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WÜRTTEMBERG (STUTTGART)

Extract

I have the honor to report that three British subjects have been tried and convicted here under the following circumstances.

During the night of the 9th–10th of February a drunken affray took place at the Stuttgart railway terminus between four young foreigners (three of them English) and some railway porters. No one was much hurt.

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References
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1 Francis Baker and Alexander Fraser.

2 ‘District Court’.

3 French: ‘misdemeanours’. Article 1 of the German Penal Code of 1871 differentiates between indictable offences (Verbrechen), non-indictable offences (Vergehen) and infringement (Übertretung).

4 Karl Schönhardt.

5 Enclosure: original (cutting) ‘Gerichtssaal’, Neues Tagblatt, 2 May 1884.

6 Zentrumspartei (Catholics).

7 Otto von Bismarck.

8 A contemporary name for the coalition of the National Liberal Party and Deutsche Reichspartei (Free Conservatives).

9 Württembergische Volkspartei and the Deutsche Fortschrittspartei.

10 Barron is referring to the continued British war against the Mahdist Sudanese after the fall of Khartoum in January 1885 (see n. 32 in Berlin section).

11 In his dispatch No 3 of 28 February 1885 Granville acquainted Barron with the information provided by the secretary of state for war on the matter, ‘that foreigners are only allowed to be enlisted for the British Army in special cases, where their services are required with Regimental Bands & that each case is submitted for the approval of the Secretary of State for War before the enlistment takes place.’

12 On 22 December the Württemberg chamber of deputies resolved not to proceed with the reading of the bill on administration of property and possessions of Catholic parishes, and asked the government to introduce an amended bill.

13 Das Staatsrecht des Königreichs Württemberg, 1883, 2 vols.

14 Note on docket: ‘It is clear that the plan by which it is proposed if possible to nullify the rejection of the Russo German Extradition Treaty by the Reichstag, is, conclusion of separate treaties to the same effect between Russia and the component states of the Germany Empire. Copy to Home Office for perusal’, J.H.G.B. [John Henry Gibbs Bergne].

15 Federal Council.

16 After the Federal Council declared its consent for the measure on 12 February 1885, the Russo-German Extradition Treaty was signed on 20 March of that year. It was based on the treaty concluded between Prussia and Russia (13 January 1885) and presented to the Reichstag on 6 May 1885 where it stalled. The Russo-Bavarian treaty was signed on 1 October 1885, and published on 17 October.

17 Wolf Frankenburger and Joseph Egid Geiger, on 12 November 1885.

18 Friedrich Krafft von Crailsheim.

19 Barron is referring to Article 167 of the Belgian constitution of 1831.

20 Friedrich Wilhelm.

21 Theophil Friedrich von Hack.

22 A carriage without a coach box driven by outriders or jockeys.

23 French: ‘march past’.

24 Olga.

25 Enclosure: ‘Programme of festivities during the presence of His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia in Stuttgart, 18–23 September 1885’.

26 On 18 February 1886.

27 Articles 129–132 of the constitution of 1819.

28 On 4 May 1885.

29 On 15 May 1885.

30 Deutsche Partei (National Liberals) and Volkspartei.

31 On 17 February 1886.

32 The bill – part of a comprehensive plan to revise the Württemberg constitution – was submitted to the Württemberg chamber of deputies on 19 December 1867.

33 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei (see n. 3 in Berlin section).

34 Zentrumspartei (Catholics).

35 For the seven-year the army bill (Imperial Military Law), see n. 119 in Berlin section.

36 Adolf Gröber.

37 For the war panic of 1887, see pp. 231–232 and 491–492.

38 Latin: ‘without a date (for a future meeting)’.

39 The rescript was dated 16 February 1888.

40 The Württemberg chamber of deputies met from 26 January to 18 February 1888; the bills in question were passed on 9 and 16 February.

