Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Circumpolar Science: Scandinavian Approaches to the Arctic and the North Atlantic, ca. 1920 to 1960

  • Sverker Sörlin (a1)
Argument

The Scandinavian countries share a solid reputation as longstanding contributors to top level Arctic research. This received view, however, veils some deep-seated contrasts in the ways that Sweden, Norway, and Denmark have conducted research in the Arctic and the North Atlantic. In this paper it is argued that instead of focusing on the geographical determinism of science – the fact that the Arctic is close to, indeed part of, Scandinavian territories – we should look more closely at the geopolitics of science to understand the differences and similarities between these three Nordic countries. Through case studies of, mainly, Swedish Arctic and North Atlantic glaciology in the 1920s through to the 1940s, and of Norwegian preparations in the 1950s for the International Geophysical Year 1957/58, the paper demonstrates how different styles of research – research agendas, methodological choices, collaborative patterns, international networks, availability of infrastructure, relations to politics and power – are conditioned on economic interests and strategic and geopolitical trajectories, either these are explicitly put in the forefront of scientific priorities as in the case of Norway in the 1950s, or when they are manifestly disregarded in the name of scientific internationalism, as in the case of Swedish glaciology. The case of Danish colonial science in Greenland is only cursorily drawn into this analysis but corroborates the overall thesis. The analysis of this wider science politics of Scandinavian circumpolar science is exercised against a brief introductory backdrop of Arctic science historiography. Its chief message is that the analysis of polar science applying modern theory and method of the social studies of science is comparatively recent and that the full potential of merging the literature of Arctic science and exploration with those of security, geopolitics, indigenous voices, and the politics of nationalism is yet to be realized.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Ahlmann, Hans W. 1932. “Polarforskningens värde och berättigande” [The Value and Justfication of Polar Research.] Ord och Bild 41:195207.
Ahlmann, Hans W. 1936. “Variations of Glaciers and Measurements of Ablation.” In Association Internationale d’hydrologie scientifique: Bulletin 22:417429.
Ahlmann, Hans W. [1936] 1938. Land of Ice and Fire: A Journey to the Great Iceland Glacier. Translated by Klares and Lewes, Herbert. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Ahlmann, Hans W. 1942. “Studies in North-East Greenland, Part III: Accumulation and Ablation on the Fröya Glacier: Its Regime in 1938–39 and in 1939–40.” Geografiska Annaler 24:122.
Ahlmann, Hans W., and Malmberg, Sigvard. 1931. Sommar vid Polhavet [Summer by the Polar Sea]. Stockholm: Norstedts.
Andrée, Salomon August, Strindberg, Nils, and Fraenkel, Knut. [1930] 1931. The Andrée Diaries Being the Diaries and Records of S. A. Andrée, Nils Strindberg, and Knut Fraenkel. Written During Their Balloon Expedition to the North Pole in 1897 and Discovered on White Island in 1930, Together With a Complete Record of the Expedition and Discovery. Translation by Adams-Ray, Edward. London: Bodley Head.
Armstrong, Terence E. 1952. The Northern Sea Route: Soviet Exploitation of the Northeast Passage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Armstrong, Terence E. 1958. The Russians in the Arctic: Aspects of Soviet Exploration and Exploitation of the Far North, 1937–57. London: Methuen.
Arnold, David. 1996. The Problem of Nature: Environment, Culture and European Expansion. Oxford: Blackwell.
Avango, Dag. 2005. Sveagruvan: Svensk gruvhantering mellan industri, diplomati och geovetenskap 1910–1934 [The Svea Coal Mine: Swedish Mining between Industry, Diplomacy, and Geological Sciences 1910–1934]. Stockholm: Jernkontoret.
Balto, Samuel J. 1980. Med Nansen over Grönlandsisen i 1888: Min reise fra Sameland til Grönland. [With Nansen across the Greenland Ice Cap in 1888: My Journey from Sápmi to Greenland]. Tromsø-Oslo-Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.
Barr, Susan, and Lüdecke, Cornelia. 2010. The History of the International Polar Years (IPY). Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, and New York: Springer Verlag.
Berg, Roald. 1995. Norge på egen hånd 1905–1920. Norsk utenrikspolitikks historie [Norway on Its Own 1905–1920: The History of Norwegian Foreign Policy], vol. 2. Oslo: Aschehoug.
