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THE POLITICAL JOURNAL OF SIR GEORGE FOTTRELL

Extract

I think it may perhaps at some future stage of Irish politics prove useful to have from an eye witness some notes of the events now passing in Ireland or rather some notes of the inner working of the Government and of the Irish party. I have rather exceptional opportunities of noting their working. I have since I attained manhood been a consistent Nationalist and I believe that the leading men on the national side have confidence in my honour and consistency. On the other hand I am a Crown official & I am an intimate personal friend of Sir Robert Hamilton, the Under Secretary for Ireland. My first introduction to him took place about 18 months ago. I was introduced to him by Robert Holmes, the Treasury Remembrancer. At that time Sir Robert was Mr. Hamilton & his private secretary was Mr. Clarke Hall who had come over temporarily from the Admiralty. Mr. Hamilton was himself at that time only a temporary official. Shortly afterwards he was induced to accept the permanent appointment as Under Secretary. From the date of my first introduction to him up to the present our acquaintance has steadily developed into a warm friendship and I think that Sir Robert Hamilton now probably speaks to me on Irish matters more freely than to anyone else.

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References
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1 See appendix.

2 Robert William Arbuthnot Holmes (1843–1910), Treasury Remembrancer and Deputy Paymaster for Ireland (1882–1908).

3 See appendix.

4 Bill for the Redistribution of Seats at Parliamentary Elections: PP 1884–5, IV, 85.

5 Report of the Boundary Commissioners for Scotland: PP 1884–5, XIX, 499.

6 Sir John Lambert (1815–1892), Permanent Secretary to the Local Government Board (1871–1882).

7 Sir Francis Sandford (1824–1893), first Baron Sandford (1891), Secretary for the Education Office (1870–1884).

8 John Naish (1841–1890), Attorney-General (1884–1885) and Lord Chancellor of Ireland (1885, 1886).

9 A Roman Catholic barrister and liberal, later Chairman of the Liberal Union of Ireland: see Hamilton to Spencer, 5 December 1884: AP, Add MS 77060; The Times, 15 March 1888, p. 9.

10 Edmund Dwyer Gray (1845–1888), Nat. MP for Co. Carlow (1880–1885) and for St Stephen's Green Division, Dublin (1885–1888), owner of the Freeman's Journal.

11 Thomas Sexton (1848–1932), Nat. MP for Co. Sligo (1880–1885) and for Sligo South (1885–1892), Lord Mayor of Dublin (1887–1889).

12 Timothy Michael Healy (1855–1931), Nat. MP for Co. Monaghan (1883–1885), for Londonderry South (1885–1886), and for Longford North (1887–1892), Governor-General of the Irish Free State (1922–1928).

13 Richard Paul Carton (1836–1907), Commissioner of National Education, Chairman of the Queen's Colleges Commission (1884–1885).

14 Spencer informed Sir Charles Dilke, ‘From sources independent of Sir R. Hamilton I hear that a row is getting up about the question’: Spencer to Dilke, 10 December 1884: AP, Add MS 76924.

15 Courtenay Edmund Boyle (1845–1901), private secretary to Lord Spencer (1868–1874, 1882–1885), Assistant-Secretary to the Local Government Board (1885) and the Board of Trade (1886).

16 John Cosmo Macpherson (Farquharson) (1839–1905), officer of Royal Engineers (1859–1896), Executive Officer of the Ordnance Survey of the United Kingdom (1887–1894).

17 As inspector for Dublin, Bourke had represented the Treasury in the settlement of arrears. Spencer claimed that he and White were the ‘most influential’ men available and that their impartiality was guaranteed: Spencer to Edward Gibson, 16, 19, and 26 December 1884, repr. A.B. Cooke and A.P.W. Malcolmson (eds), The Ashbourne Papers, 1869–1913: a calendar of the papers of Edward Gibson, 1st Lord Ashbourne (Belfast, 1974), pp. 179–180.

18 See The Times, 3 December 1884, p. 12. For findings, see Report of the Boundary Commissioners for Ireland: PP 1884–5, XIX, 499.

19 In the belief that ‘anything that makes punishment more certain aids the prevention of crime’, Hamilton recommended that these clauses become permanent laws: ‘Memo. on the renewal of the Prevention of Crimes Act’, 18 January 1885: AP, Add MS 77331.

20 The Local Government Board, established in 1872, assumed responsibilities for medical treatment and public hygiene formerly vested in the Poor Law Commissioners.

21 See ‘State interference with industrial enterprise’, 1 December 1884 and ‘Statement as to Local Government of Ireland’, 11 February 1885: CP/TNA, PRO 30/6/127 (8), (11).

22 The Prevention of Crime (Ireland) Act, 1882 (45 & 46 Vict., c. 25) was due to expire and the Liberal ministry was considering its renewal.

23 Hamilton argued that the concession of a measure of local government would remove a popular grievance and thus assist the operation of the Land Act: ‘Memo. on the renewal of the Prevention of Crimes Act’, 18 January 1885: AP, Add MS 77331.

24 Charles Russell (1832–1900), first Baron Russell of Killowen (1894), Lib. MP for Dundalk (1880–1885) and for South Hackney (1885–1894), KCB (1886), Attorney-General (1886, 1892–1894), Lord Chief Justice (1894).

25 William Ewart Gladstone (1809–1898), Lib. MP for Midlothian (1880–1895), Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886, 1892–1894).

26 Jonathan Hogg (1847–1930), Chairman of William Hogg & Company, treasurer of the Liberal Unionist Party and committee member of the Irish Loyal and Patriotic Union (1886), Governor of the Bank of Ireland (1901–1902).

27 See Document 7.

28 ‘The Irish Judges’, Fortnightly Review, 23 (March 1875), pp. 408–421, and see his The Irish Judges and Irish Chairmen (Dublin, 1876).

29 See Return of Civil Cases in Ireland tried in Dublin and on Circuit, 1873–82: PP 1884, LXIII, 327.

30 Richard Dowse (1824–1890), Lib. MP for Londonderry city (1868–1872), Baron of the Exchequer (1872–1890).

31 See FJ, 13 January 1885, p. 3.

32 Sir Benjamin Whitney (1833–1916), Clerk of the Crown and Peace for Mayo, founder of Whitney & Moore, solicitors (1882).

33 George Gerald Tyrell, Clerk of the Crown and Peace for Armagh.

34 Hamilton proposed to cut estimated expenditure on law charges and criminal prosecutions for 1885–1886 from £99,031 to £79,206: Hamilton to Spencer, 5 and 23 December 1884: AP, Add MS 77060; Hamilton to Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, 29 January 1885 and Hamilton to Sir Ralph Lingen, 30 January 1885: CSO RP 1885/1692 in RP 1885/2366.

35 Between 1883 and 1885, the authorized force strength fell from 14,277 to 12,500: Treasury Blue Notes, 1894–1895: TNA, T165. For RIC expenditure, see CSO RPs 1884/15076, 1884/11841, 1885/4011.

36 Patrick Neville Fitzgerald (1851–1907), commercial traveller, representative for Munster on the Supreme Council of the IRB (1878), tried and acquitted of treason felony in November 1884: see Owen Magee, The IRB: the Irish Republican Brotherhood from the Land League to Sinn Fein (Dublin, 2005), pp. 127–129.

37 Randle Peyton (b. 1820), crown solicitor for Leitrim, Sligo, and Roscommon (1874–1885).

38 Edward Albert O'Reilly, hotel proprietor in Wormwood-gate, Dublin. For his deposition, see Queen against Jeremiah Lowry and Others: brief on behalf of the Crown: NLI, MS 5508.

39 Hamilton proposed that all crown witnesses should be paid at the minimum rate unless satisfactory reason was given for paying more: Hamilton to Spencer, 23 December 1884; circular to crown solicitors, 12 January 1885: CSO RP 1885/2366.

40 Alexander Martin Sullivan (1829–1884), Home Rule MP for Co. Louth (1874–1880) and for Co. Meath (1880–1882), editor and proprietor of The Nation (1858–1877), author of influential accounts of Irish history.

41 Sullivan penned several articles on the matter for The Nation in May 1883 and, in January 1884, published his Observations on the religious and political situation in Ireland for the information of church leaders: T.D. Sullivan, A.M. Sullivan: a memoir (Dublin, 1885), pp. 153–157.

42 Joseph Edward Kenny (1845–1900), Nat. MP for Co. Cork South (1885–1892), surgeon to the North Dublin Union Hospital.

43 And see his ‘Memorandum showing the usual course of criminal proceedings in Ireland’, 22 December 1884: CSO RP 1885/2366.

44 Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke (1843–1911), Lib. MP for Chelsea (1868–1886), President of the Local Government Board (1882–1885).

45 Joseph Chamberlain (1836–1914), Lib. MP for Birmingham (1876–1885), Lib. U. MP for Birmingham West (1885–1914), President of the Board of Trade (1880–1885), President of the Local Government Board (1886).

46 Dilke spoke at Kensington on 13 January: The Times, 14 January 1885, p. 6; Chamberlain appeared at Ipswich the following day: The Times, 15 January 1885, p. 7.

