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The Emergence of Genetic Counseling in Sweden: Examples from Eugenics and Medical Genetics

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 August 2015

Maria Björkman*
Affiliation:
Uppsala University, Sweden E-mail: maria.bjorkman@idehist.uu.se

Argument

This paper examines the intertwined relations between eugenics and medical genetics from a Swedish perspective in the 1940s and 1950s. The Swedish case shows that a rudimentary form of genetic counseling emerged within eugenic practices in the applications of the Swedish Sterilization Act of 1941, here analyzed from the phenomenon of “heredophobia” (ärftlighetsskräck). At the same time genetic counseling also existed outside eugenic practices, within the discipline of medical genetics. The paper argues that a demand for genetic counseling increased in the 1940s and 1950s in response to a sense of reproductive responsibility engendered by earlier eugenic discourse. The paper also questions the claim made by theoreticians of biopolitics that biological citizens have emerged only during the last decades, especially in neoliberal societies. From the Swedish case it is possible to argue that this had already happened earlier in relation to the proliferation of various aspects of eugenics to the public.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

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References

References

Riksarkivet (National Archive, NA), Stockholm: Socialstyrelsens arkiv (Archive of Social Board in Arninge): Socialpsykiatriska nämnden: protocols, Rättspsykiatriska nämnden, protocols [The Medical Board changed name to the Social Board in 1963, hence the archival name]Google Scholar
Uppsala universitetsarkiv (Uppsala University Archive, UUA), Uppsala: Institutionen för medicinsk genetik (Department of Medical Genetics, DMG): Böök's papers, F6 9, 11, 25Google Scholar
Interview with geneticist Jan Lindsten, Stockholm, 26 February 2014.Google Scholar
Schmidt, Marion. Forthcoming. Ph.D. diss. on hereditary deafness. Manuscript. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.Google Scholar
Atkinson, Paul, et al., eds. 2007. Handbook of Genetics & Society: Mapping the New Genomic Era. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bashford, Allison, and Levine, Philippa, eds. 2010. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Berg, Annika. 2009. “Den gränslösa hälsan: Signe och Axel Höjer, folkhälsan och expertisen” [The ubiquity of health: Signe and Axel Höjer, public health and expertise]. Ph.D. diss. Uppsala: Uppsala Studies in History of Ideas.Google Scholar
Björk, Maria. 2011. “Problemet utan namn? Neuroser, stress och kön i Sverige från 1950 till 1980” [The problem with no name? Neuroses, stress and gender in Sweden 1950–1980]. Ph.D. diss. Uppsala: Uppsala Studies in History of Ideas.Google Scholar
Björkman, Maria. 2011. “Den anfrätta stammen: Nils von Hofsten, eugeniken och steriliseringarna 1909–1963” [Nils von Hofsten, Eugenics and sterilisations in Sweden 1909–1963]. Ph.D. diss. Linköping: Linköping University, Lund: Arkiv.Google Scholar
Björkman, Maria, and Widmalm, Sven. 2010. “Selling Eugenics. The Case of Sweden.” Notes and Records of the Royal Society 64 (4):379400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bommenel, Elin. 2006. “Sockerförsöket: Kariesexperimenten 1943–1960 på Vipeholms sjukhus för sinnesslöa” [The Sugar Trial: Tooth decay experiments 1943–1960 on Vipeholm hospital for mentally deficient]. Ph.D. diss. Linköping: Linköping University, Lund: Arkiv.Google Scholar
Broberg, Gunnar, ed. 2000. Fem uppsatser om steriliseringen i Sverige [Five papers on sterilization in Sweden]. Lund: Avdelningen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.Google Scholar
Broberg, Gunnar. 2002. Statlig rasforskning. En historik över Rasbiologiska institutet [State race research: A history of the Institute of Race Biology]. Lund: Avd. för idé- och lärdomshistoria.Google Scholar
Broberg, Gunnar, and Roll-Hansen, Nils. 2005. Eugenics and the Welfare State: Sterilization Policy in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