Birket-Smith, Kaj. 1936. The Eskimoes. London: Methuen.
Blom, Ida. 1973. Kampen om Eirik Raudes Land: Pressgruppepolitikk i grönlandsspörs-målet 1921–1931 [The Fight for Eirik Raude's Country: Press Group Politics in the Greenland Case 1921–1931]. Oslo: Gyldendal.
Bloom, Lisa. 1993. Gender on Ice: Ideologies of Polar Exploration. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Børresen, Anne Kristine, and Wale, Astrid. 2008. Kartleggerne: Norges Geologiske Undersökelse 1858–2008 [The Mapmakers: The Norwegian Geological Survey 1858–2008]. Trondheim: Tapir.
Bowker, Geoffrey, and Star, Susan Leigh. 1999. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Bravo, Michael. 1992. “Encounters in Science and Discovery in the British Search for a Northwest Passage, 1818–1825.” Ph.D. diss. Cambridge University.
Bravo, Michael T. 2002. “Measuring Danes and Eskimos.” In Narrating the Arctic: A Cultural History of Nordic Scientific Practices, edited by Bravo, Michael T. and Sörlin, Sverker, 235273. Canton MA: Science History Publishing.
Bravo, Michael T., and Sörlin, Sverker, eds. 2002a. Narrating the Arctic: A Cultural History of Nordic Scientific Practices. Canton MA: Science History Publishing.
Bravo, Michael T., and Sörlin, Sverker. 2002b. “Narrative and Practice: Introduction.” In Narrating the Arctic: A Cultural History of Nordic Scientific Practices, edited by Bravo, Michael T. and Sörlin, Sverker, 332. Canton MA: Science History Publishing.
Broberg, Gunnar. 1981–1982, “Lappkaravaner på villovägar: Antropologin och synen på samerna fram mot sekelskiftet 1900” [Lap-Troups on the Continent: Anthropology, the Public and Sami Exhibits at the Turn of the Century]. Lychnos: Annual of the Swedish History of Science Society 1981–1982:27–86.
Brøgger, Wilhelm C., and Rolfson, Nordahl. 1896. Fridtjof Nansen 1861–1893. Oslo: Det nordiske forlaget.
Bruemmer, Fred, and Taylor, William Ewart. 1987. The Arctic World. New York: Portland House.
Callendar, Guy Stewart. 1938. “The Artificial Production of Carbon Dioxide and Its Influence on Temperature.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 64 (275):223240.
Camerini, Jane R. 1996. “Wallace in the Field.” In Science in the Field, edited by Kuklick, Henrika & Kohler, Robert E., Osiris 11: 4465. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Carter, Paul. 1988. The Road to Botany Bay. London: Harper Collins.
Cawood, John. 1977. “Terrestrial Magnetism and the Development of International Collaboration in the Early Nineteenth Century.” Annals of Science 34:551587.
Cooke, Alan, and Holland, Clive. 1978. The Exploration of Northern Canada, 500–1920: A Chronology. Toronto: Arctic History Press.
Crawford, Elisabeth, Shinn, Terry and Sörlin, Sverker, eds. 1993. Denationalizing Science: The Contexts of International Scientific Practice, Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook 16. Dordrecht, Boston & London: Kluwer.
Cronin, Marionne. 2013. “Technological Heroes: Images of the Arctic in the Age of Polar Aviation.” In Northscapes: History, Technology, and the Making of Northern Environments, edited by Jörgensen, Dolly and Sörlin, Sverker, 5781. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Cruikshank, Julie. 2005. Do Glaciers Listen? Local Knowledge, Colonial Encounters, and Social Imagination. Vancouver and Toronto: University of British Columbia Press.
Dalsjö, Robert. 2006. Life-Line Lost: The Rise and Fall of ‘Neutral’ Sweden's Secret Reserve Option of Wartime Help from the West. Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press.
Doel, Ronald E. 2003. “Constituting the Postwar Earth Sciences: The Military's Influence on the Environmental Sciences in the USA after 1945.” Social Studies of Science 33:635–66.