47 Thomas Alexander Dickson (1833–1909), Lib. MP for Co. Tyrone (1881–1885), Lib. U. MP for St Stephens Green Division, Dublin (1888–1892).

48 See Document 7. Gladstone returned to London early on 20 January 1885: GD, XI, p. 279.

49 William Henry Duignan (1824–1914), Director of the Walsall Wood Colliery Company, Mayor of Walsall (1868–1869). An antiquarian and etymologist, he travelled widely within the United Kingdom: C.D.H. Howard, ‘“The man on a tricycle”: W.H. Duignan and Ireland, 1881–5’, IHS, 14, no. 55 (March 1965), pp. 246–260.

50 Chamberlain to Duignan, 17 December 1884: JCP, JC8/3/1/24.

51 The first levee of the season was held on 3 February 1885: The Times, 3 February 1885, p. 6.

52 The explosion occurred on 24 January 1885: K.R.M. Short, The Dynamite War: Irish-American bombers in Victorian Britain (Dublin, 1979), pp. 205–208.

53 See Dickson, Thomas A., Committee on Irish Affairs, Paper No. 4: an Irish policy for a Liberal Government (London, 1885).

54 William Hoey Kearney Redmond (1861–1917), Nat. MP for Wexford (1883–1885), for Fermanagh North (1885–1892), and for Clare East (1892–1917). During demonstrations at Carndonagh, Co. Donegal and Newtonbarry, Co. Wexford, Redmond had advocated the boycotting of tenants occupying evicted farms: The Times, 2 February 1885, p. 6; 3 February 1885, pp. 6, 9.

55 Timothy Charles Harrington (1851–1910), Nat. MP for Co. Westmeath (1883–1885) and for Harbour Division, Dublin (1885–1910), Secretary of the Irish National League (1882–1891), proprietor of the Kerry Sentinel.

56 William Joseph Walsh (1841–1921), professor of moral theology and President (1880–1885) of St Patrick's College, Maynooth, Archbishop of Dublin (1885–1921).

57 Edward MacCabe (1816–1885), Archbishop of Dublin (1879–1885). He died suddenly on 11 February.

58 See The Times, 24 February 1885, p. 10.

59 Sir Charles Edward Lewis (1825–1893), Con. MP for Londonderry city (1872–1886) and for Antrim North (1887–1892).

60 Gladstone declined to discuss the legislation until after the Redistribution Bill was passed: Hansard, CCXIV, cols 1047–1048.

61 See The Times, 2 March 1885, p. 8. On 23 February, John Morley had tabled a motion opposing the ministry's plan to send troops to Khartoum: Hansard, CCXIV, col. 1071.

62 Henry Brougham Leech (1843–1921), professor of international law and jurisprudence at Dublin University (1878–1888). A pronounced unionist, he wrote ‘Is Ireland overtaxed?’ in reply to Robert Giffen's home rule proposals (Journal, 17 January 1886): The Times, 11 May 1886, p. 16; 26 March 1921, p. 11.

63 William L. Williams, solicitor to the justices of the West Riding, Yorkshire, registrar to the West Riding Registry, Wakefield.

64 The commission was established by the Treasury in December 1884 to recommend improvements: see Registry of Deeds Office (Dublin): PP 1887, LXVII, 431.

65 See The Times, 11 March 1885, p. 10.

66 James Donnelly (1823–1893), Bishop of Clogher (1864–1893).

67 Michael Verdon (1838–1918), Vice-rector of the Irish College in Rome, Bishop of Dunedin (1896).

68 Patrick J. Tynan, private secretary to Cardinals Paul Cullen and Edward McCabe.

69 Bartholomew Woodlock (1819–1902), President of All Hallows College, Rector of the Catholic University, Dublin, Bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnois (1879–1895).

70 John David Fitzgerald (1815–1889), first Baron Fitzgerald (1882), Lib. MP for Ennis (1852–1860), justice of Queen's Bench, Ireland (1860–1882), Lord of Appeal (1882–1889).

71 Bill to amend Laws for Regulation of Profession of Solicitors in Ireland: PP 1884–5, V, 473.

72 John Morley (1838–1923), first Viscount Morley of Blackburn (1908), Lib. MP for Newcastle upon Tyne (1883–1895), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1886, 1892–1895).

73 Spencer Compton Cavendish (1833–1908), Marquess of Hartington (1858) and eighth Duke of Devonshire (1891), Lib. MP for North-East Lancashire (1880–1885) and for Rossendale (1885–1891), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1870–1874), Secretary of State for War (1882–1885).

74 George Otto Trevelyan (1838–1928), second Baronet (1886), Lib. MP for Hawick Burghs (1868–1886) and for Glasgow Bridgeton (1887–1897), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1882–1884), Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1884–1885), Secretary of State for Scotland (1886, 1892–1894).

75 See appendix.

76 For the clauses of the Prevention of Crime (Ireland) Act, 1882, see Virginia Crossman, Politics, Law and Order in Nineteenth-Century Ireland (Dublin, 1996), pp. 224–226.

77 Charles Stewart Parnell (1846–1891), Nat. MP for Co. Meath (1875–1880) and for Cork city (1880–1890), President of the Irish National Land League (1879–1881) and of the Irish National League (1882–1890), Chairman of the Home Rule Party (1880–1890).

78 The Royal Navy Club of 1785, which met at the Thatched House Tavern in St James Street, before relocating to Willis's Rooms in 1862.

79 Thomas Hay Sweet Escott (1844–1924), journalist and editor of the Fortnightly Review (1882–1886).

80 Sir Andrew Clark (1826–1893), Physician to the London Hospital (1853–1886), President of the Royal College of Physicians (1888–1893), personal physician to W.E. Gladstone (1866–1893).

81 Edward Daniel Joseph Wilson (1844–1913), contributor to and leader writer for The Times (1870–1903). His opposition to the Land League and home rule was described as ‘the great work of his life’: The Times, 30 June 1913, p. 11.

82 See Document 9.

83 The levee took place on 9 April 1885: The Times, 10 April 1885, p. 10.

84 See Hansard, CCXCVIII, cols 626–631.

85 The appointments became necessary upon the sudden death of Sir Edward Sullivan, the Lord Chancellor of Ireland: The Times, 18 May 1885, p. 10.

86 Samuel Walker (1832–1911), Lib. MP for Londonderry (1884–1885), Solicitor- and Attorney-General for Ireland (1883–1885, 1885, 1886), Lord Chancellor for Ireland (1892–1895, 1905–1911).

87 Hugh Hyacinth MacDermot (1834–1904), Solicitor- and Attorney-General for Ireland (1885, 1886, 1892–1895).

88 See Hansard, CCXCVIII, cols 971–972.

89 Richard Adams (1846–1908), journalist for the Cork Examiner and the Freeman's Journal (1868–1873), barrister on the Munster circuit (1873–1894), county court judge for Limerick (1894).

90 Laurence Ambrose Waldron (1858–1923), Chairman of the Dublin and Kingston Railway and Dublin United Tramways (1896), commissioner of National Education, son of Laurence Waldron MP (1811–1875).

91 William Allen, Michael O'Brien, and Michael Larkin were executed on 23 November 1867 for the murder of a police sergeant during an attempt to rescue the Fenian leader Thomas Kelly from custody in Manchester.

92 Richard O'Shaughnessy (b. 1842), Home Rule MP for Limerick city (1874–1883), twice considered for the post of Under-Secretary for Ireland: Trevelyan to Spencer, 17 May 1882; Spencer to Trevelyan, 4 March 1883: AP, Add MSS 76944, 76952.

93 George Vaughan Hart (1841–1913), Revising Assessor for Dublin (1881–1891), Regius Professor of Feudal and English Law, Trinity College (1890–1909).

94 Edward Lyulph Stanley (1839–1929), fourth Baron Sheffield (1909), Lib. MP for Oldham (1880–1885).

95 Adelbert Wellington Brownlow Cust (1844–1921), third Earl Brownlow (1867), Con. MP for Shropshire North (1866–1867), Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board (1885–1886), Paymaster-General (1887–1889).

96 The Revd William Walsham How (1823–1897), Bishop-suffragan of Bedford (1879–1888), Bishop of Wakefield (1888–1897). Brownlow and How were members of the Royal Commission on the Housing of the Working Classes, which was then sitting in Dublin: The Times, 27 May 1885, p. 6.

97 Michael Morris (1827–1904), first Baron Killanin (1900), Lib. MP for Galway (1865–1867), justice of Common Pleas (1867–1887), Lord Chief Justice of Ireland (1887–1889), an opponent of home rule but a critic of the shortcomings of Irish government.

98 Jesse Collings (1831–1920), Lib. MP for Ipswich (1880–1886), Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board (1886).

99 William Meagher, Lord Mayor of Dublin (1884), Nat. MP for Co. Meath (1884–1885).

100 For Dilke's account of the evening, see his diary, 26 May 1885 (copy): JCP, JC8/2/1.

101 William Pirrie Sinclair (1837–1900), Lib. MP for Co. Antrim (1885) and for Falkirk district (1886–1892), favoured reform of Irish government but opposed home rule.

102 Edward O'Neill (1839–1928), second Baron O'Neill (1883), Con. MP for Co. Antrim (1863–1880), owner of 66,000 acres at Shanes Castle, Co. Antrim.