Broberg, Gunnar, and Tydén, Mattias. 1991. Oönskade i folkhemmet: rashygien och sterilisering i Sverige [Unwanted in the welfare state: Eugenics and sterilization in Sweden]. Stockholm: Gidlund.Google Scholar
Böök, Jan A. 1955. “Heredity Counseling.” Eugenics Quarterly 2 (3):174183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Comfort, Nathaniel. 2012. The Science of Human Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crew, Francis, et al. 1939. “Social Biology and Population Improvement.” Nature 144:521–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahlberg, Gunnar. 1940. Arv och ras [Race, Reason, and Rubbish]. Stockholm: Kooperativa förbundet.Google Scholar
Dahlberg, Gunnar, and Hogben, Lancelot. 1942. Race, Reason & Rubbish: A Primer of Race Biology. New York: Columbia University Press; and London: G. Allen & Unwin Ltd.Google Scholar
Ekberg, Merryn. 2007. “Second Opinions. The Old Eugenics and the New Genetics Compared.” Social History of Medicine 20 (3):581593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Featherstone, Katie, et al., eds. 2006. Risky Relations: Family, Kinship and the New Genetics. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
Felt, Ulrike, and Müller, Ruth. 2011. “Tentative (Id)entities: On Technopolitical Cultures and the Experiencing of Genetic Testing.” BioSocieties 6 (3):342363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraser, Frank. 1974. “Genetic Counseling.” American Journal of Human Genetics 25 (5):636659.Google Scholar
Gibbon, Sahra. 2006. Breast Cancer Genes and the Gendering of Knowledge: Science and Citizenship in the Cultural Context of the “New” Genetics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Gibbon, Sahra. 2009. “Genomics as Public Health? Community Genetics and the Challenge of Personalized Medicine in Cuba.” Anthropology & Medicine 16 (2):131146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibbon, Sahra, and Novas, Carlos, eds. 2008. Biosocialities, Genetics and the Social Sciences: Making Biologies and Identities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Haave, Per. 2000. Sterilisering av tatere 1934–1977. En historisk undersøkelse av lov og praksis [Sterilization of Gypsies 1934–1977: A historical survey of law and practice]. Oslo: Norges forskningsråd.Google Scholar
Hemminki, Elina. 1997. “Sterilization in Finland: From Eugenics to Contraception.” Social Science & Medicine 45:18741884.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofsten, Nils von. 1919. Ärftlighetslära: föreläsningar vid Uppsala universitet 1916–1917 [The study of heredity: Lectures at Uppsala University 1916–1917]. Stockholm: Norstedt.Google Scholar
Hofsten, Nils von. 1927. Ärftlighetslärans grunder. Del 1 [The study of heredity. Basics. Part 1]. Stockholm: Medicinskt folkbibliotek.Google Scholar
Hofsten, Nils von. 1931. Ärftlighetslärans grunder. Del 2 Människan [The study of heredity. Basics. Part 2. Man]. Stockholm: Medicinskt folkbibliotek.Google Scholar
Hofsten, Nils von. 1963. Steriliseringar i Sverige 1941–1953 [Sterilizations in Sweden 1941–1953]. Stockholm: Socialmedicinsk tidskrifts skriftserie 28.Google Scholar
Kampriani, Eirini. 2009. “Between Religious Philanthropy and Individualized Medicine: Situating Inherited Breast Cancer in Greece.” In Biomedical Technology and Health Inequities in the Global North and South, Special Issue edited by Gibbon, Sahra and White, Susan Reynolds, Anthropology & Medicine 16:165178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kevles, Daniel. 1995. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Koch, Lene. 1996. Racehygiejne i Danmark 1920–1956 [Race hygiene in Denmark 1920–1956]. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.Google Scholar
Koch, Lene. 2000. Tvangssterilisation i Danmark 1929–1967 [Coercive sterilization in Denmark 1929–1967]. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.Google Scholar
Koch, Lene. 2004. “The Meaning of Eugenics: Reflections on the Government of Genetic Knowledge in the Past and the Present.” Science in Context 17:315331.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kühl, Stefan. 2013. For the Betterment of the Race: The Rise and Fall of the International Movement for Eugenics and Racial Hygiene. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lejon, Kjell. 1999. Tvångssteriliseringarna och Svenska kyrkan 1935–1974 [Coercive sterilization and the Church of Sweden 1935–1974]. Uppsala: Svenska kyrkans forskningråd.Google Scholar