41 Deutsche Partei (National Liberals), Demokratische Volkspartei (Progressives), and Landespartei (Catholics).

42 Constitution of 1819.

43 See pp. 429–431.

44 Administrative districts.

45 Friedrich III died on 15 June 1888.

46 Palace chapel.

47 Charlotte.

48 Olga.

49 Auguste.

50 Enclosure: programme of service (‘Zum Trauergottesdienst für Seine Majestät den deutschen Kaiser Friedrich’), Königliche Schlosskapelle, 18 June 1888.

51 The Münchner Neueste Nachrichten was probably alluding to Karl's Kabinettschef, Albert Julius Freiherr von Griesinger.

52 In 1883.

53 Carl Liebermeister.

54 Karl stayed in Italy, near Florence, from December 1887 to May 1888.

55 The 25th anniversary of Karl's reign was in July 1889.

56 Woodcock was elevated to Freiherr von Savage on 5 October 1888.

57 Der Beobachter: Ein Volksblatt für Schwaben, 21 October 1888.

58 Staatsanzeiger für Württemberg was the official Württemberg newspaper.

59 Wilhelm.

60 See pp. 480–487.

61 Court councillor.

62 The Order of the Crown (Ritterkreuz erster Klasse) was bestowed on Richard Jackson in September 1881.

63 Spitzemberg retired due to ill health in April 1886.

64 Le Figaro published a lewd article on the Woodcock affair on 28 October 1888.

65 Barron is referring to Fritz Kilian who was sentenced under the provisions of the French Law of Espionage at Nice, on 26 October 1888.

66 Enclosure: article ‘Unliebsame Erörterungen’ (‘Unpleasant discussions’), Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 23 October 1888.

67 An additional note to No 55 in FO 82/173 reads: ‘The previous despatches respecting the “unpleasant discussions” were not sent to the Queen. I have not therefore suggested sending either of these 2 despatches to Her Majesty.’ H.H. [Henry Hervey], 17 November; S[alisbury]].

68 For the ‘Woodcock affair’, see the preceding dispatch. Enclosures: original (article), ‘Wiederholt aus letzter Nummer’ (‘Repeated from the last issue’), Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 13 November 1888; original and translation of announcement in Staatsanzeiger für Württemberg, 14 November 1888.

69 On 24 October 1888.

70 Royal decree of 29 October 1888.

71 Hermann von Mittnacht; he arrived at Nice on 6 November 1888.

72 An additional note to No 17 in FO 82/174 reads: ‘The Queen writes on it [the dispatch] “I think it would be best avoided” i.e. better keep the Mission.’ S[alisbury], 26 May 1889.

73 Enclosure: copy of Mittnacht to Barron, Stuttgart, 17 May 1889. For the amalgamation of the missions at Stuttgart and Munich, see pp. 5–8.

74 Conyngham Greene, second secretary, was transferred to The Hague in April 1889.

75 Barron is referring to the attempted assassination of Prince Wilhelm at Ludwigsburg on 20 October 1889.

76 Administrative district.

77 August Müller.

78 Gottlob von Müller.

79 Salisbury's No 5 conveyed these instructions to Barron, but no further details about amalgamating the British missions at Munich and Stuttgart. See also p. 000.

80 Baron Vaux of Harrowden, was transferred to Stuttgart on 1 November 1889.

81 This recommendation was first made in the Estimates for Civil Services for the Year Ending 31 March 1885, which was printed by order of the House of Commons on 25 February 1884 and repeated in subsequent financial years up to that of 1889–1890.

82 Retirement age was seventy years.

83 Barron is referring to the Regulations for Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service (as revised in 1872) according to which, after five years (or less), ‘the question of reappointment […] or a transfer to another mission shall be open for consideration’.

84 Elections were held on 20 February 1890; run-off elections in Württemberg were held on 1 March. Enclosure: comparative statement of results regarding the two general elections of deputies to the Reichstag in Württemberg, Stuttgart, 4 March 1890.

85 Not included in this volume.

86 See n. 208 in Berlin section.

87 Gustav Siegle.

88 Karl Kloß.

89 Zentrumspartei (Catholics).

90 Universal male suffrage for citizens over 25 years of age was introduced in the North German Confederation in 1866. It was enacted as imperial law in 1871.