103 The election took place on 21 May 1885; Sinclair polled 3971 votes and O'Neill 3832.

104 See Journal (15 January 1885).

105 Junius was the pseudonym of the writer who contributed a series of brilliant polemical letters to the Public Advertiser between 1769 and 1772, fiercely criticizing the ministries of the Duke of Grafton and Lord North: Francesco Cordasco, Junius and His Works: a history of the letters of Junius and the authorship controversy (Hillsdale, NJ, 1986).

106 Charles Wentworth Dilke (1789–1864), editor of the London Magazine (1824) and the Athenaeum (1830), author of several influential articles on the subject of Junius.

107 Sir Philip Francis (1740–1818), amanuensis to William Pitt (1761–1762), councillor of the Governor-General of Bengal (1774–1780), MP for the Isle of Wight (1784–1790), for Bletchingly (1790–1798), and for Appleby (1802–1807), first identified as Junius by John Taylor in 1816, a view supported by modern statistico-linguistic analysis: Alvar Ellegard, Who was Junius? (Stockholm, 1962).

108 George Sackville Germain (1716–1785), first Viscount Sackville (1782), British general but dismissed from the service for neglect of duty at the battle of Minden (1759), MP for Dover (1741–1746), for Hythe (1761–1768), and for East Grinstead (1768–1782), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1751–1756), Colonial Secretary (1775–1782), adopted the name Germain in 1770.

109 William Mason (1725–1797), King's chaplain (1757), canon of York (1762), prominent in agitation for parliamentary reform (1780), literary executor for Thomas Gray; see his The Poems of Mr. Gray, to which are prefixed memoirs of his life and writings (York, 1775).

110 John Wilkes (1727–1797), MP for Aylesbury (1757, 1761) and for Middlesex (1768–1769, 1774–1790), co-founded the North Briton, arrested for libelling George III (1763) and expelled from the House of Commons in 1769, when his case was taken up by Junius.

111 Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800–1859), first Baron Macaulay (1857), Lib. MP for Calne (1830–1832), for Leeds (1832–1834), and for Edinburgh (1840–1847, 1852–1856), Paymaster-General of the Forces (1846–1848), professor of ancient history in the Royal Academy (1850).

112 A skirmish at the Afghan–Russian border on 30 March had threatened to bring Britain and Russia into armed conflict: see R. A. Johnson, ‘The Penjdeh incident, 1885’, Archives: The Journal of the British Records Association, 24, no. 100 (April 1999), pp. 28–48.

113 Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil (1830–1903), third Marquess of Salisbury (1868), Con. MP for Stamford (1853–1868), Foreign Secretary (1878–1880, 1885–1886, 1886–1892, 1895–1900), Prime Minister (1885–1886, 1886–1892, 1895–1902).

114 The Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act, 1875 (38 & 39 Vict., c. 86) was designed to regulate picketing during trade disputes. Section seven made it an offence, punishable by up to three months’ imprisonment, to compel another person to abstain from doing any act that they had a legal right to do by violence or intimidation: A.E. Musson, British Trade Unions 1800–1875 (London, 1972), pp. 62–63; RIC Inspector-General's circular, 31 January 1881: TNA, HO 184/116.

115 The Law Adviser counselled the Irish executive and magistracy on points of law. The post was abolished in 1883.

116 Edward Gibson (1837–1913), first Baron Ashbourne (1885), Con. MP for Dublin University (1875–1885), Attorney-General (1877–1880) and Lord Chancellor of Ireland (1885–1886, 1886–1892, 1895–1905).

117 Andrew Marshall Porter (1837–1919), Lib. MP for Co. Londonderry (1881–1883), Solicitor- and Attorney-General for Ireland (1881–1883, 1883), Master of the Rolls (1883–1906).

118 The committee was appointed in May 1881: Select Committee of the House of Lords on the Operation of Irish Jury Laws as regards Trials by Jury in Criminal Cases: PP 1881, XI, 1. For Fitzgerald's evidence on venue changes, see pp. 454–457.

119 Not traced.

120 27 St Stephens Green, Dublin.

121 On 21 May, Morley gave notice of an amendment to a proposal to renew the Crimes Act on the ground that the cessation of exceptional crime made it unnecessary: The Times, 22 May 1885, p. 6, and see his letter to the editor (1 June 1885), The Times, 3 June 1885, p. 8.

122 A trout fishery situated on the border between counties Cavan, Meath, and Westmeath.

123 William O'Brien (1852–1928), Nat. MP for Mallow (1883–1887) and for Cork North-East (1887–1892), editor of United Ireland (1881–1890), founder of the United Irish League (1900).

124 In December 1884, the Representation of the People Act abolished all two-member constituencies.

125 A weekly newspaper established by the Land League in 1881.

126 In 1867, the Canadian Confederation was created by the British North America Act, and the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary was established by the Ausgleich.

127 Designed by James Gandon and built on Merchants Quay, Dublin (1786–1802), the seat of the Irish high court was named after its four oldest divisions: Chancery, King's Bench, Exchequer, and Common Pleas.

128 John Thomas Ball (1815–1898), Con. MP for Dublin University (1868–1875), Lord Chancellor of Ireland (1875–1880).

129 ‘Alas, Postume, Postume, the fleeting years are slipping by’, the opening lines of Horace, Ode 2.14.

130 Thomas Nedley (1820–1899), surgeon to the vice-regal household and Dublin Metropolitan Police, member of Lord Randolph Churchill's Dublin circle: Foster, Roy, Lord Randolph Churchill: a political life (Oxford, 1981), pp. 4042.

131 Sir Rowland Blennerhassett (1839–1909), Lib. MP for Kerry (1880–1885).

132 John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton (1834–1902), first Baron Acton of Aldenham (1869), Lib. MP for Carlow (1859–1865), co-founder of The English Historical Review (1886).

133 Arthur Wellesley (1769–1852), first Duke of Wellington (1814), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1806–1808), Master-General of Ordnance (1818–1822), Foreign Secretary (1822–1827), Prime Minister (1828–1830).

134 Sir Robert Peel (1788–1850), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1812–1818), Home Secretary (1822–1827, 1828–1830), Prime Minister (1834–1835, 1841–1846).

135 The speech was delivered at Leeds Cloth Hall on 7 October 1881 and Parnell was arrested six days later.

136 Henry John Temple (1784–1865), third Viscount Palmerston (1802), Secretary of State for War (1809–1828) and for Foreign Affairs (1830–1834, 1835–1841, 1846–1852), Prime Minister (1855–1858, 1859–1865).

137 Bill to amend Supreme Court of Judicature Act (Ireland), 1877: PP 1884–5, V, 531.

138 Sir Henry Thring (1818–1907), first Baron Thring (1886), Parliamentary Draughtsman (1850) and Counsel to the Treasury (1869). He prepared the Home Rule Bill of 1886.

139 Gladstone finally conceded to Spencer's request when Fitzgerald endorsed Naish as the best administrator among the candidates: Spencer to Gladstone, 18, 24, 26, and 29 April, 6 May 1885; Gladstone to Spencer, 25 April, 8 May 1885; Edward Hamilton to Spencer, 6 and 11 May 1885: AP, Add MS 76862.

140 The Early History of Charles James Fox (London, 1880).

141 De Tocqueville, Charles, L'Ancien Regime et la Revolution (Paris, 1856).

142 Henry Jephson (1844–1914), private secretary to the Under-Secretary and Chief Secretary of Ireland (1872–1884), he married Julie Reiss in 1884. His works include The Platform: its rise and progress (London, 1892).

143 ‘Peasant proprietors in Ireland’, Contemporary Review, 47 (June 1885), pp. 866–881.

144 See W.F. C[ullinan], ‘Purchase of land (Ireland). Notes on the various schemes proposed from time to time’, 30 June 1885: CAB 37/15/35.

145 Bill to Further Amend Law Relating to Occupation and Ownership of Land in Ireland: PP 1881, III, 7.

146 For Russell's proposed amendments, see Hansard, CCLXI–CCLXIII.

147 Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881), first Earl of Beaconsfield (1876), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1852, 1858–1859, 1866–1868), Prime Minister (1868, 1874–1880).

148 Thomas O'Hagan (1812–1885), first Baron O'Hagan (1870), Lib. MP for Tralee (1863–1865), justice of Common Pleas (1865–1868) and Lord Chancellor of Ireland (1868–1874, 1880–1881).

149 The Vatican Decrees and Vaticanism (London, 1874) and Vaticanism: an answer to replies and reproofs (London, 1875).

150 Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (1792–1878). As Pope Pius IX (1846–1878), he promulgated the dogma of papal infallibility.

151 Hugh McCalmont Cairns (1819–1885), first Earl Cairns of Garmoyle (1867), Con. MP for Belfast (1852–1866), Lord Justice of Appeal (1866–1868), Lord Chancellor (1868, 1874–1880).

152 See Steele, E.D., Irish Land and British Politics: tenant-right and nationality 1865–70 (Cambridge, 1974).

153 John Henry de la Poer Beresford (1844–1895), fifth Marquess of Waterford (1866), Lib. MP for Co. Waterford (1865–1866).