Lindee, Susan, et al., eds. 2003. Genetic Nature/Culture: Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide. Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Lynöe, Niels. 2000. Rasförbättring genom sterilisering. Ett försök att värdera dåtidens handlingar. En studie av Svenska Läkaresällskapets skrifter 1920–1974 [Race improvement by sterilization: An attempt to evaluate historical documents. A study of the publications of the Swedish Physicians Society from 1920 to 1974]. Stockholm: Svenska Läkaresällskapet.Google Scholar
Mattila, Markku. 1999. Kansamme parhaaksi. Rotuhygienia Suomessa vuoden 1935 sterilointilakiin asti [Our people are the best: Racial hygiene in Finland with the 1935 sterilization law]. Helsinki: Suomen historiallinen seura.Google Scholar
zur Nieden, Andrea. 2007. “If there is a risk inside me, I am the first person who should know about it. Images of ‘Genetic Risk’ as Anticipation of the Future.” In Tensions and Convergence: Technological and Aesthetic (trans)Formations of Society, edited by Heil, Reinhardet al., 163172. Bielefeld: Transcript.Google Scholar
Nilsson-Ehle, Herman. 1919. Något om ärftlighetsvetenskapens praktiska och ekonomiska betydelse [About the science of heredity and its practical and economical significance]. Printed manuscript. Landskrona.Google Scholar
Novas, Carlos, and Rose, Nicolas. 2000. “Genetic Risk and the Birth of the Somatic Individual.” Economy and Society 29 (4):485513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palmblad, Eva. 2000. Den disciplinerade reproduktionen. Abort- och steriliseringspraktikens dolda dagordning [The disciplined reproduction: The hidden agenda of the abortion and sterilization practice]. Stockholm: Carlsson.Google Scholar
Paul, Diane. 1998a. The Politics of Heredity. Essays on Eugenics, Biomedicine, and the Nature-Nurture Debate. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Paul, Diane. 1998b. “Genetic Services, Economics, and Eugenics.” Science in Context 11 (3–4):481491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, Alan. 2007. “Is the New Genetics Eugenic?: Interpreting the Past, Envisioning the Future.” New Formations 60:7988.Google Scholar
Raman, Sujhata, and Tutton, Richard. 2010. “Life, Science and Biopower.” Science, Technology and Human Values 35 (5):711734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Resta, Robert. 1998. “Eugenic Considerations in the Theory and Practice of Genetic Counseling.” Science in Context 11 (3–4):431438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rose, Hilary. 2007. “Eugenics and Genetics: the Conjoint Twins?New Formations 60:1326Google Scholar
Rose, Nicolas, and Novas, Carlos. 2005. “Biological Citizenship.” In Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics, and Ethics as Anthropological Problems, edited by Ong, Aihwa and Collier, Stephen J., 439463. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
Runcis, Maija. 1998. “Steriliseringar i folkhemmet” [Sterilization in the welfare state]. Ph.D. diss. Stockholm University.Google Scholar
Scandinavian Journal of History. 1999. Special Issue on Scandinavian Eugenics, vol. 24, no. 2.Google Scholar
Schwartz Cowan, Ruth. 2008. Heredity and Hope. The Case for Genetic Screening. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Statens offentliga utredning (SOU). 1936. Betänkande angående sterilisering. SOU: 1936:46 [Government investigation 1936. Report regarding sterilization].Google Scholar
Statens offentliga utredning (SOU). 2000. Steriliseringsfrågan i Sverige 1935–1975. Historisk belysning, Kartläggning, Intervjuer, Bilagor. SOU: 2000:20 [Government investigation 2000. Sterilization in Sweden 1935–1975. Historical survey, interviews, appendices].Google Scholar
Stern, Alexandra Minna. 2012. Telling Genes: The Story of Genetic Counseling in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Tunlid, Anna. 2004. “Ärftlighetsforskningens gränser. Individer och institutioner i framväxten av svensk genetic” [The Limits of heredity research. Individuals and institutions in the emergence of Swedish genetics]. Ph.D. diss. Lund: Avd. för idé- och lärdomshistoria.Google Scholar