Doel, Ronald E., Friedman, Robert Marc, Lajus, Julia, Sörlin, Sverker, and Wråkberg, Urban (in press). “Strategic Arctic Science: National Interests in Building Natural Knowledge – Interwar Era through the Cold War.” Journal of Historical Geography 42 (2014), DOI: http://dx.doi.org./10.1016/j.jhg.2013.12.004.
Drivenes, Einar Arne. 2004. “Ishavsimperialisme” [Polar Sea Imperialism]. In Vitenskapene Norsk Polarhistorie [The Sciences: Norwegian Polar History], edited by Einar Arne Drivenes and Harald Dag Jølle, vol. 2, 215249. Oslo: Gyldendal.
Drivenes, Einar Arne, and Jølle, Harald Dag. 2004. Vitenskapene: Norsk polarhistorie [The Sciences: Norwegian Polar History], vol. 2. Oslo: Gyldendal.
Driver, Felix, 2001. Geography Militant: Cultures of Exploration and Empire. Oxford: Blackwell.
Elkins, Terence, and Egeland, Alv. 1963. Ionospheric Effects Associated with Nuclear Weapon Tests July–December 1962. Scientific Report KGO 63 2, 1 March. IFR Archives.
Elzinga, Aant. 1993. “Antarctica: The Construction of a Continent by and for Science.” In Denationalizing Science: The Contexts of International Scientific Practice, edited by Crawford, Elisabeth, Shinn, Terry, and Sörlin, Sverker, Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook 16, 73106. Dordrecht, Boston & London: Kluwer.
Elzinga, Aant. 2007. “Swedish Non-Participation in the Antarctic Leg of IGY 1957/58.” In Steps of Foundation of Institutionalized Antarctic Research: Proceedings of the 1st SCAR Workshop on the History of Antarctic Research, Munich 2–3 June, 2005, edited by Lüdecke, Cornelia, Polar- und Meeresforschung, Berichte zur 560, 142162. Bremerhaven: German Polar Institute.
Elzinga, Aant. 2009. “Through the Lens of the Polar Years: Changing Characteristics of Polar Research in Historical Perspective.” Polar Record 45:313336.
Elzinga, Aant, and Bohlin, Ingemar. 1989. “The Politics of Science in Polar Regions.” Ambio 18:7176.
Fleming, Fergus. 1998. Barrow's Boys: A Stirring Story of Daring, Fortitude, and Outright Lunacy. London: Granta Books.
Fleming, Fergus. 2001. Ninety Degrees North: The Quest for the North Pole. London: Granta Books.
Friedman, Robert Marc. 1988. Appropriating the Weather: Vilhelm Bjerknes and the Construction of a Modern Meteorology. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.
Friedman, Robert Marc. 1994. The Expeditions of Harald Ulrik Sverdrup: Contexts for Shaping an Ocean Science. Ritter Memorial Lecture 1992. La Jolla CA: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Friedman, Robert Marc. 2004. “‘Å spise kirsebaer med de store’” [Having Cherries with the Big Ones]. In Vitenskapene, edited by Drivenes, Einar-Arne and Jølle, Harald Dag, Norsk polarhistorie, vol. 2, 331419. Oslo: Gyldendal.
Friedman, Robert Marc. 2006. “Into the Ice.” In The history of Norway and the Polar Regions, edited by Drivenes, Einar-Arne and Jølle, Harald Dag. Oslo: Gyldendal.
Harbsmeier, Michael. 2002. “Bodies and Voices from Ultima Thule: Inuit Explorations of the Kablunat from Christian IV to Knud Rasmussen.” In Narrating the Arctic: A Cultural History of Nordic Scientific Practices, edited by Bravo, Michael T. and Sörlin, Sverker, 3372. Canton MA: Science History Publishing.
Harper, Kristine C. 2003. “Research from the Boundary Layer: Civilian Leadership, Military Funding and the Development of Numerical Weather Prediction (1946–1955).” Social Studies of Science 33:667696.
Harper, Kristine C. 2008. Weather by the Numbers: The Genesis of Modern Meteorology. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Herzig, Rebecca M. 2005. Suffering for Science: Reason and Sacrifice in Modern America. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Hestmark, Geir. 1999. Vitenskap og nasjon: Waldemar Christopher Brögger 1851–1905 [Science and Nation: Waldemar Christopher Brögger 1851–1905]. Oslo: Aschehoug.