154 Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince von Bismarck (1815–1898), Prime Minister of Prussia (1862–1873, 1873–1890), Chancellor of Germany (1871–1890).

155 See Rowland Blennerhassett, ‘Prince Bismarck’, Nineteenth Century, 26 (June 1890), pp. 688–707.

156 Wilhelm of Hohenzollern (1797–1888), King of Prussia (1861–1888), Emperor of Germany (1871–1888).

157 For Thring's formal position, see his ‘Procedure for Trial (Ireland) Bill: memorandum’, 6 June 1885: AP, Add MS 77331.

158 Hugh Culling Eardley Childers (1827–1896), Lib. MP for Pontefract (1860–1885) and for Edinburgh South (1886–1892), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1882–1885), Home Secretary (1886).

159 The motion was rejected by 264 : 252. See Hansard, CCXCVIII, col. 1511.

160 Lord Randolph Churchill (1849–1895), Con. MP for Woodstock (1874–1885) and for Paddington South (1886–1890, 1892–1895), Secretary of State for India (1885–1886), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1886).

161 A reference to a former Irish chief secretary, William Forster, who had authorized the use of buckshot as a ‘non-lethal’ alternative to round shot when policing Land League demonstrations: Stephen Ball, ‘Crowd activity during the Irish Land War, 1879–90’, in Peter Jupp and Eoin Magennis (eds), Crowds in Ireland, c. 1720–1920 (Basingstoke, 2000), pp. 212–248.

162 Sir William George Granville Venables Vernon Harcourt (1827–1904), Lib. MP for Derby (1880–1895), Home Secretary (1880–1885), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1886, 1892–1895), professor of international law, Cambridge University (1869–1887).

163 Charles Dawson, Nat. MP for Co. Carlow (1880–1885), Lord Mayor of Dublin (1882–1883).

164 See Document 10.

165 Hamilton had stated, ‘I cannot conceive of anything which would be more disastrous to the preservation of order than that the idea should get abroad that intimidation is no longer a crime’: Hamilton to Spencer, 6 June 1885: GP, Add MS 44312, fos 145–146.

166 The Prince of Wales paid a state visit to Ireland in April 1885 (see Journal 24 February, 4 May 1885).

167 Sir Henry Drummond Wolff (1830–1908), Con. MP for Portsmouth (1880–1885), member of Churchill's ‘fourth party’.

168 Sir Stafford Henry Northcote (1818–1887), first Earl of Iddesleigh (1885), Con. MP for Devon North (1866–1885), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1874–1880), First Lord of the Treasury (1885–1886), Foreign Secretary (1886–1887).

169 Sir Michael Edward Hicks Beach (1837–1916), first Earl St Aldwyn (1915), Con. MP for East Gloucestershire (1864–1885) and for Bristol West (1885–1906), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1874–1878, 1886–1887), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1885–1886, 1895–1902).

170 Sir Richard Assheton Cross (1823–1914), first Viscount Cross of Broughton-in-Furness (1886), Con. MP for Lancashire South-West (1868–1886), Home Secretary (1874–1880, 1885–1886), Secretary of State for India (1886–1892).

171 Henry Chaplin (1840–1923), first Viscount Chaplin (1916), Con. MP for Mid-Lincolnshire (1868–1906), Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1885–1886).

172 The result was 333 : 35. See Hansard, CCXCVIII, cols 1540–1555.

173 He was appointed First Lord of the Treasury.

174 See The Times, 18 June 1885, p. 7.

175 See Dilke's diary, 13 July 1885 (copy): JCP, JC8/2/1; and Foster, Lord Randolph Churchill, p. 231.

176 Daniel O'Connell (1775–1847), co-founder of the Catholic Association (1823), MP for Clare (1828–1847), founder of the Loyal National Repeal Association (1840), Lord Mayor of Dublin (1841–1842).

177 For Fottrell's position on this question, see Fottrell to Churchill, 13 July 1885: RCHL 1/6. 690.

178 William Henry Smith (1825–1891), Con. MP for Westminster (1868–1891), Secretary of State for War (1885, 1886), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1885–1886), First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Commons (1887–1891).

179 See William O'Shea's memorandum, 14 January 1885: JCP, JC8/8/1/36, repr. The Times, 13 August 1888, p. 8; and see ‘A scheme for the improvement of local govt. in Ireland’: AP, Add MS 77329.

180 See Richard Barry O'Brien, The Life of Charles Stewart Parnell, 1846–1891, 2 vols (London, 1899), II, p. 138.

181 See ‘The political crisis’, The Times, 19 June 1885, p. 6.

182 The house was built by Leonard Wessel at Banstead in 1694.

183 Charles Russell (1863–1928), son of Sir Charles Russell, solicitor to the Canadian government (1896).

184 Hansard, CCXCVIII, cols 1618–1622.

185 Beatrice Chamberlain (1862–1918), eldest daughter and (prior to Chamberlain's second marriage in 1888) chatelaine of his household: Peter Marsh, Joseph Chamberlain: entrepreneur in politics (New Haven, CT and London, 1990), p. 301.

186 John Dillon (1851–1927), Nat. MP for Co. Tipperary (1880–1883) and for Mayo East (1885–1918), co-leader (with William O'Brien) of the Plan of Campaign (1886–1892), Deputy Leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party (1900–1918).

187 Herbert Henry Howard Molyneaux (1831–1890), fourth Earl of Carnarvon (1849), Colonial Secretary (1866–1867, 1874–1878), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1885–1886).

188 Sir William Hart Dyke (1837–1931), Con. MP for Mid-Kent (1868–1885) and for Dartford (1885–1906), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1885–1886).

189 Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1836–1908), Lib. MP for Stirling Burghs (1868–1908), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1884–1885), Secretary of State for War (1886, 1892–1895), Prime Minister (1905–1908).

190 Richard Monckton Milnes (1809–1885), first Baron Houghton (1863), Con. and Peelite MP for Pontefract (1837–1862), President of the London Library (1882–1885), scholar and advocate of religious equality.

191 Patron saint of Naples. As bishop of Beneveto, he was beheaded in 304 during Diocletian's persecution of the Christians. The miracle is said to happen twice a year at the Duomo in Naples and at the Church of San Gennaro at Solfatara in Pozzuoli.

192 John McHale (1791–1881), Archbishop of Tuam (1834–1881).

193 See Fottrell to Spencer, 2 July 1885: AP, Add MS 77152. Spencer made farewell visits on 19 June and departed from Kingstown on 22 June: The Times, 20 June 1885, p. 12; 23 June 1885, p. 6.

194 ‘The Radical Programme (No. VII): local government in Ireland’, Fortnightly Review, 44 (July 1885), pp. 1–16. For Gladstone's view of this article, see GD, XI, pp. 652–653.

195 See Document 9.

196 Sir Thomas Montague Steele (1820–1890), commander of Dublin military district (1872–1874), Commander-in-Chief in Ireland (1880–1885).

197 On 17 July, Parnell requested that the government ‘institute strict inquiry into evidence’ surrounding these and two other ‘agrarian’ cases: Hansard, CCXCIX, cols 1064–1150.

198 Bill to Provide Greater Facilities for Sale of Land to Occupying Tenants in Ireland: PP 1884–5, II, 305; Hansard, CCXCIX, cols 1040–1049.

199 He later served briefly on the Evicted Tenants Commission: FJ, 15 October 1892, p. 5.

200 In 1883, Dillon temporarily withdrew from politics and spent two years on his brother William's ranch at Castlerock, Colorado: Lyons, F.S.L., John Dillon (London, 1968), pp. 7071.

201 His home at Ballybrack, Co. Dublin. A keen cyclist, Fottrell regularly made the round trip to his office in Dublin: Irish Times, 2 February 1925, p. 8.

202 Sir Charles Gavan Duffy (1816–1903), founder of The Nation (1842), of the Irish Confederation (1847), of the Tenant League (1850), and of the Independent Irish Party (1852), Prime Minister of Victoria (1871–1872).

203 Charles Robert Barry (1823–1897), Lib. MP for Dungarvan (1865–1872), justice of Queen's Bench, Ireland and Lord of Appeal (1872–1883).

204 Joseph Allen Galbraith (1818–1890), professor of mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin, advocate of Irish home rule.

205 Richard Owen Armstrong, Director of the Artisans’ Dwellings Company of Dublin.

206 James Miley (1846–1919), military officer on departmental staff (1875–1898), Secretary of Finance for the Military Department, Government of India (1898–1902).

207 George Drevar Fottrell Snr (1813–1887), solicitor. Fottrell's mother, Ellen, had died in 1867, aged forty-six.

208 Farquharson fled to Spain and subsequently evaded arrest: The Times, 30 July 1885, p. 10; 31 July 1885, p. 10; 1 August 1885, p. 5; 3 August 1885, p. 4.

209 Louise (née Hall), a niece of Duffy's second wife, Susan (d. 1878), became his third wife in 1881. They had four children before Louise died in childbirth in February 1889.

210 See Todd, Alpheus, Parliamentary Government in the British Colonies (London, 1880), pp. 6474.

211 See Document 11.

212 Where he was secretly meeting with Parnell at 15 Hill Street, Mayfair: Curtis, L.P., Coercion and Conciliation in Ireland, 1880–92: a study in Conservative Unionism (Princeton, NJ, 1963), pp. 4954.

213 See Hansard, CCC, cols 1103–1108.

214 Michael Davitt (1846–1906), chief arms purchaser for the IRB, imprisoned on a charge of incitement to murder (1870–1877), instrumental in the foundation of the Land League of Mayo and the Irish National Land League (1879), Nat. MP for Cork North-East (1893) and for Mayo South (1895–1899).

215 John Monroe (1839–1899), Solicitor-General for Ireland (1885), justice of the Landed Estate Court, Ireland (1885–1895).

216 Andrew Reed (1837–1914), Sub-Inspector of the Irish Constabulary (1860), private secretary to the Inspector-General (1868–1879), CI of Donegal (1879–1881), head of Crime Division (1881–1884), Assistant IG (1882), DM for Western Division (1884–1885), IG of RIC (1885–1900).

217 See MCRs (W), for July and August 1885: CSO RPs 1885/16982, 16945.

218 Donald Crawford (1837–1919), legal secretary to the Lord Advocate (1880–1885), Commissioner for Parliamentary Boundaries (1885), Lib. MP for Lanarkshire N.E. Division (1885–1895); he married Virginia Smith in 1881.

219 John Blair Balfour (1837–1905), first Baron Kinross (1902), Lib. MP for Clackmannan and Kinross (1880–1899), Lord Advocate (1881–1885, 1886, 1892–1895).

220 Ashton Dilke (1850–1883), Lib. MP for Newcastle upon Tyne (1880–1883), editor of the Weekly Dispatch; he was survived by his widow, Margaret Mary (née Smith).

221 See ‘The break-up of the Liberal Party’, PMG, 3 August 1885, p. 1. For the Crawford divorce, see Jenkins, Roy, Sir Charles Dilke: a Victorian tragedy (London, 1958), pp. 215370.

222 Their plan to visit Ireland was sabotaged by Parnell, who instigated a nationalist press campaign against them, and the withdrawal of offers of hospitality from the Catholic hierarchy: Lyons, F.S.L., Charles Stewart Parnell (London, 1977), pp. 288290.

223 Bill to amend Labourers (Ireland) Act, 1883, and for other purposes connected with Labourers’ Dwellings in Ireland: PP 1884–5, II, 187. Bill to Re-organise Educational Endowments of Ireland: PP 1884–5, I, 445. Parliament was prorogued on 14 August.

224 Purchase of Land (Ireland) Act, 1885 (48 & 49 Vic., c. 73); Labourers (Ireland) Act, 1883 (46 & 47 Vic., c. 60); Labourers (Ireland) Act, 1885 (48 & 49 Vic., c. 77); and Educational Endowments (Ireland) Act, 1885 (48 & 49 Vic., c. 78), which diverted £140,000 of endowment funds to Catholic schools and colleges.

225 Parnell spoke at Arklow on 20 August and at Dublin on 24 August: The Times, 22 August 1885, p. 6; 25 August 1885, p. 4.

226 The meeting took place at the offices of the Irish National League in Sackville St, Dublin, on 25 August 1885: The Times, 26 August 1885, p. 7.

227 See MacBride, Lawrence W., The Greening of Dublin Castle: the transformation of bureaucratic and judicial personnel in Ireland, 1892–1922 (Washington, DC, 1991), pp. 4647.

228 Chamberlain spoke at Hull on 5 August 1885: The Times, 6 August 1885, p. 6.

229 Hartington spoke on 29 August 1885: The Times, 31 August 1885, p. 8.

230 ‘Moonlight’ raids were carried out in north Kerry on 18 and 27 August, and Parnell delivered his speech on 1 September: The Times, 28 August 1885, p. 4; 2 September 1885, p. 6.

231 See The Times, 9 September 1885, p. 6.

232 Churchill spoke on 4 September 1885: The Times, 5 September 1885, p. 6.

233 Cutting inserted into journal: see FJ, 9 September 1885, p. 4.

234 Walsh spoke on his arrival at Kingstown and in reply to an address from the Corporation of Dublin at Westland-row station on 4 September 1885: The Times, 5 September 1885, p. 7; Patrick J. Walsh, William J. Walsh, Archbishop of Dublin (Dublin, 1928), pp. 179–181.

235 John MacEvilly (1816–1902), Archbishop of Tuam (1881–1902), a powerful advocate of tenant right and home rule.

236 Chamberlain addressed the Glasgow Liberal Association on 15 September 1885: The Times, 16 September 1885, p. 7.

237 Morley spoke at Clapton on 16 September 1885: The Times, 17 September 1885, p. 4.

238 Thomas Aloysius Finlay (1848–1940), Rector of Belvedere College, Dublin (1882–1887), professor of philosophy and political economy, Royal University of Ireland (1883–1930).

239 Sir Thomas Henry Grattan Esmonde (1862–1935), Nat. MP for Dublin South (1885–1892), later a senator of the Irish Free State and Chairman of the National Bank.

240 See The Times, 19 September 1885, p. 8.

241 For Duffy's proposals for an Irish parliament, see ‘Appeal to the Conservative Party’, National Review, 4 (February 1885), pp. 142–144.

242 See Document 14 and Alan O'Day, Parnell and the First Home Rule Episode (Dublin, 1986), p. 97.

243 Between June and September 1885, the number of persons boycotted in Ireland increased fourfold to 885: Stephen Ball, ‘Policing the Land War: official responses to political protest and agrarian crime in Ireland, 1879–91’ (unpublished PhD thesis, University of London, 2000), p. 255.

244 See United Ireland, 19 September 1885, p. 3, and 26 September 1885, p. 2; Standard, 24 September 1885, p. 4. For Carnarvon's response to the latter article, see Carnavon to Hicks Beach, 25 September 1885: CP Add MS 60825, fo. 91.

245 James O'Connor (1836–1910), journalist and long-time member of the IRB, sub-editor of United Ireland (1881–1890), Nat. MP for Wicklow West (1892–1910).

246 John Ferguson (1836–1906), Irish nationalist and co-founder of the Scottish Labour Party (1888).

247 See FJ, 18 September 1885, p. 6.

248 See The Times, 29 September 1885, p. 6.

249 See Document 16.

250 See Document 17.

251 Childers spoke on 12 October 1885: The Times, 13 October 1885, p. 12.

252 The convention, held on 12 October 1885, was the most significant county assembly to be held prior to the general election: The Times, 13 October 1885, p. 6; FJ, 13 October 1885, p. 5.

253 John Morley, ‘Irish revolution and English liberalism’, Nineteenth Century, 12 (November 1882), pp. 647–666. Hamilton directed Fottrell to a passage in the article that considered Michael Davitt's views on the subject and advocated a constitution for Ireland based on the Canadian model.

254 Davitt spoke at the New York Academy of Music on 19 June 1882: Irish World, 1 July 1882.

255 See Hamilton to Reed, 30 September 1885: CSO RP 1885/17947.

256 Between August and December 1885, 425 persons were prosecuted under this act: ‘Summary of cases in which boycotting and intimidation have been prosecuted under the ordinary law from the expiration of Prevention of Crime Act 1882 to 31st December 1885’: CSO, RP 1888/26523.

257 Between 25 October and 8 November 1885, Davitt delivered lectures at Glasgow, Greenock, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Dundee, Inverness, and Coatbridge: ‘Land nationalization; or, national peasant proprietary’, in Carla King (ed.), Michael Davitt: collected writings, 1868–1906, I (Bristol, 2001).

258 Situated in Sackville (O'Connell) Street, Dublin, it was destroyed during the Easter Rising of 1916.

259 See Document 19.

260 Fottrell outlined the main arguments of the report: see Document 20.

261 See Document 9.

262 In the general election of 1880, the Liberals won 353 seats, the Conservatives 238, and the Irish Nationalists 61.

263 The manifesto was drawn up by Parnell on 21 November and subsequently issued by T.P. O'Connor: see The Nation, 28 November 1885, repr. Grenfell Morton (ed.), Home Rule and the Irish Question (London, 1980), pp. 91–92.

264 Hartington addressed the Belfast Liberal Club and later spoke at the Ulster Hall on 5 November 1885: The Times, 6 November 1885, p. 6.

265 Justin McCarthy (1830–1912), Nat. MP for Co. Longford (1879–1885) and for Londonderry city (1886–1892), chairman of the anti-Parnellite party (1890–1896).

266 Henry Lyle Mulholland (1854–1931), second Baron Dunleith (1895), Con. MP for Londonderry North (1885–1895).

267 McCarthy polled 1792 votes and Lewis 1824. At the election for Londonderry North (30 November 1885), Mulholland defeated Samuel Walker by 5180 : 3017.

268 At the election for Belfast West (26 November 1885), James Horner Haslett (Con.) defeated Thomas Sexton by 3780 : 3743.

269 Thomas Lea (1841–1902), Lib. MP for Donegal (1879–1885), Lib. U. MP for Londonderry South (1886–1900), lost the contest for Donegal East to Arthur O'Connor (Nat.) by 4089 : 2992.

270 John Doherty Barbour, Lib. MP for Lisburn (1863) but unseated on petition, lost the contest for Antrim South to W.G. Ellison Macartney (Con.) by 5047 : 3680.

271 Thomas Shillington (1835–1925), linen manufacturer and member of the Ulster Land Committee, lost the contest for Armagh North to Major E.J. Saunderson (Con.) by 4192 : 2373.

272 John Shaw Brown (b. 1823), linen manufacturer, lost the contest for Down North to Colonel Thomas Waring (Con.) by 4315 : 2841.

273 Sir William Huffington Findlater (1824–1906), Lib. MP for Co. Monaghan (1880–1885), President of the Incorporated Law Society and the Statistical Society of Ireland, finished third in the contest for Londonderry South behind Timothy Healy (Nat.) and Colonel Hugh McCalmont (Con.).

274 Timothy Power O'Connor (1848–1929), Nat. MP for Liverpool, Scotland Division (1880–1929) and a vital link between Irish and Liberal parliamentarians; see his The Parnell Movement (London, 1886).

275 Articles concerning Gladstone's position on home rule were published in the Daily News and the Pall Mall Gazette on 12 December and expanded upon in the Standard and the Pall Mall Gazette on 17 December: Herbert Gladstone to Lucy Cavendish, 31 December 1885: GP, Add MS 56445, fos 144–154.

276 Chamberlain spoke at Birmingham on 17 December and Dilke at Chelsea on the following day: The Times, 18 December 1885, p. 7; 19 December 1885, p. 9.

277 Morley addressed a meeting of the Liberal Five Hundred in the Northumberland Hall on 21 December: The Times, 22 December 1885, p. 6; Morley, John, Recollections, 2 vols (London, 1923), I, p. 204.

278 See The Times, 21 December 1885, p. 9.

279 William Edward Forster (1818–1886), Lib. MP for Bradford (1861–1885) and for Bradford Central (1885–1886), Vice-President of the Council (1868–1874), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1880–1882). On 21 December, Forster wrote to The Times stating that home rule would not solve the Irish question and posed a danger to both Great Britain and Ireland: The Times, 23 December 1885, p. 4.

280 See Document 9.

281 Frederic Harrison (1831–1923), President of the English Positivist Committee (1880–1895), professor of jurisprudence, constitutional, and international law for the Council of Legal Education (1877–1889), defeated Liberal home rule candidate for London University (1886).

282 See Documents 32 and 37.

283 Timothy Daniel Sullivan (1827–1914), Nat. MP for Co. Westmeath (1880–1885) and for College Green Division, Dublin (1885–1892), editor and proprietor of The Nation, Dublin Weekly News, and Young Ireland, Lord Mayor of Dublin (1886–1887).

284 John Joseph Clancy (1847–1928), Nat. MP for Dublin North (1885–1918), member of the editorial staff of The Nation newspaper.

285 Robert Giffen (1837–1910), assistant editor of The Economist (1868–1876), Assistant Secretary of the Board of Trade and Controller-General of the Commercial, Labour and Statistical Departments (1882–1897), President of the Statistical Society (1882–1884), KCB (1886).

286 See ‘Home rule – a suggestion’, The Economist, 9 January 1886, reprinted in The ‘Statist’ on Ireland: reprint of ‘Economist's’ letters to the Statist on the Irish land and home rule questions, and of editorial comments thereon (London, 1886).

287 The scheme was lauded as ‘a way in which the Irish difficulty can be settled with justice to all parties’: PMG, 16 January 1886, p. 6.

288 Ferenc Deák (1803–1876), Hungarian statesman and chief organizer of the Ausgleich or compromise with the Austrian crown in 1867.

289 Florence Vere O'Brien (née Arnold-Forster) (1854–1936), adopted niece of William Forster and author of Francis Deak (London, 1880): see Moody, T.W. and Hawkins, R.A.J., with Margaret Moody (eds), Florence Arnold-Forster's Irish Journal (Oxford, 1988), pp. xxxxii.

290 Ellipsis in original.

291 Fottrell reproduced a passage from pages 260–261 of the book, which outlined the constitution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (1867).

292 The speech read, ‘If, as my information leads me to apprehend, the existing provisions of the law should prove to be inadequate to cope with these growing evils, I look with confidence to your willingness to invest my Government with all necessary powers’: Hansard, CCCII, cols 32–36.

293 Ibid., cols 120–130.

294 Ibid., cols 100–120.

295 Ibid., cols 151–160.

296 Ibid., col. 68; The Times, 22 January 1886, p. 6.

297 See Hansard, CCCII, cols 300–301, 416.

298 Sir Henry James (1828–1911), first Baron James of Hereford (1895), Lib. MP for Taunton (1869–1885), Lib. U. MP for Bury (1885–1895), Attorney-General (1873–1874, 1880–1885).

299 Leonard Henry Courtney (1832–1918), first Baron Courtney of Penwith (1906), Lib. MP for Liskeard (1876–1885), Lib. U. MP for Bodmin (1885–1900), Financial Secretary to the Treasury (1882–1885).

300 George Joachim Goschen (1831–1907), first Viscount Goschen (1900), Lib. MP for Ripon (1880–1885) and for Edinburgh East (1885–1886), Lib. U. MP for St George's (1887–1890), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1887–1892).

301 William James Harris (1835–1911), Con. MP for Poole (1884–1885); see The Economist, 23 January 1886, pp. 112–113.

302 Hansard, CCCII, cols 532–533, 534–535.

303 See Document 40.

304 Henry Hartley Fowler (1830–1911), first Viscount Wolverhampton (1908), Lib. MP for Wolverhampton East (1880–1908), Under-Secretary of the Home Office (1884–1885).

305 Thomas Butler (1837–1920), RM for Mallow, advocate of Irish administrative reform.

306 Thomas Oliver Westenra Plunkett (1838–1889), son of the twelfth Baron Louth, RM (1866–1881), SRM and DM for South-Western Division (1881–1889).

307 Butler to Hamilton, 26 January 1886; Hamilton to Plunkett, 27 January 1886: CSO RP 1886/1707 in RP 1886/2602; Cork Examiner, 26 January 1886.

308 See FJ, 29 January 1886, p. 5.

309 It was reported that this action was met ‘by the farming class with great satisfaction’: Hamilton to Plunkett, 29 January 1886; Plunkett to Hamilton, 9 February 1886: CSO RP 1886/2602.

310 Joseph Cowen (1831–1900), coal-owner and newspaper proprietor, Lib. MP for Newcastle upon Tyne (1874–1886), radical reformer and home ruler.

311 Charles Frederic Hamond (1817–1905), Con. MP for Newcastle upon Tyne (1874–1880, 1892–1900).

312 See The Times, 12 February 1886, p. 6; 13 February 1886, p. 6.

313 He was sworn in on 10 February 1886: The Times, 11 February 1886, p. 10.

314 Edmund Leamy (1848–1904), Nat. MP for Waterford city (1880–1885) and for Cork North East (1885–1887).

315 Anthony John Mundella (1825–1897), Lib. MP for Sheffield (1868–1885) and for Sheffield Brightside (1885–1897), advanced Liberal and supporter of home rule.

316 Archibald Philip Primrose (1847–1929), fifth Earl of Rosebery (1868), Lord Privy Seal (1885), Foreign Secretary (1886, 1892–1894), Prime Minister (1894–1895).

317 Sir Thomas Farrer (1819–1899), first Baron Farrer of Abinger (1893), Permanent Secretary to the Board of Trade (1865–1886).

318 William O'Shea (1840–1905), Nat. MP for Co. Clare (1880–1885) and for Galway town (1886), facilitated communication between leading Liberal politicians and Parnell during 1880–1885.

319 Katherine O'Shea (1845–1921) married William O'Shea in 1867 and, as Parnell's mistress, acted as go-between in his dealings with Gladstone. Divorced in 1890, she married Parnell in 1891.

320 Joseph Gillis Biggar (1828–1890), Nat. MP for Co. Cavan (1874–1885), pioneer of ‘obstruction’ in the House of Commons.

321 Arthur Alfred Lynch (1861–1934), colonel of the 2nd Irish Brigade, South Africa (1899–1902), Nat. MP for Galway city (1901–1903) and for Clare West (1909–1918).

322 See FJ, 10 February 1886, p. 6; Lyons, Parnell, pp. 314–340.

323 John Deasy (1856–1896), Nat. MP for Cork city (1884–1885) and for Mayo West (1885–1893), prominent member of the Irish National League.

324 See The Times, 13 February 1886, p. 12.

325 See Journal (12, 21 March 1886).

326 John Blake Dillon (1814–1866), staff member of The Nation and Young Ireland, alderman of the city of Dublin, founder of the National Association, Lib. MP for Co. Tipperary (1865–1866).

327 Report on the State of the Public Accounts between Ireland and Great Britain (1863, published Dublin, 1882).

328 Robert Giffen, ‘The economic value of Ireland to Great Britain’, Nineteenth Century, 19 (March 1886), pp. 329–345.

329 Sir Edward James Reed (1830–1906), Chairman of Milford Haven Shipbuilding & Engineering Company, Lib. MP for Cardiff (1880–1895, 1900–1906), Junior Lord of the Treasury (1886).

330 Reed beat the Conservative candidate by 5708 : 4845 (see The Times, 1 March 1886, p. 7).

331 John Stanislaus Lynch (1831–1915), Registrar of the Landed Estates Court and land purchase commissioner; see his ‘Suggestions for the simplification of the procedure in relation to the sale of land in Ireland’, presented to the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland, 28 April 1885, and The Times, 11 May 1885, p. 7.

332 John Henniker Heaton (1848–1914), landowner and newspaper proprietor, Con. MP for Canterbury (1885–1910).

333 St. James's Gazette, 8 March 1886, p. 8.

334 The speech was delivered at the Music Hall, Edinburgh: The Times, 25 November 1885, pp. 11, 12.

335 See Document 32; Spencer to Carnarvon, 5 August 1886: CP, Add MS 60830, fos 60–61.

336 See Fottrell to Spencer, 10 March 1886: AP, Add MS 77152.

337 Fottrell listed the fourteen points made in his paper: see ‘Confidential. Land Purchase. Memorandum of G.F.’, 11 March 1886: GP, Add MS 44632, fos 177–184. For original manuscript, see AP, Add MS 77324, and Fottrell to Spencer, 11 March 1886: AP, Add MS 77152.

338 For schemes proposed by Chamberlain and Gladstone, see CAB 37/18/22, CAB 37/18/27.

339 ‘Confidential. Ireland. Land Purchase Scheme. Summary of Memorandum dated March 11 1886’, 16 March 1886: CAB 37/18/29. See also his ‘Confidential. Landed Estates Court. – Report and Memorandum of G.F.’, 17 March 1886: AP, Add MS 77324.

340 Sir James Stansfield (1820–1898), Lib. MP for Halifax (1859–1895), President of the Local Government Board (1871–1874, 1886), radical and home ruler.

341 John William Ramsay (1847–1887), thirteenth Earl of Dalhousie (1874), Lord-in-Waiting in ordinary to Queen Victoria (1880–1885), Secretary of State for Scotland (1886).

342 Between March 1881 and July 1882, 955 persons were arrested and imprisoned under the Protection of Person and Property (Ireland) Act (44 & 45 Vict., c. 4): Ball, ‘Policing the Land War’, p. 22.

343 See appendix, pp. 323–324.

344 Bill to Amend Provision for Future Govt. of Ireland: PP 1886, II, 461.

345 See Hansard, CCCIV, cols 1036–1085. Fottrell listed the forty provisions of the bill.

346 Colonel Thomas Waring (1828–1898), Con. MP for Down North (1885–1898), Grand Master of the Loyal Orange Institute of England (1892–1898); Hansard, CCCIV, cols 1085–1089.

347 Ibid., cols 1104–1134.

348 Ibid., cols 1181–1222, 1238–1278, 1317–1344.

349 Charles Grey (1764–1845), second Earl Grey (1807), Whig MP for Northumberland (1786–1807), First Lord of the Admiralty (1806), Foreign Secretary (1806–1807), Prime Minister (1831–1834).

350 Charles James Fox (1749–1806), Whig MP for Midhurst (1768–1780), for Westminster (1780–1783, 1785–1806), and for Kirkwall (1784–1785), a lord of the Treasury (1772–1774), joint Secretary of State (1783), Foreign Secretary (1782, 1806).

351 Hansard, CCCIV, cols 1344–1364. Russell drew particular attention to Chamberlain's views as articulated by Fottrell in the Fortnightly Review: Hansard, col. 1352.

352 Samuel Whitbread (1830–1915), Chairman of Whitbread Brewery, Lib. MP for Bedford (1852–1895), home ruler; Hansard, CCCIV, cols 1396–1406.

353 Ibid., cols 1439–1458. Harcourt also forced Chamberlain to admit that he had not written the Fortnightly Review article.

354 Ibid., cols 1458–1482, 1518–1550, and see Bill to make amended provision for Sale and Purchase of Land in Ireland: PP 1886, V, 193.

355 Hansard, CCCIV, cols 1778–1811.

356 George Valentine Patton (1836–1898), editor of the Dublin Daily Express (1873–1898) and Dublin correspondent for The Times (1866–1898).

357 The meeting was held at Newcastle Town Hall on 21 April 1886: The Times, 22 April 1886, p. 6.

358 It was addressed to the National Liberal Federation of Scotland at St Andrew's Hall, Glasgow, on 30 April 1886: The Times, 1 May 1886, p. 9.

359 George Shaw-Lefevre (1831–1928), first Baron Eversley (1906), Lib. MP for Reading (1863–1885) and for Bradford Central (1886–1895), Postmaster-General (1884–1885).

360 John O'Hagan (1822–1890), Judicial Commissioner of the Irish Land Commission (1881–1889), nationalist poet and supporter of Irish home rule.

361 Edward Falconer Litton (1827–1890), Lib. MP for Co. Tyrone (1880–1881), land commissioner (1881–1889), Judicial Commissioner of the Irish Land Commission (1889–1890).

362 John George MacCarthy (1829–1892), Lib. MP for Mallow (1874–1880), sub-commissioner of the Land Act (1881–1885), land purchase commissioner (1885–1892), author of works on Irish history and the land question, advocate of ‘tenant-right’.

363 On 15 May, Salisbury told the National Union of Conservative Associations at St James's Hall that the effect of sending ‘a large proportion of the inhabitants of the congested districts to Manitoba . . . would be magical upon the social condition of the Irish people’: The Times, 17 May 1885, p. 6.

364 John Bright (1811–1889), Leader of the Anti-Corn Law League (1838–1846), Lib. MP for Durham (1843–1847), for Manchester (1847–1857), and for Birmingham (1858–1885). For Bright's letter to Peter Rylands MP, the Liberal Unionist candidate for Burnley, see The Times, 26 June 1886, p. 9.

365 Hansard, CCCVI, cols 1168–1184, 1215–1240.

366 For an account of the policing of the riots, see Mark Radford, ‘“Closely akin to actual warfare”: the Belfast Riots of 1886 and the RIC’, History Ireland, 7, no. 4 (1999), pp. 27–31.

367 The Conservatives won 317 seats, the Liberal Unionists 77, the Liberals 191, and the Irish Nationalists 85.

368 Those defending Hamilton included Sir Ralph Lingen, Sir Thomas Farrer, Henry Jephson, and John Morley who, under the signature ‘M’, argued that, while Hamilton was not the author of the Home Rule Bill, he had been duty-bound to lay opinions formed upon the subject of his daily work before his political chiefs: The Times, 27 July 1886, p. 8; Morley to Spencer, 10 August 1886: AP, Add MS 76938. See also The Times, 22 July 1886, p. 10; 24 July 1886, p. 9; 29 July 1886, p. 8; 30 July 1886, p. 5; 31 July 1886, p. 5; 4 August 1886, p. 12; 5 August 1886, p. 6; 7 August 1886, p. 10.

369 Hamilton was accused of having ‘taken a leading part in forming the party policy of Mr. Gladstone's Irish Governments’: St. James's Gazette, 24 July 1886, p. 4; and see 21, 29, and 31 July.

370 Situated at the junction of Nassau and Dawson Streets, Dublin. Parnell was a regular guest and his party met there frequently to select parliamentary candidates.

371 Bill for Temporary Relief of Agricultural Tenants in Ireland, and for Admission of Certain Leaseholders to Land Act, 1881: PP 1886 (Sess. 2), VI, 3.

372 Hansard, CCCIX, cols 1191–1207, 1223–1247.

373 Sir Redvers Henry Buller (1839–1908), chief of staff for Khartoum expedition (1884), Special Commissioner for Cork and Kerry (1886), Under-Secretary for Ireland (1886–1887), Commander-in-Chief in South Africa (1899–1900).

374 For Buller's service in Ireland, see Powell, Geoffrey, Buller: a scapegoat? A life of Sir Redvers Buller 1839–1908 (London, 1994), pp. 8196.

375 The Royal Commission on the Land Law (Ireland) Act, 1881, and the Purchase of Land (Ireland) Act, 1885 was appointed on 29 September 1886. For its reports, see PP 1887, XXVI, 1, 25, 1109.

376 See ‘General Buller against the landlords’, United Ireland, 20 November 1886, p. 2.

377 It was claimed that Hamilton's ‘speedy departure from the Castle is indispensable to the restoration of “social order” in Ireland’: St. James's Gazette, 18 November 1886, pp. 3–4. See also The Times, 18 November 1886, p. 9; 20 November 1886, p. 11; 23 November 1886, p. 6.

378 Dunbar Plunket Barton (1853–1937), private secretary to Lord Ashbourne (1885–1886), justice of King's Bench and Chancery, Ireland (1900–1918).

379 Francis Thomas de Grey (1834–1905), seventh Earl Cowper (1856), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1880–1882), Chairman of the Royal Commission on Irish Land Legislation (1886), opponent of home rule.

380 John Chute Neligan (1826–1911), county court judge for King's County (1882–1890), recorder of the cities of Londonderry and Cork (1890–1908).