Tunlid, Anna. 2010. “Genetikens ethos och forskningens värden” [The ethos and research values of genetics]. Insikt och handling 23:4564.Google Scholar
Tydén, Mattias. 2002. “Från politik till praktik: de svenska steriliseringslagarna 1935–1975” [From policy to practice. The Swedish sterilization laws 1935–1975]. Ph.D. diss., Stockholm University.Google Scholar
Wertz, Dorothy. 1998. “Eugenics Is Alive and Well: A Survey of Genetic Professionals around the World.” Science in Context 11 (3–4):493510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riksarkivet (National Archive, NA), Stockholm: Socialstyrelsens arkiv (Archive of Social Board in Arninge): Socialpsykiatriska nämnden: protocols, Rättspsykiatriska nämnden, protocols [The Medical Board changed name to the Social Board in 1963, hence the archival name]Google Scholar
Uppsala universitetsarkiv (Uppsala University Archive, UUA), Uppsala: Institutionen för medicinsk genetik (Department of Medical Genetics, DMG): Böök's papers, F6 9, 11, 25Google Scholar
Interview with geneticist Jan Lindsten, Stockholm, 26 February 2014.Google Scholar
Schmidt, Marion. Forthcoming. Ph.D. diss. on hereditary deafness. Manuscript. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.Google Scholar
Atkinson, Paul, et al., eds. 2007. Handbook of Genetics & Society: Mapping the New Genomic Era. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bashford, Allison, and Levine, Philippa, eds. 2010. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Berg, Annika. 2009. “Den gränslösa hälsan: Signe och Axel Höjer, folkhälsan och expertisen” [The ubiquity of health: Signe and Axel Höjer, public health and expertise]. Ph.D. diss. Uppsala: Uppsala Studies in History of Ideas.Google Scholar
Björk, Maria. 2011. “Problemet utan namn? Neuroser, stress och kön i Sverige från 1950 till 1980” [The problem with no name? Neuroses, stress and gender in Sweden 1950–1980]. Ph.D. diss. Uppsala: Uppsala Studies in History of Ideas.Google Scholar
Björkman, Maria. 2011. “Den anfrätta stammen: Nils von Hofsten, eugeniken och steriliseringarna 1909–1963” [Nils von Hofsten, Eugenics and sterilisations in Sweden 1909–1963]. Ph.D. diss. Linköping: Linköping University, Lund: Arkiv.Google Scholar
Björkman, Maria, and Widmalm, Sven. 2010. “Selling Eugenics. The Case of Sweden.” Notes and Records of the Royal Society 64 (4):379400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bommenel, Elin. 2006. “Sockerförsöket: Kariesexperimenten 1943–1960 på Vipeholms sjukhus för sinnesslöa” [The Sugar Trial: Tooth decay experiments 1943–1960 on Vipeholm hospital for mentally deficient]. Ph.D. diss. Linköping: Linköping University, Lund: Arkiv.Google Scholar
Broberg, Gunnar, ed. 2000. Fem uppsatser om steriliseringen i Sverige [Five papers on sterilization in Sweden]. Lund: Avdelningen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.Google Scholar
Broberg, Gunnar. 2002. Statlig rasforskning. En historik över Rasbiologiska institutet [State race research: A history of the Institute of Race Biology]. Lund: Avd. för idé- och lärdomshistoria.Google Scholar
Broberg, Gunnar, and Roll-Hansen, Nils. 2005. Eugenics and the Welfare State: Sterilization Policy in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
Broberg, Gunnar, and Tydén, Mattias. 1991. Oönskade i folkhemmet: rashygien och sterilisering i Sverige [Unwanted in the welfare state: Eugenics and sterilization in Sweden]. Stockholm: Gidlund.Google Scholar
Böök, Jan A. 1955. “Heredity Counseling.” Eugenics Quarterly 2 (3):174183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Comfort, Nathaniel. 2012. The Science of Human Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crew, Francis, et al. 1939. “Social Biology and Population Improvement.” Nature 144:521–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahlberg, Gunnar. 1940. Arv och ras [Race, Reason, and Rubbish]. Stockholm: Kooperativa förbundet.Google Scholar
Dahlberg, Gunnar, and Hogben, Lancelot. 1942. Race, Reason & Rubbish: A Primer of Race Biology. New York: Columbia University Press; and London: G. Allen & Unwin Ltd.Google Scholar