Hevly, Bruce. 1996. “The Heroic Science of Glacier Motion.” In Science in the Field, edited by Kuklick, Henrika and Kohler, Robert E., Osiris, vol. 11, 6686. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Heymann, Matthias, et al. 2010. “Exploring Greenland: Science and Technology in Cold War Settings.” Scientia Canadensis 33:1142.
Horensma, Piers. 1991. The Soviet Arctic. London: Routledge.
Hultqvist, Bengt. 1956. “Reserapport rörande studiebesök i U.S.A.” [Report from a Study Tour in the U.S.]. Mimeographed report to the Board of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ Research Stations in Northern Norrland, 7 December 1956. Mimeo, IFR Archives, Kiruna.
Hultqvist, Bengt. 1957a. “The Kiruna Geophysical Observatory, Sweden.” Nature 180:828830.
Hultqvist, Bengt. 1957b. “Swedish Geophysical Observatory.” Science 126:691.
Hultqvist, Bengt, et al. 1961. Report on Observations Made at Kiruna Geophysical Observatory during the Series of Nuclear Weapon Tests Carried out at Novaja Zemlja between 10 Sept. and 4 Nov. 1961, Scientific Report KGO 61 1, 11 December. IFR Archives.
Hultqvist, Bengt. 2007. Interview by author, 13 March.
Hultqvist, Bengt, and Ortner, Johannes. 1958. “Studies on HF- and VHF-Auroral zone propagation: Quarterly Technical Status Report No. 1, 15 October 1957–15 January 1958,” by Bengt Hultqvist, Contractor & Johannes Ortner PI., Contract No. AF 61(514)-1314. IFR Archives.
Ignatieff, Michael. 1997. The Warrior's Honour. New York: Henry Holt.
KGO. 1959. “Kiruna Geophysical Observatory.” Quarterly Report, 5 January. IFR Archives.
Kirwan, Lawrence P. 1960. A History of Polar Exploration. New York: Norton.
Korsmo, Fae. 1998. “NSF/Tokyo Report: Science in the Cold War: the Legacy of the International Geophysical Year.” 23 April 1998, National Science Foundation, Washington DC, http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1998/int9814/int9814.txt (last accessed December 25, 2013).
Krige, John. 2006. American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Latour, Bruno. 1987. Science in Context: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Levere, Trevor. 1993. Science and the Canadian Arctic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lewander, Lisbeth. 2007. “The Norwegian-British-Swedish expedition (NBSX) to Antarctica 1949–52: Science and Security.” In Steps of Foundation of Institutionalized Antarctic Research: Proceedings of the 1st SCAR Workshop on the History of Antarctic Research, Munich 2–3 June 2005, edited by Lüdecke, Cornelia, Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung 560, 123141. Bremerhaven: German Polar Institute.
Lewis, Richard S. 1965. A Continent for Science: The Antarctic Adventure. London: Secker & Warburg.
Liljeqvist, Gösta. 1993. High Latitudes: A History of Polar Travels. Stockholm: Streijffert.
Livingstone, David. 1992. The Geographical Tradition: Episodes in the History of a Contested Enterprise. Oxford: Blackwell.
Livingstone, David. 1995. “Spaces of Knowledge: Contributions towards a Historical Geography of Science.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 13:534.
Manley, Gordon. 1944. “Some Recent Contributions to the Study of Climatic Change.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 70:197218.
McCannon, John. 1998. Red Arctic: Polar Exploration and the Myth of the North in the Soviet Union, 1932 –1939. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McCannon, John. 2012. A History of the Arctic: Nature, Exploration and Exploitation. London: Reaktion Books.
Nansen, Fridtjof. 1890. Paa ski over Grönland: En skildring af Den norske Grönlands-ekspedition 1888–89. Kristiania: Gyldendal. Translation into English by Hubert Majendie Gepp, The First Crossing of Greenland, 1ed. 1892, new ed. 2011. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nansen, Fridtjof. [1910] 1911. In Northern Mists: Arctic Exploration in Early Times. English translation by Arthur G. Chater in 2 volumes. London: William Heinemann.
Nasht, Simon. 2005. The Last Explorer: Hubert Wilkins Australia's Unknown Hero. New York: Arcade Publishing.