91 Olga.

92 Despite his protest to the Foreign Office, Barron officially retired on a pension on 1 April 1890. He presented his letter of recall to the King of Württemberg on 9 April.

93 Prince Wilhelm visited Wilhelm II at Potsdam on 9 October 1890.

94 Alvensleben was recalled on 19 October 1890; his successor was the Württemberg general Wilhelm von Wölckern.

95 Military convention signed between the North German Confederation and Württemberg at Versailles, 25 November 1870.

96 On 3 and 4 October 1890.

97 Count Philip zu Eulenburg was appointed in March and accredited on 31 May 1890.

98 From 1890, dispatches on Württemberg were mostly sent from Munich and are filed both in the FO 82 (Württemberg) and FO 9 (Bavaria) series.

99 Deutsche Partei (Württemberg National Liberals). The meeting took place on 8 February 1893.

100 Enclosure: translation of article entitled ‘Revision of the Wurttemberg Constitution’, Der Beobachter: Ein Volksblatt für Schwaben, undated.

101 The Württemberg Ständeverfassung (representation of the estates whose rights were regulated by the Tübingen contract of 1514) was revoked by King Friedrich on 30 December 1805. In November 1815 Friedrich, after a failed attempt to impose a new constitution, presented a new draft which was subsequently also rejected by the Assembly of the Estates. The bicameral system was finally introduced by the Württemberg constitution of 1819. Article 13 of the Act of the German Confederation included the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna of 1815, to which Drummond refers, and which promised each German state a constitution (Landständische Verfassung). It did not, however, specify the type of representation to be established by the individual states.

102 From 1890 dispatches on Württemberg were mostly sent from Munich, and are filed both in the FO 82 (Württemberg) and FO 9 (Bavaria) series.

103 Deutsche Partei (Württemberg National Liberals).

104 Württembergische Volkspartei.

105 Olga was the daughter of Nicholas I of Russia. Olga died in October 1892; Karl in October 1891. The mission at St Petersburg was abolished from 1 April 1893.

106 Federal Council.

107 For the so-called Reservatrechte, see. n. 220 in Munich section.

108 Oskar von Soden.

109 From 1890, dispatches on Württemberg were mostly sent from Munich and are filed both in the FO 82 (Württemberg) and FO 9 (Bavaria) series.

110 Moser handed in his resignation in early December whilst on leave of absence from Berlin; he retired on 19 February 1894.

111 Imperial order (Cabinetsordre) of 14 February 1894.

112 On 2 June 1893. The motion was carried by 39 to 35 votes.

113 Moser notified Leo von Caprivi on 19 July 1893.

114 The emperor viewed the manoeuvres of the XIII (Royal Württemberg) Corps on 15 and 16 September 1893, not on 20 September as stated in the dispatch.

115 On 25 and 26 August 1893. At the time Bismarck was suffering from shingles and pneumonia.

116 On 14 September 1893.

117 Württemberg voted against the majority of the Federal Council on 20 November 1893. The wine tax bill was eventually dropped in January 1894 after its first reading in the Reichstag.

118 From 6 to 11 November 1893.

119 Military convention between the North German Confederation and Württemberg of 25 November 1870. It was one of the ‘November Treaties’ of Versailles, by which the South German States joined the North German Confederation to form the basis of the German Empire.

120 The Militärkabinett was an advisory body under the command of the German Emperor; its jurisdiction included officers from Baden. Following the military convention, and the complete integration of the Baden army into the Prussian army, the Baden ministry of war was abolished in December 1871.

121 The next elections were held on 1 February 1895.

122 On the Reservatrechte, see n. 220 in Munich section.

123 See the following dispatch.

124 From 1890 dispatches on Württemberg were mostly sent from Munich, and are filed both in the FO 82 (Württemberg) and FO 9 (Bavaria) series.