Ekberg, Merryn. 2007. “Second Opinions. The Old Eugenics and the New Genetics Compared.” Social History of Medicine 20 (3):581593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Featherstone, Katie, et al., eds. 2006. Risky Relations: Family, Kinship and the New Genetics. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
Felt, Ulrike, and Müller, Ruth. 2011. “Tentative (Id)entities: On Technopolitical Cultures and the Experiencing of Genetic Testing.” BioSocieties 6 (3):342363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraser, Frank. 1974. “Genetic Counseling.” American Journal of Human Genetics 25 (5):636659.Google Scholar
Gibbon, Sahra. 2006. Breast Cancer Genes and the Gendering of Knowledge: Science and Citizenship in the Cultural Context of the “New” Genetics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Gibbon, Sahra. 2009. “Genomics as Public Health? Community Genetics and the Challenge of Personalized Medicine in Cuba.” Anthropology & Medicine 16 (2):131146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibbon, Sahra, and Novas, Carlos, eds. 2008. Biosocialities, Genetics and the Social Sciences: Making Biologies and Identities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Haave, Per. 2000. Sterilisering av tatere 1934–1977. En historisk undersøkelse av lov og praksis [Sterilization of Gypsies 1934–1977: A historical survey of law and practice]. Oslo: Norges forskningsråd.Google Scholar
Hemminki, Elina. 1997. “Sterilization in Finland: From Eugenics to Contraception.” Social Science & Medicine 45:18741884.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofsten, Nils von. 1919. Ärftlighetslära: föreläsningar vid Uppsala universitet 1916–1917 [The study of heredity: Lectures at Uppsala University 1916–1917]. Stockholm: Norstedt.Google Scholar
Hofsten, Nils von. 1927. Ärftlighetslärans grunder. Del 1 [The study of heredity. Basics. Part 1]. Stockholm: Medicinskt folkbibliotek.Google Scholar
Hofsten, Nils von. 1931. Ärftlighetslärans grunder. Del 2 Människan [The study of heredity. Basics. Part 2. Man]. Stockholm: Medicinskt folkbibliotek.Google Scholar
Hofsten, Nils von. 1963. Steriliseringar i Sverige 1941–1953 [Sterilizations in Sweden 1941–1953]. Stockholm: Socialmedicinsk tidskrifts skriftserie 28.Google Scholar
Kampriani, Eirini. 2009. “Between Religious Philanthropy and Individualized Medicine: Situating Inherited Breast Cancer in Greece.” In Biomedical Technology and Health Inequities in the Global North and South, Special Issue edited by Gibbon, Sahra and White, Susan Reynolds, Anthropology & Medicine 16:165178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kevles, Daniel. 1995. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Koch, Lene. 1996. Racehygiejne i Danmark 1920–1956 [Race hygiene in Denmark 1920–1956]. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.Google Scholar
Koch, Lene. 2000. Tvangssterilisation i Danmark 1929–1967 [Coercive sterilization in Denmark 1929–1967]. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.Google Scholar
Koch, Lene. 2004. “The Meaning of Eugenics: Reflections on the Government of Genetic Knowledge in the Past and the Present.” Science in Context 17:315331.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kühl, Stefan. 2013. For the Betterment of the Race: The Rise and Fall of the International Movement for Eugenics and Racial Hygiene. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lejon, Kjell. 1999. Tvångssteriliseringarna och Svenska kyrkan 1935–1974 [Coercive sterilization and the Church of Sweden 1935–1974]. Uppsala: Svenska kyrkans forskningråd.Google Scholar
Lindee, Susan, et al., eds. 2003. Genetic Nature/Culture: Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide. Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Lynöe, Niels. 2000. Rasförbättring genom sterilisering. Ett försök att värdera dåtidens handlingar. En studie av Svenska Läkaresällskapets skrifter 1920–1974 [Race improvement by sterilization: An attempt to evaluate historical documents. A study of the publications of the Swedish Physicians Society from 1920 to 1974]. Stockholm: Svenska Läkaresällskapet.Google Scholar
Mattila, Markku. 1999. Kansamme parhaaksi. Rotuhygienia Suomessa vuoden 1935 sterilointilakiin asti [Our people are the best: Racial hygiene in Finland with the 1935 sterilization law]. Helsinki: Suomen historiallinen seura.Google Scholar
zur Nieden, Andrea. 2007. “If there is a risk inside me, I am the first person who should know about it. Images of ‘Genetic Risk’ as Anticipation of the Future.” In Tensions and Convergence: Technological and Aesthetic (trans)Formations of Society, edited by Heil, Reinhardet al., 163172. Bielefeld: Transcript.Google Scholar
Nilsson-Ehle, Herman. 1919. Något om ärftlighetsvetenskapens praktiska och ekonomiska betydelse [About the science of heredity and its practical and economical significance]. Printed manuscript. Landskrona.Google Scholar
Novas, Carlos, and Rose, Nicolas. 2000. “Genetic Risk and the Birth of the Somatic Individual.” Economy and Society 29 (4):485513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palmblad, Eva. 2000. Den disciplinerade reproduktionen. Abort- och steriliseringspraktikens dolda dagordning [The disciplined reproduction: The hidden agenda of the abortion and sterilization practice]. Stockholm: Carlsson.Google Scholar
Paul, Diane. 1998a. The Politics of Heredity. Essays on Eugenics, Biomedicine, and the Nature-Nurture Debate. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Paul, Diane. 1998b. “Genetic Services, Economics, and Eugenics.” Science in Context 11 (3–4):481491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, Alan. 2007. “Is the New Genetics Eugenic?: Interpreting the Past, Envisioning the Future.” New Formations 60:7988.Google Scholar
Raman, Sujhata, and Tutton, Richard. 2010. “Life, Science and Biopower.” Science, Technology and Human Values 35 (5):711734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Resta, Robert. 1998. “Eugenic Considerations in the Theory and Practice of Genetic Counseling.” Science in Context 11 (3–4):431438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rose, Hilary. 2007. “Eugenics and Genetics: the Conjoint Twins?New Formations 60:1326Google Scholar
Rose, Nicolas, and Novas, Carlos. 2005. “Biological Citizenship.” In Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics, and Ethics as Anthropological Problems, edited by Ong, Aihwa and Collier, Stephen J., 439463. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
Runcis, Maija. 1998. “Steriliseringar i folkhemmet” [Sterilization in the welfare state]. Ph.D. diss. Stockholm University.Google Scholar
Scandinavian Journal of History. 1999. Special Issue on Scandinavian Eugenics, vol. 24, no. 2.Google Scholar
Schwartz Cowan, Ruth. 2008. Heredity and Hope. The Case for Genetic Screening. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Statens offentliga utredning (SOU). 1936. Betänkande angående sterilisering. SOU: 1936:46 [Government investigation 1936. Report regarding sterilization].Google Scholar
Statens offentliga utredning (SOU). 2000. Steriliseringsfrågan i Sverige 1935–1975. Historisk belysning, Kartläggning, Intervjuer, Bilagor. SOU: 2000:20 [Government investigation 2000. Sterilization in Sweden 1935–1975. Historical survey, interviews, appendices].Google Scholar
Stern, Alexandra Minna. 2012. Telling Genes: The Story of Genetic Counseling in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Tunlid, Anna. 2004. “Ärftlighetsforskningens gränser. Individer och institutioner i framväxten av svensk genetic” [The Limits of heredity research. Individuals and institutions in the emergence of Swedish genetics]. Ph.D. diss. Lund: Avd. för idé- och lärdomshistoria.Google Scholar
Tunlid, Anna. 2010. “Genetikens ethos och forskningens värden” [The ethos and research values of genetics]. Insikt och handling 23:4564.Google Scholar
Tydén, Mattias. 2002. “Från politik till praktik: de svenska steriliseringslagarna 1935–1975” [From policy to practice. The Swedish sterilization laws 1935–1975]. Ph.D. diss., Stockholm University.Google Scholar
Wertz, Dorothy. 1998. “Eugenics Is Alive and Well: A Survey of Genetic Professionals around the World.” Science in Context 11 (3–4):493510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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