Neatby, Leslie H. 1966. Conquest of the Last Frontier. Columbus OH: Ohio University Press.
Neatby, Leslie H. 1973. Discovery in Russian and Siberian Waters, 1553–1928. Columbus OH: Ohio University Press.
Needell, Allan A. 2000. Science, Cold War, and the American State: Lloyd V. Berkner and the Balance of Professional Ideals. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.
NOU 2003:32 Mot Nord! Utfordringer og muligheter i nordområdene [Towards North! Challenges and Opportunities in the Northern Areas]. Report to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2003. Oslo: Norwegian Parliament.
Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik. [1889] 1973. Facsimile-Atlas to the Early History of Cartography with Reproductions of the Most Important Maps Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries. Translated by Ekelöf, Johan Adolf. New York: Dover.
Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik. 1897. Periplus: An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing Directions. Translated by Bather, Francis A.. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt.
Officer, Charles, and Page, Jake. 2001. A Fabulous Kingdom: The Exploration of the Arctic. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pálsson, Gísli. 2002, “Arcticality: Gender, Race, and Geography in the Writings of Vilhjalmur Stefansson.” In Narrating the Arctic: A Cultural History of Nordic Scientific Practices, edited by Bravo, Michael T. and Sörlin, Sverker, 275308. Canton MA: Science History Publishing.
Pálsson, Gísli. [2003] 2005. Travelling Passions: The Hidden Life of Vilhjalmur Stefansson. Translated from the Icelandic by Kunz, Keneva. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.
Petersson, Magnus. 2003. ’Brödrafolkens väl’: Svensk-norska säkerhetspolitiska relationer 1949–1969 [‘The Welfare of the Brother Peoples’: Swedish-Norwegian Security Relations 1949–1969]. Stockholm: Santérus.
Rasmussen, Knud. 1932. Polarforskningens saga [The Saga of Polar Exploration]. In Jordens Erobring [The Conquering of the World], edited by Aage Krarup Nielsen, vol. 6. Copenhagen: Chr. Erichsens Forlag.
Rey, Louis, et al. 1984. Unveiling the Arctic. Fairbanks AL: University of Alaska Press.
Ries, Christopher. 2002. “Lauge Koch and the Mapping of North East Greenland: Tradition and Modernity in Danish Arctic Research, 1920–1940.” In Narrating the Arctic: A Cultural History of Nordic Scientific Practices, edited by Bravo, Michael T. and Sörlin, Sverker, 191231. Canton MA: Science History Publishing.
Ries, Christopher. 2003. Retten, magten og æren: Lauge Koch sagen - en strid om Grønlands geologiske udforskning. [Law, Power, and Honour: The Lauge Koch Case – a Controversy over the Geological Investigation of Greenland] Copenhagen: Lindhardt and Ringhof.
Rolandsson Martin, Anton. [1754, 1881] 2007. Dagbok hållen vid en resa till Norrpolen eller Spitsbergen. Edited by Nordström, Simon. Ymer: Årsbok för Sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi (1881), 91–102. Transcribed and translated as “Diary Kept during a Journey to the North Pole or Spitsbergen.” In The Linnaeus Apostles: Global Science and Adventure, edited by Lars Hansen, vol. 2, book 1, 15–45. London & Whitby: IK Publishing.
Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon.
Sandahl, Ingrid. 2007. “Rymden” [Space]. In Kunskapsarena Norrland [Knowledge Arena Norrland], edited by Jakobsson, Roger. Umeå: Royal Skytte Academy.
Schwach, Vera. 2000. Havet, fisken og vitenskapen: Fra fiskeriundersökelser til havsforskningsinstitutt 1860–1970 [Sea, Fish, and Science: From Fishing Inquiries to Institute of Marine Research 1860–1970]. Bergen: Havsforskningsinstituttet.
Schwach, Vera. 2012. “Til havs med vitenskapen: Fiskerirettet havforskning 1860 – 1970” [At Sea with Science: Fisheries Oriented Maritime Research1860–1970]. Ph.D. diss., University of Oslo.
Sejersted, Francis. 1993. “Offentlig organisert vitenskap for industrien” [Publicly Organized Science for Industry]. In Francis Sejersted: Demokratisk kapitalisme [Democratic Capitalism]. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Sörlin, Sverker. 1988. Framtidslandet: Debatten om Norrland och naturresurserna under det industriella genombrottet [Land of the Future: The Debate on Norrland and Its Natural Resources at the Time of the Industrial Breakthrough]. Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag and Umeå: Royal Skytte Academy.
Sörlin, Sverker. 2009a. “Perspektiv på polaråren” [Perspectives on the International Polar Years]. In Polarår [Polar Years], edited by Sörlin, Sverker and Rosqvist, Gunhild, Ymer: Årsbok för Sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi, 17–56. Stockholm: Sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi.
Sörlin, Sverker. 2009b. “Narratives and Counter-Narratives of Climate Change: North Atlantic Glaciology and Meteorology, ca. 19301955.” Journal of Historical Geography 35:237255.
Sörlin, Sverker. 2009c. “The Global Warming that Did Not Happen: Historicizing Glaciology and Climate Change.” In Nature's End: History and the Environment, edited by Warde, Paul and Sörlin, Sverker, 93114. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Sörlin, Sverker. 2011. “The Anxieties of a Science Diplomat: Field Co-production of Climate Knowledge and the Rise and Fall of Hans Ahlmann's ‘Polar Warming’.” In Revisiting Klimo, edited by Fleming, James R. and Jankovich, Vlad, Osiris 26: 6686. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sörlin, Sverker. 2013. “Ice Diplomacy and Climate Change: Hans Ahlmann and the Quest for a Nordic Region Beyond Borders.” In Science, Geopolitics and Culture in the Polar Region – Norden beyond Borders, edited by Sörlin, Sverker, 2354. Farnham: Ashgate.
Sörlin, Sverker. 2014. “The Reluctant Arctic Citizen: Sweden and the Arctic.” Polar Geopolitics: Knowledges, Resources and Legal Regimes, edited by Dodds, Klaus and Powell, Richard C., 149165. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Sörlin, Sverker, and Wormbs, Nina. 2010. “Rockets and Reindeer: A Swedish Development Pair in a Northern Welfare Hinterland.” In Warfare & Welfare: Swedish Innovation Systems Since 1945, edited by Gribbe, Johan, Lundin, Per, and Stenlås, Niklas, 131152. Sagamore Beach MA: Science History Publications.
Sörlin, Sverker, and Lajus, Julia (in press). “Melting the Glacial Curtain: The Politics of Scandinavian-Soviet Networks in the Geophysical Field Sciences between Two Polar Years, 1932–33 and 1957–58.” Journal of Historical Geography 42 (2014).
Spufford, Francis. 1996. I May Be Some Time: Ice and the English Imagination. London: Faber and Faber.
Star, Susan L., and Griesemer, James R.. 1989. “Institutional Ecology, ‘Translations’ and Coherence: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907–39.” Social Studies of Science 19:387420.
Swithinbank, George. 1999. Foothold on Antarctica: The First International Expedition (1949–1952) through the Eyes of Its Youngest Member. Lewes: Book Guild.
Thrift, Nigel, and Dewsbury, John-David. 2000. “Dead Geographies and How to Make Them Live.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 18:411432.
Treshnikov, A[leksei] F[edorovic]. 1977. “Results of the Oceanological Investigations by the ‘North Pole’ Drifting Stations.” Polar Geography 1:2240.
Weart, Spencer. [2003] 2008. The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Wolf, Eric R. 1982. Europe and the People without History. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press.
Wright, John K. 1953. “The Open Polar Sea.” Geographical Review 43:338365.
Wråkberg, Urban. 1995. “Vetenskapens vikingatåg: Perspektiv på svensk polarforskning 1860–1930” [The Viking Raids of Science: Perspectives on Swedish Polar Research 1860–1930]. Ph.D. diss. Uppsala University.
Wråkberg, Urban. 2002. “The Politics of Naming: Contested Observations and the Shaping of Geographical Knowledge.” In Narrating the Arctic: A Cultural History of Nordic Scientific Practices, edited by Bravo, Michael T. and Sörlin, Sverker, 155197. Canton MA: Science History Publications.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Science in Context
  • ISSN: 0269-8897
  • EISSN: 1474-0664
  • URL: /core/journals/science-in-context
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed