Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 16
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie Guassora, Ann Dorrit and Reventlow, Susanne 2016. Understanding the body–mind in primary care. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy,

    Gonçalves, Jorge 2016. On understanding the self of the schizophrenics. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice,

    Hardy, Carter 2016. Three Problems for Contagion Empathy. Philosophia,

    Summa, Michela 2016. Phenomenology and Science.

    Svenaeus, Fredrik 2016. The phenomenology of empathy: a Steinian emotional account. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 227.

    Gallagher, Shaun 2015. The new hybrids: Continuing debates on social perception. Consciousness and Cognition, Vol. 36, p. 452.

    Summa, Michela 2015. Antonio Calcagno: Lived Experience from the Inside Out: Social and Political Philosophy in Edith Stein. Human Studies, Vol. 38, Issue. 4, p. 591.

    Svenaeus, Fredrik 2015. The relationship between empathy and sympathy in good health care. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 267.

    Throop, C. Jason and Duranti, Alessandro 2015. Attention, ritual glitches, and attentional pull: the president and the queen. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 14, Issue. 4, p. 1055.

    Aaltola, Elisa 2014. Varieties of Empathy and Moral Agency. Topoi, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 243.

    Gangopadhyay, Nivedita 2014. Introduction: Embodiment and Empathy, Current Debates in Social Cognition. Topoi, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 117.

    Michael, John 2014. Towards a Consensus About the Role of Empathy in Interpersonal Understanding. Topoi, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 157.

    Ratcliffe, Matthew 2014. The phenomenology of depression and the nature of empathy. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 269.

    Slaby, Jan 2014. Empathy’s blind spot. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 249.

    Weber, Dieter 2014. Lebensweisheit und Praktische Theologie.

    Ratcliffe, Matthew 2012. Phenomenology as a Form of Empathy. Inquiry, Vol. 55, Issue. 5, p. 473.


Empathy, Simulation, and Narrative

  • Shaun Gallagher (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 24 July 2012

A number of theorists have proposed simulation theories of empathy. A review of these theories shows that, despite the fact that one version of the simulation theory can avoid a number of problems associated with such approaches, there are further reasons to doubt whether simulation actually explains empathy. A high-level simulation account of empathy, distinguished from the simulation theory of mindreading, can avoid problems associated with low-level (neural) simulationist accounts; but it fails to adequately address two other problems: the diversity problem and the starting problem. It is argued that a narrative approach to empathy obviates all these problems and offers a more parsimonious account.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Renée Baillargeon , Rose M. Scott , and Zijing He . 2010. “False-belief understanding in infants.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):110118.

Inge Bretherton , Janet Fritz , Carolyn Zahn-Waxler , and Doreen Ridgeway . 1986. “The acquisition and development of emotion language: A functionalist perspective.” Child Development 57:529548.

Jean Decety and Philip L. Jackson . 2004. “The functional architecture of human empathy.”Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews 3 (2):71100.

Hanne De Jaegher , Ezequiel Di Paolo , and Shaun Gallagher . 2010. “Does social interaction constitute social cognition?Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (10):441447.

Frédérique de Vignemont and Tania Singer . 2006. “The empathic brain: How, when and why?Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10:435441.

Justin C. Fisher 2006. “Does simulation theory really involve simulation?Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):417432.

Shaun Gallagher . 2007. “Simulation trouble.” Social Neuroscience 2 (3–4):353–65.

Shaun Gallagher and Jonathan Cole . 2010. “Dissociation in self-narrative.” Consciousness and Cognition 20:149155.

Vittorio Gallese . 2003. “The roots of empathy: The shared manifold hypothesis and the neural basis of intersubjectivity.” Psychopathology 36:171180.

Vittorio Gallese . 2009. “Motor abstraction: A neuroscientific account of how action goals and intentions are mapped and understood.” Psychological Research 73 (4):486–98.

Alvin I. Goldman 1989. “Interpretation psychologized.” Mind and Language 4:161185.

Zijing He and Renée Baillargeon . 2011. “False-belief understanding in 2.5-year-olds: Evidence from change-of-location and unexpected-contents violation-of-expectation tasks.” Developmental Science 14:292305.

Robert Hogan . 1969. “Development of an empathy scale.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 33:307316.

Pierre Jacob . 2008. “What do mirror neurons contribute to human social cognition?Mind and Language 23 (2):190223.

Pierre Jacob . 2011. “The direct perception model of empathy: A critique.” Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):519540.

Marc Jeannerod and Elizabeth Pacherie . 2004. “Agency, simulation, and self-identification.” Mind and Language 19 (2):113–46.

Katherine Nelson . 1992. “Emergence of autobiographical memory at age 4.” Human Development 35:172177.

S. Richner Elizabeth and Ageliki Nicolopoulou . 2001. “The narrative construction of differing conceptions of the person in the development of young children's social understanding.” Early Education and Development 12:393432.

Ted Ruffman and Josef Perner . 2005. “Do infants really understand false belief? Response to Leslie.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (10):462–63.

Deborah A. Small , George Loewenstein , and Paul Slovic . 2007. “Sympathy and callousness: Affect and deliberations in donation decisions.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 102:143153.

Victoria Southgate , Coralie Chevallier , and Gergely Csibra . 2010. “Seventeen-month-olds’ appeal to false beliefs to interpret others’ referential communication.” Developmental Science 13 (6):907912.

Carolyn Zahn-Waxler , Marian Radke-Yarrow , Elizabeth Wagner , and Michael Chapman . 1992. “Development of concern for others.” Developmental Psychology 28:126136.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Science in Context
  • ISSN: 0269-8897
  • EISSN: 1474-0664
  • URL: /core/journals/science-in-context
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *