1860–1914 (London, 1980), p. 223.

3 For more recent historiography on Anglo-German relations before 1914, see Rüger, Jan, ‘Revisiting the Anglo-German Antagonism’, The Journal of Modern History, 83 (2011), pp. 579617.

4 British Documents on the Origins of War, 1898–1914, 11 vols (London 1926–1938); British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Part I, Series F, Europe, 35 vols (Frederick, MD, 1987–1991). The Foreign Office correspondence on Germany is available on microfilm from 1906 onwards: Confidential British Foreign Office Political Correspondence: Germany, Series 1, 1906–1925 : Part 1, 1906–1919 (Bethesda, MD, 2005).

5 The omission of the contested years 1867 to 1870 is intended to enable the publication of a substantial selection of dispatches on the Kaiserreich (1871–1897) in two coherent and balanced volumes, an aim that would have been compromised by the inclusion of the extensive reportage that was produced on the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. This gap will be closed in an additional volume.

6 See Roper, Michael, The Records of the Foreign Office, 1782–1968 (Kew, 2002), pp. 1518.

7 Malet to Rosebery, 25 September 1893, The National Archives, Kew (TNA), FO 64/1294 [unless otherwise stated dispatches of the years 1884 to 1897 are printed in this volume].

8 Note, dated 7 April 1907, TNA, FO 371/900/10715.

9 For a detailed account of the mind-set and principles behind foreign policy before 1914, see Otte, T.G., The Foreign Office Mind: The Making of British Foreign Policy, 1865–1914 (Cambridge, 2011). For perceptions of Germany, see Scully, Richard, British Images of Germany: Admiration, Antagonism & Ambivalence, 1860–1914 (Basingstoke, 2012) and the chapter ‘British Views of Germany, 1815–1914’, in James Retallack, Germany's Second Reich: Portraits and Pathways (Toronto, 2015), pp. 44–85.

10 Castlereagh, Circular No 2, 1 January 1816, TNA, FO 244/6.

11 Strachey to Salisbury, 7 July 1885, FO 68/169.

12 Barron to Granville, 7 February 1885, FO 82/170.

13 See, for example, Philippi, Hans, Das Königreich Württemberg im Spiegel der preußischen Gesandtschaftsberichte: 1871–1914 (Stuttgart, 1972); Kremer, Hans-Jürgen, Das Großherzogtum Baden in der politischen Berichterstattung der preußischen Gesandten 1871–1918, 2 vols (Stuttgart, 1990–1992); Baumgart, Winfried, Ein preußischer Gesandter in München: Georg Freiherr von Werthern: Tagebuch und politische Korrespondenz mit Bismarck 1867–1888 (Berlin, 2018). For German diplomatic documents between 1885 and 1897, see also Vols 4, 8, and 11 of Die Große Politik der europäischen Kabinette 1871–1914: Sammlung der diplomatischen Akten des Auswärtigen Amtes, 40 vols (Berlin, 1922–1927).

14 The British ambassador to Berlin was simultaneously accredited as minister plenipotentiary to Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mechlenburg-Strelitz, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Oldenburg, Anhalt-Dessau, and Brunswick.

15 For information on British missions and diplomats, see The Foreign Office List and Diplomatic and Consular Yearbook (London, 1852–1914); and A Directory of British Diplomats, compiled by Colin Mackie. Available at http://www.gulabin.com/britishdiplomatsdirectory/pdf/britishdiplomatsdirectory.pdf (accessed 26 July 2018).

16 See British Envoys to the Kaiserreich, 1871–1897, Vol. I, pp. 2–6.

17 First Report from the Select Committee on Diplomatic and Consular Services; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, and Index, 18 May 1871 [238] (1871), p. vi. On the select committees and on the development of the diplomatic service and the Foreign Office in general, see Jones, Raymond A., The British Diplomatic Service, 1815–1914 (Gerrards Cross, 1983); Otte, Thomas, ‘Old Diplomacy: Reflections on the Foreign Office before 1914’, Contemporary British History, 18, 3 (2004), pp. 3152; for the missions in Germany, see Mösslang, Markus, ‘Gestaltungsraum und lokale Lebenswelt: Britische Diplomaten an ihren deutschen Standorten, 1815–1914’, in von Thiessen, Hillard and Windler, Christian (eds), Akteure der Außenbeziehungen: Netzwerke und Interkulturalität im historischen Wandel (Cologne and Vienna, 2010), pp. 199215.

18 Speech in House of Commons, 28 July 1871, Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, Ser. III, Vol. 208 (1871), col. 440.

19 Speech in House of Commons, 30 August 1895, Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, Ser. IV, Vol. 36 (1895), col 1270.

20 Speech in House of Commons, 29 May 1913, Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, Ser. V, Vol. 53 (1913), col 445.

21 Estimates for Civil Services for the Year Ending 31 March 1885, House of Commons Sessional Papers 1884 (57), LII.1., p. 414.

22 Ibid., pp. 413–416.

23 Fourth Report of the Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Civil Establishments of the Different Offices of State at Home and Abroad [C.6172] (1890), Appendix, p. 183.

24 Evidence, Currie (27 November 1889), Fourth Report of the Royal Commission, qq. 27152–3.

25 Ibid. q. 27078.

26 Fourth Report of the Royal Commission, p. 11.

27 Barron to Currie, 12 March 1890, FO 82/175 (not included in this volume).

28 King Karl II was also invested with the Order of the Garter on 23 April 1890 – possibly a further source of consolation. See The London Gazette, 9 May 1890, p. 2688; Philippi, Das Königreich Württemberg, pp. 59–60.

29 Jones, Diplomatic Service, p. 147.

30 ‘Our Diplomatists’, Temple Bar, A London Magazine for Town and Country Readers, 84, 335 (1888), pp. 179–198, at p. 184.

31 Ibid.

32 The Foreign Office List (1876), p. 9.

33 Estimates for Civil Services (1884), p. 414.

34 Estimates for Civil Services for the Year Ending 31 March 1894, House of Commons Sessional Papers 1893 (59), LVI.1, p. 401. See also Jones, Diplomatic Service, pp. 147–148.

35 Evidence, Dilke (6 March 1890), Fourth Report of the Royal Commission, qq. 29046.

36 ‘Our Diplomatists’, Temple Bar, p. 197.

37 Strachey to Russell, 17 December 1883, FO 918/63 (not included in this volume).

38 Evidence, Strachey (30 May 1861), Report from the Select Committee on Diplomatic Service; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, and Index 23 July 1861 [459] (1861), q. 2701.

39 MacDonell, after his three year stint in Bavaria, was promoted to envoy extraordinary at Rio de Janeiro (1885), Copenhagen (1888), and Lisbon (1893–1902). For Buchanan's diplomatic career, see Buchanan, George W., My Mission to Russia, and Other Diplomatic Memories, 2 vols London, 1923); for his time at Darmstadt, see Vol. 1, pp. 26–37; and Buchanan, Meriel, Diplomacy and Foreign Courts (London, 1928), pp. 1833.

40 See Philippi, Hans, ‘Die Botschafter der europäischen Mächte am Berliner Hofe 1871–1914: Eine Skizze’, in Hauser, Oswald (ed.), Vorträge und Studien zur preußisch-deutschen Geschichte (Cologne and Vienna, 1983), pp. 159250, here pp. 163–175.

41 For Odo Russell's ambassadorship, see Taffs, Winifred, Ambassador to Bismarck: Lord Odo Russell, First Baron Ampthill (London, 1938); Urbach, Karina, Bismarck's Favourite Englishman: Lord Odo Russell's Mission to Berlin (London, 1999); Knaplund, Paul (ed.), Letters from the Berlin Embassy: Selections from the Private Correspondence of British Representatives at Berlin and Foreign Secretary Lord Granville, 1871–1874, 1880–1885 (Washington DC, 1944); and British Envoys to the Kaiserreich, Vol. I.

42 Malet, Edward, Shifting Scenes or Memories of Many Men in Many Lands (London, 1901), pp. 233255. For Malet's ambassadorship at Berlin, see also Willem Alexander van't Padje, ‘At the Heart of the Growing Anglo-Imperialist Rivalry: Two British Ambassadors in Berlin, 1884–1908’, DPhil thesis, University of Oxford, 2001; for his appointment, see ibid., pp. 15–28; Jones, Diplomatic Service, pp. 182–183.

43 van't Padje, Willem Alexander, ‘Sir Alexander Malet and Prince Otto von Bismarck: An Almost Forgotten Anglo-German Friendship’, Historical Research, 72 (1999), pp. 285300.

44 James Bourne, ‘Sir Frank Lascelles: A Diplomat of the Victorian Empire, 1841–1920’, PhD thesis, University of Leeds, 2010, pp. 13–18, 110–130. For Lascelles's ambassadorship at Berlin, see also Van't Padje, ‘Two British Ambassadors’.

45 For Morier's relationship with Bismarck, see Ramm, Agatha, Sir Robert Morier: Envoy and Ambassador in the Age of Imperialism 1876–1893, Oxford 1973, pp. 270304.

46 ‘England might give a successor to the Ambassador that she had lost, but could not expect to replace him.’ Bismarck quoted in Scott to Granville, 30 August 1884, FO 64/1051 (not included in this volume); see Taffs, Ambassador to Bismarck, p. 394.

47 van't Padje, Willem-Alexander, ’The “Malet Incident”, October 1895: A Prelude to the Kaiser's “Kruger Telegram” in the Context of the Anglo-German Imperialist Rivalry’, in Eley, Geoff and Retallack, James (eds), Wilhelminism and its Legacies: German Modernities, Imperialism, and the Meanings of Reform, 1890–1930 (New York and Oxford, 2003), pp. 138153.

48 Otte, Foreign Office Mind, p. 190.

49 Bourne, ‘Lascelles’, pp. 18–30.

50 Otte, Foreign Office Mind, p. 156; Jones, Diplomatic Service, p. 183.

51 In most cases reports on economic issues were largely based on German statistics and other official publications. These dispatches, marked ‘Commercial’, are not included in this selection.

52 The number of dispatches is based on the listings of TNA's online catalogue and the FO 9, 30, 64 (including ‘Africa’), 68, and 84 series, consulted for this volume.

53 See, in general, Mösslang, ‘Gestaltungsraum’.

54 See, for example, the following entries in municipal directories: George Strachey, Bürgerwiese 16, Dresden (Adreßbuch, Wohnungs- und Geschäfts-Handbuch der königlichen Residenz- und Hauptstadt Dresden (Dresden, 1895), part 1, p. 751), George Buchanan, Wilhelmstrasse 17, Darmstadt (Adressbuch der Haupt- und Residenzstadt Darmstadt (Darmstadt, 1895), p. 19), and Drummond, Victor, Barrerstrasse 15 (Adreßbuch für München, 1893 (Munich, 1893), p. 77).

55 In 1897 the diplomatic staff in Berlin consisted of one secretary of embassy, one military and one commercial attaché, three second secretaries, one third secretary, and one attaché. See The Foreign Office List (1898), pp. 8–11; the Adressbuch für Berlin und seine Vororte (Berlin, 1897), p. 12 lists nine diplomatic officials for the year 1897. For embassy life in Berlin, see Corbett, Vincent, Reminiscences: Autobiographical and Diplomatic (London, 1927), pp. 5890.

56 See in general Kennedy, Antagonism, pp. 167–183; Riehl, Axel T.G., Der ‘Tanz um den Äquator’: Bismarcks antienglische Kolonialpolitik und die Erwartung des Thronwechsels in Deutschland 1883 bis 1885 (Berlin, 1993); Fröhlich, Michael, Von Konfrontation zur Koexistenz: Die deutsch-englischen Kolonialbeziehungen in Afrika zwischen 1884 und 1914 (Bochum, 1990).

57 Malet to Granville, 24 January 1885, FO 64/1146.

58 See British Envoys to the Kaiserreich, Vol. I, pp. 86; 105; 128–129; 160; 184–185; 307; 357.

59 Ampthill to Granville, 8 April 1884, FO 64/1102.

60 Docket, Ampthill to Granville, 23 April 1884, FO 64/1102.

61 Kennedy, Antagonism, p. 179.

62 Ampthill to Granville (private), 2 August 1885, quoted in Knaplund (ed.), Letters from the Berlin Embassy, p. 339.

63 Ampthill to Granville, 18 August 1884, FO 64/1103.

64 Urbach, Russell, p. 201.

65 For the conference, see Förster, Stig, Mommsen, Wolfgang J., and Robinson, Ronald (eds), Bismarck, Europe, and Africa: The Berlin Africa Conference 1884–1885 and the Onset of Partition (Oxford, 1988).

66 Scott to Granville, 4 March 1885, FO 64/1149.

67 For ‘Anglo-German’ foreign policy, see, in general, Kennedy, Antagonism, pp. 157–222; Martel, Gordon, ‘The Limits of Commitment: Rosebery and the Definition of the Anglo-German Understanding’, Historical Journal, 27 (1984), pp. 387404; Steele, David, ‘The Place of Germany in Salisbury's Foreign Policy, 1878–1902’, in Birke, Adolf et al. (eds), An Anglo-German Dialogue: The Munich Lectures on the History of International Affairs (Munich, 2001), pp. 5776; Femers, Jörg, Deutsch-Britische Optionen: Untersuchungen zur internationalen Politik in der späten Bismarck-Ära (Trier, 2006).

68 Malet to Iddesleigh, 21 August 1886, FO 64/1117.

69 Malet to Salisbury, 9 January 1886, FO 64/1113.

70 Malet to Granville, 7 May 1885, FO 64/1077; Malet to Iddesleigh, 12 November 1886, FO 64/1119; Malet to Salisbury, 25 May 1887, FO 64/1157; Malet to Salisbury, 14 July 1888, FO 64/1187.

71 Otte, Foreign Office Mind, p. 223.

72 Malet to Salisbury, 8 February 1890, FO 64/1234.

73 Otte, Foreign Office Mind, p. 182.

74 See Otte, , ‘“The Winston of Germany”: The British Foreign Policy Élite and the Last German Emperor’, Canadian Journal of History, 36 (2001), pp. 471504; Reinermann, Lothar, Der Kaiser in England: Wilhelm II. und sein Bild in der britischen Öffentlichkeit (Paderborn, 2001); Geppert, Dominik, Pressekriege: Öffentlichkeit und Diplomatie in den deutsch-britischen Beziehungen (1896–1912) (Munich, 2007).

75 Drummond to Rosebery, 15 August 1893, FO 9/267.

76 Strachey to Iddesleigh, 24 August 1886, FO 68/170; Jocelyn to Salisbury, 25 October 1886, FO 30/264; Drummond to Iddesleigh, 4 January 1887, FO 9/258; Malet to Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 15 January 1887, FO 64/1155; Scott to Salisbury, 20 April 1887, FO 64/1156; Scott to Salisbury, 9 July 1887, FO 64/1158; Strachey to Salisbury, 19 January 1889, FO 68/174. See British Envoys to the Kaiserreich, Vol. 1, pp. 98–108, 217–219.

77 Strachey to Salisbury, 4 December 1891, FO 68/176.

78 Malet to Salisbury, 5 January 1889, FO 64/1211; Strachey to Salisbury, 19 January 1889, FO 68/174. See Ramm, Sir Robert Morier, pp. 288–304.

79 Drummond to Salisbury, 29 October 1887, FO 9/258; Strachey to Salisbury, 2 March 1888, FO 68/173.

80 Lascelles to Salisbury, 11 January 1896, FO 64/1386. See also Bourne, Lascelles, pp. 184–194.

81 Buchanan to Salisbury, 6 October 1897, FO 30/287.

82 Ibid.

83 Jocelyn to Iddesleigh, 25 October 1886, FO 30/264.

84 Zara Steiner, ‘Buchanan, Sir George William (1854–1924), diplomatist’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.), 2008, retrieved 20 July 2018, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/32150. See Jonathan Petropoulos, ‘The Hessens and the British Royals’, in Karina Urbach (ed.), Royal Kinship: Anglo-German Family Networks 1815–1918 (Munich, 2008), pp. 147–159.

85 Helyar to Rosebury, 2 January 1893, FO 30/278 (not included in this volume).

86 Drummond to Rosebery, 14 June 1886, FO 9/256.

87 Barron to Salisbury, 14 November 1888, FO 82/173.

88 Malet to Salisbury, 28 April 1888, FO 64/1186; see Turk, Eleanor L., ‘The Battenberg Affair: Chancellor Crisis or “Media Event?”’, German Studies Review, 5 (1982), pp. 233255.

89 Malet to Salisbury, 12 June 1887, FO 64/1157; Drummond to Salisbury, 22 June 1887, FO 9/259; Strachey to Salisbury, 26 June 1887, FO 68/172; Malet to Salisbury, 14 July 1888, FO 64/1187; Strachey to Salisbury, 10 August 1895, FO 68/180; Lascelles to Salisbury, 1 July 1897, FO 64/1411. See John C. G. Röhl, ‘The Kaiser and England’, in Birke et al. (eds), An Anglo-German Dialogue, pp. 97–113. McLean, Roderick R., ‘Kaiser Wilhelm II and the British Royal Family: Anglo-German Dynastic Relations in Political Context, 1890–1914’, History, 86 (2001), pp. 478502; Otte, ‘“The Winston of Germany”’; Reinermann, Der Kaiser in England.

90 Malet to Salisbury, 14 July 1888, FO 64/1187.

91 Malet to Kimberley, 14 July 1894, FO 64/1325.

92 Malet to Salisbury, 8 February 1890, FO 64/1234.

93 Drummond to Kimberley, 21 February 1895, FO 9/270.

94 Strachey to Salisbury, 27 October 1891, FO 68/176.

95 Scott to Salisbury, 18 August 1888, FO 64/1188.

96 See British Envoys to the Kaiserreich, Vol. 1, pp. 241, 311–313, 384, 495, 528.

97 Drummond to Salisbury, 12 September 1891, FO 9/264.

98 Strachey to Salisbury, 13 September 1889, FO 68/174.

99 Strachey to Salisbury, 3 September 1895, FO 68/180.

100 Strachey to Salisbury, 12 December 1890, FO 68/175; Drummond to Rosebery, 9 December 1893, FO 82/178; Drummond to Rosebery, 15 May 1893; FO 9/267; Drummond to Rosebery, 23 December 1893, FO 82/178; Drummond to Salisbury, 13 October 1897, FO 9/272.