381 Sir James Key Caird (1837–1916), entrepreneur and philanthropist, owner of the Ashton and Craigie jute mills near Dundee.

382 Edward Nugent (1835–1890), sixth Earl of Milltown (1871), Lord Lieutenant of Co. Wicklow, owner of land in counties Wicklow, Queens, Kings, Dublin, and Tipperary.

383 John George Fottrell (1857–1940), crown and state solicitor for Co. Meath (c.1904–1935) and co-author, with his brother, of several publications on land law.

384 See The Times, 1 October 1886, p. 7; 4 October 1886, p. 6; and Clancy, John J., Six Months of ‘Unionist’ Rule (London, 1887), pp. 3637.

385 See The Times, 30 November 1886, p. 6.

386 See FJ, 1 December 1886, pp. 4–5.

387 34 Ed. III, c. 1. Normally used to deal with vagrancy, this statute enabled the Crown to prosecute defendants without need of complainant or opportunity of appeal. It was revived, after a lapse of 300 years, for use against political agitators in 1883: Thomas Gerrard to William Lane Joynt (Crown and Treasury Solicitor), 30 March 1883: CSO RP 1883/11555.

388 See United Ireland, 23 October 1886, repr. Laurence Geary, The Plan of Campaign, 1886–1891 (Cork, 1986), pp. 144–150.

389 The Marquis of Clanricarde owned 56,826 acres at Portumna, Co. Galway; Viscount Dillon owned 83,749 acres in County Mayo; and Charles Talbot-Ponsonby held 10,367 acres near Youghal, Co. Cork.

390 The Cork Defence Union was established in October 1885, under the presidency of the Earl of Bandon, to assist landowners, merchants, farmers, and labourers boycotted by the National League.

391 William John Lane (b. 1849), Nat. MP for Cork East (1885–1892), trustee of Cork Savings’ Bank.

392 Hugh Holmes (1840–1916), Con. MP for Dublin University (1885–1887), Solicitor- and Attorney-General for Ireland (1878–1880, 1885–1886, 1886–1887), justice of Common Pleas and Queen's Bench, and Lord Justice of Appeal for Ireland (1887–1915).

393 See United Ireland, 4 December 1886, p. 5.

394 In fact, the Chief Secretary, on the advice of his law officers, abandoned the idea of prosecuting United Ireland for publishing the Plan of Campaign: Hicks Beach to Salisbury, 30 November 1886: SAP, D2445, PCC/31.

395 Rev. James Healy (1824–1894), curate and administrator of Bray (1858–1893), parish priest of Ballybrack (1893), member of the FitzGibbon–Churchill circle: Foster, Lord Randolph Churchill, p. 42, and see Fitzpatrick, W.J., Memories of Father Healy of Little Bray (3rd edition, London, 1898).

396 John Mulhall (b. 1856), private secretary to Lord Londonderry and the Earl of Zetland (1886–1892), Vice-Chairman of the General Prisons Board (1892–1912).

397 Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart (1852–1915), sixth Marquess of Londonderry (1884), Con. MP for Co. Down (1878–1884), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1886–1889), Chairman of the Ulster Unionist Council (1912–1914).

398 A Presbyterian farmer holding 500 acres at Ballaghy, Co. Armagh: The Times, 4 October 1886, p. 6.

399 Dissenting from the Commission's findings, Knipe recommended that the Land Commission be empowered to lower rents: Report by Mr. Thomas Knipe on the Land Law Act 1881, and the Purchase of Land Act 1885: PP 1887, XXVI, 1241.

400 See PP 1887, XXVI, 25, pp. 906–910.

401 David Harrel (1841–1939), RIC officer (1859–1879), RM for Co. Mayo (1879–1883), Chief Commissioner of the Dublin Metropolitan Police (1883–1893), Under-Secretary for Ireland (1893–1902).

402 Sir William Squire Baker Kaye (1831–1901), Assistant Under-Secretary for Ireland (1878–1895), private secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1895–1900).

403 Hubert George de Burgh-Canning (1832–1916), second Marquess of Clanricarde (1874), Con. MP for Co. Galway (1867–1871).

404 William Reginald Courtenay (1807–1888), eleventh Earl of Devon (1849), Con. MP for Devon South (1841–1849), Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1866–1867), owner of 33,026 acres in Co. Limerick.

405 See The Times, 17 December 1886, p. 5.

406 William O'Brien (1832–1899), justice of Common Pleas and Queen's Bench, Ireland (1882–1899).

407 William Moore Johnson (1828–1918), Lib. MP for Mallow (1880–1883), Solicitor- and Attorney-General for Ireland (1880–1881, 1881–1883), justice of Queen's Bench, Ireland (1883–1909).

408 Matthew Harris (1826–1890), Land League organizer, representative for Connaught on Supreme Council of the IRB (1878), Nat. MP for Galway East (1885–1890).

409 David Sheehy (1844–1932), Nat. MP for Galway South (1885–1900) and for Waterford city (1903–1918).

410 See The Times, 17 December 1886, p. 5.

411 William Davis (b. 1834), RIC District Inspector for Loughrea.

412 Colonel John Philip Nolan (1838–1912), Nat. MP for Co. Galway (1872, 1874–1885) and for Galway North (1885–1895, 1900–1906).

413 Norman Lionel Townsend (b. 1846), Sub-Inspector of RIC (1866–1886), RM (1886–1911).

414 See The Times, 18 December 1886, p. 6; 21 December 1886, p. 6; 24 December 1886, p. 4.

415 Lord George Francis Hamilton (1845–1927), Con. MP for Middlesex (1868–1885) and for Ealing (1885–1906), First Lord of the Admiralty (1885–1886, 1886–1892), Secretary of State for India (1895–1903).

416 See Foster, Lord Randolph Churchill, pp. 301–310.

417 Henry Du Pré Labouchere (1831–1912), Lib. MP for Northampton (1880–1906), proprietor of Truth, radical reformer and home ruler. Earlier, Labouchere had transmitted news of Gladstone's position on home rule to Churchill, as revealed to him in a recent letter from ‘go-between’ (presumably Fottrell): Labouchere to Churchill, 1 January 1886: RCHL, 1/11. 1238.

418 Chamberlain addressed a private meeting of the Liberal Divisional Council of West Birmingham on 23 December 1886: The Times, 24 December 1886, p. 4.

419 See FJ, 28 December 1886, p. 6.

420 Arthur Philip Stanhope (1838–1905), sixth Earl Stanhope (1875), Con. MP for Nottingham (1860–1866), owner of 2,129 acres in Queen's County.

421 Land Law (Ireland): First Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords: PP 1882, XI, 1. For Fottrell's evidence (24 March 1882), see pp. 219–264, and for his report as solicitor to the Land Commission (11 February 1882), see pp. 441–448.

422 Edward Stanhope (1840–1893), Con. MP for Mid-Lincolnshire (1874–1885) and for Lincolnshire, Horncastle Division (1885–1893), President of the Board of Trade (1885–1886), Secretary of State for the Colonies (1886) and for War (1887–1892).

423 Francis Waldron (1853–1932), captain of Royal Artillery, brother of Laurence Waldron.

424 Isaac Butt (1813–1879), Con./Lib. MP for Youghal (1852–1865), Nat. MP for Limerick (1871–1879), founder of the Home Government Association (1870) and the Home Rule League (1873).

425 Labouchere was elected on 12 July 1865 but unseated by a committee of the House of Commons on 25 April 1866: The Times, 13 July 1865, p. 10; 26 April 1866, p. 7.

426 George Charles Spencer-Churchill (1844–1892), eighth Duke of Marlborough (1883).

427 ‘Was there ever’, Labouchere asked Churchill, ‘such a timorous Jumbo?’: Labouchere to Churchill, 23 December 1885: RCHL 1/10. 1199.

428 Presumably a reference to Gladstone's wife, Catherine.

429 William Thomas Stead (1849–1912), editor of the Pall Mall Gazette (1883–1890), founder of the Review of Reviews (1890).

430 The Irish National League was founded on 17 October 1882.

431 Cutting inserted into journal: see PMG, 1 January 1887, p. 8.

432 Sir Henry Irving (1838–1905), actor credited with reviving popular interest in the plays of Shakespeare; during 1885–1887 he appeared as Mephistopheles in Wills's Faust. See also PMG, 1 January 1887, p. 3.

433 Sir Farrer Herschell (1837–1889), first Baron Herschell (1886), Lib. MP for Durham city (1874–1885), Solicitor-General (1880–1885), Lord Chancellor (1886).

434 See FJ, 8 January 1887, p. 4. Following an inquest, the car driver responsible for the incident was charged with manslaughter: FJ, 10 January 1887, p. 2; 15 January 1887, p. 6.

435 Morley informed Spencer that Chamberlain had pressed Hartington to join them but the latter declined, fearing that his presence might kindle distrust in the Conservative Party: Morley to Spencer, 1 January 1887: AP, Add MS 76938; and see Hurst, Michael, Joseph Chamberlain and Liberal Reunion: the Round Table Conference of 1887 (London, 1967), pp. 152156.

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Royal Historical Society Camden Fifth Series
  • ISSN: 0960-1163
  • EISSN: 1478-5110
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