125 See n. 110 in this section.

126 See preceding dispatch.

127 Schott, carrying out a royal order of 1 December 1893, visited Berlin from 15 to 22 December to establish the definitive terms of exchange between Württemberg and Prussian officers, as stipulated in the military convention of 25 November 1870. The intended harmonization also included recognizing the length of service of Württemberg officers seconded to the Prussian army (as compared to Prussia officers of the same rank) and details of their uniform.

128 On the Reservatrechte, see n. 220 in Munich section.

129 Latin: ‘a highly favoured person’.

130 From 1890 dispatches on Württemberg were mostly sent from Munich, and are filed both in the FO 82 (Württemberg) and FO 9 (Bavaria) series.

131 29 May to 2 June 1894.

132 The bill to revise the composition of the chambers of the Württemberg Landtag (chapter 9 of the Württemberg constitution of 1819) was presented to the Ständischer Ausschuss (joint committee of both chambers) on 8 April 1894. Mittnacht's notifications to withdraw the bill and close the sittings were dated 4 June 1894; they were read to the second chamber on 5 June 1894.

133 At the time of the dispatch the Württemberg Zentrumspartei (Catholics) had not yet been founded; however it had been represented de facto in the Württemberg Landtag since 1889. On 14 May Deputy Gröber proposed to form a Zentrum faction. See also n. 145 in this section.

134 Deutsche Partei (Württemberg National Liberals).

135 In its report of 8 May 1894 the commission of the second chamber requested an increase in the number of cities represented in the second chamber. This was instead of the proposed inclusion of six representatives from the regional agricultural associations (Landwirtschaftliche Gauverbände) and the chambers of trade and commerce.

136 On 16 May 1894. The reform of the elementary schools was eventually delayed until the Volksschulgesetz of 1909.

137 Elections took place on 1 February 1895; the Landtag was opened on 20 February.

138 See n. 119 in this section.

139 See n. 127 in this section. The debate took place on 26 May 1894.

140 On 23 May 1894.

141 Article 8 of the military convention between the North German Confederation and Württemberg of 25 November 1870 did not set a limit on the number of seconded officers. With regard to the second part of his motion Gröber referred to the fact that savings resulting from the exchange were paid to the imperial treasury.

142 From 1890, dispatches on Württemberg were mostly sent from Munich and are filed both in the FO 82 (Württemberg) and FO 9 (Bavaria) series.

143 Elections took place on 1 February 1895.

144 Left liberal party; part of the Deutsche Volkspartei at imperial level.

145 After the initiatives of July 1894 (when a provisory committee was established and a party program was drafted) the Württemberg Zentrumspartei was officially founded on 17 January 1895. See also n. 133 in this section.

146 The privileged members were the representatives of the Ritterschaft (noble landowners, of which there were thirteen), the churches (eight) and Tübingen University (one). Altogether the second chamber consisted of ninety-three deputies.

147 From 1890 dispatches on Württemberg were mostly sent from Munich, and are filed both in the FO 82 (Württemberg) and FO 9 (Bavaria) series.

148 Elections took place on 1 February 1894, second ballots on 14 and 15 February.

149 Johann Hofmann.

150 Karl Kloß and Menrad Glaser.

151 See n. 146 in this section.

152 On 2 June 1894.

153 Karl von Riecke. A tax reform bill was presented to the Württemberg Landtag on 14 May 1895; the bill was finally rejected in January 1899.

154 Friedrich von Payer; on 23 May 1894. See p. 000.

155 See n. 119 in this section.

156 Not included in this volume.

157 For the dispatch of 7 June 1894, see pp. 456–458.

158 After the amalgamation of the missions in Stuttgart and Munich most dispatches on Württemberg were sent from Munich.

159 On 14 February 1897 Wilhelm II proposed to Austria, Britain, and Russia a joint naval blockade of the Piraeus to prevent the Greeks further assisting the Cretan revolt against Ottoman sovereignty. Salisbury, in his circular of 17 February, stated that any blockade should be preceded by an understanding on the future status of Crete.

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