101 Boothby to Salisbury, 10 November 1895, FO 9/270.

102 Strachey to Salisbury, 18 February 1887, FO 68/171; Drummond to Rosebery, 15 May 1893, FO 9/267; Buchanan to Rosebery, 7 June 1893, FO 30/278.

103 Scott to Salisbury, 30 January 1886, FO 64/1113.

104 Drummond to Rosebery, 26 July 1886, FO 9/256.

105 Drummond to Salisbury, 23 April 1890, FO 9/263.

106 Strachey to Salisbury, 18 October 1889, FO 68/174.

107 Strachey to Granville, 7 May 1884, FO 68/168; see similar assessments from Darmstadt and Munich; Jocelyn to Granville, 31 October 1884, FO 30/258; MacDonell to Granville, 19 November 1884, FO 9/252; with various references to Strachey's reports, see Retallack, James, Red Saxony: Election Battles and the Spectre of Democracy in Germany, 1860–1918 (Oxford, 2017), pp. 131184, 230–317.

108 In one instance, Irish Home Rule still affected how German affairs were perceived, when, on 9 December 1893, George Strachey described German centralization and the decline of the state legislatures as ‘the result of that gradual extinction of Home Rule which is the feature of the German political evolution’. Strachey to Rosebery, 9 December 1893, FO 68/178 (not included in this volume); see Strachey to Rosebery, 4 January 1894, FO 68/179.

109 MacDonell to Granville, 19 November 1884, FO 9/252. See British Envoys to the Kaiserreich, Vol. 1, p. 13.

110 Strachey to Salisbury, 21 February 1891, FO 68/176.

111 Barron to Salisbury, 23 February 1888, FO 82/173.

112 See Retallack, Germany's Second Reich, pp. 49–50. This also corresponds with the lack of commentary on the liberal predilections of the crown prince and future emperor, Friedrich III, which, at least in their official dispatches, envoys only occasionally addressed.

113 See, in general, Otte, Foreign Office Mind.

114 Raymond Cohen, ‘Putting Diplomatic Studies on the Map’, Diplomatic Studies Programme Newsletter, May 1988, p. 1.

115 Pall Mall Gazette, 28 February 1912. The obituary also quotes Lord Ampthill with the words: ‘Strachey would wreck a dynasty to make an epigram.’

116 Strachey to Salisbury, 28 October 1887, FO 68/172; Strachey to Salisbury, 27 April 1890, FO 68/175; Strachey to Salisbury, 5 June 1891, FO 68/176; Strachey to Rosebery, 17 December 1892, FO 68/177, Strachey to Rosebery, 25 February 1893, FO 68/178.

117 Strachey to Kimberley, 10 March 1894, FO 68/179.

118 Retallack, Germany's Second Reich, p. 50.

119 Malet to Salisbury, 5 September 1885, FO 64/1079; Scott to Salisbury, 30 January 1886, FO 64/1113; Jocelyn to Salisbury, 8 November 1890, FO 30/272; Strachey to Rosebery, 10 December 1892, FO 68/177; Gosselin to Salisbury, 19 June 1896, FO 64/1377.

120 See, in general, Langewiesche, Dieter, Nation, Nationalismus, Nationalstaat in Deutschland und Europa (Munich, 2000), pp. 5581; Weichlein, Siegfried, Nation und Region: Integrationsprozesse im Bismarckreich (Düsseldorf, 2002).

121 Note, 21 January 1907, based upon a minute by Mr Crowe which was attached to Cartwright's dispatch to Grey, 12 January, FO 371/257, printed in British Documents on the Origins of War, Vol. 6 (1930), p. 11. For Crowe's, now renowned, view of Germany, see also his ‘Memorandum on the Present State of British Relations with France and Germany’, published three weeks earlier, on 1 January 1907, in ibid., Vol. 3, pp. 402–406.

122 Evidence Crowe (3 July 1914), Royal Commission on the Civil Service. Appendix to Fifth Report of the Commissioners. Minutes of Evidence, 29th April 1914–16th July 1914 [Cd. 7749] (1914)], q. 43463.

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