Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Introduction: Science, Technology, Medicine – and the State: The Science-State Nexus in Scandinavia, 1850–1980

Abstract

One of the common characteristics of science, technology, and medicine is their ambition to epistemologically and organizationally move beyond the confines of nation states. In practice, however, they develop differently in countries or regions. Scientists, engineers, and physicians are constrained as well as enabled by national boundaries and specific cultures. The cultural status of such practices in reverse is influenced by a country's history, politics, and the view of the role of science, technology, and medicine in society. It is the relation between a specific region, Scandinavia, and the history of science, technology, and medicine within this region that this issue of Science in Context sets out to explore. But what is this “Scandinavia”? To many, Scandinavia besides being a specific geographical region of three countries (Denmark, Sweden, and Norway) with entwined histories and closely related languages is a way of denoting a specific style or movement. “Scandinavian design” is renowned for three interrelated features; minimalism or simplicity, functionalism, and “design to the people” i.e. functional products for the average citizen (Beer 1975; Glambek 1997; Fallan 2012).

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Introduction: Science, Technology, Medicine – and the State: The Science-State Nexus in Scandinavia, 1850–1980
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Introduction: Science, Technology, Medicine – and the State: The Science-State Nexus in Scandinavia, 1850–1980
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Introduction: Science, Technology, Medicine – and the State: The Science-State Nexus in Scandinavia, 1850–1980
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Asdal Kristin. 2004. Politikkens teknologier. Produksjoner av regjerlig natur [Technologies of politics: Producing governable nature]. Oslo: Unipub.
Asdal Kristin. 2008a. “On Politics and the Little Tools of Democracy: A Down-to-Earth-Approach.” Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory 16:1126.
Asdal Kristin. 2008b. “Subjected to Parliament: The Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and the Animal Body.” Social Studies of Science 38:899917.
Beer Eileene Harrison. 1975. Scandinavian Design: Objects of a Life Style. New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation.
Bjerknes Gro, Ehn Pelle, Kyng Morten, and Nygaard Kristen, eds. 1987. Computers and Democracy: A Scandinavian Challenge. Aldershot: Avebury.
Bowker Geoffrey C. 2005. Memory Practices in the Sciences. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Brimnes Nils. 2007. “Vikings against Tuberculosis: The International Tuberculosis Campaign in India 1948–51.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 81:407430.
Byrkjeflot Haldor. 2001. “The Nordic Model of Democracy and Management.” In The Democratic Challenge to Capitalism: Management and Democracy in the Nordic Countries, edited by Byrkjeflot Halso, Myklebus Sissel, Myrvang Christine, and Sejersted Francis, 1945. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.
Byrkjeflot Haldor, Myklebus Sissel, Myrvang Christine, and Sejersted Francis, eds. 2001. The Democratic Challenge to Capitalism: Management and Democracy in the Nordic Countries. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.
Christiansen Niels Finn. 2006. The Nordic Model of Welfare: A Historical Reappraisal. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
Collett John Peter. 2011. Universitetet i Oslo 1811–2011. Vol. 1, Universitetet i Oslo 1811–1870. Universitetet i nasjonen [University of Oslo 1811–2011. Vol. 1, The University of Oslo 1811–1870. The University in the Nation]. Oslo: Unipub.
Edgerton David. 2004. “‘The Linear Model’ Did not Exist: Reflections on the History and Historiography of Science and Research in Industry in the Twentieth Century.” In The Science-Industry Nexus: History, Policy, Implications: Nobel Symposium 123, edited by Grandin Karl, Wormbs Nina and Widmalm Sven, 3157. Sagamore Beach MA: Science History Publications.
Ehn Pelle. 1989. Work-Oriented Design of Computer Artifacts. Stockholm: Arbetslivscentrum.
Fallan Kjetil. 2012. Scandinavian Design: Alternative Histories. London: Berg.
Foucault Michel. 1991. “Governmentality.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by Burchell Graham, Gordon Colin, and Miller Peter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gaudillière Jean Paul, and Löwy Ilana, eds. 1998. The Invisible Industrialist: Manufacturers and the Production of Scientific Knowledge. Houndsmills: Macmillan.
Glambek Ingeborg. 1997. Det nordiske i arkitektur og design sett utenfra [Nordic Architecture and Design Seen from Outside]. København: Arkitektens Forlag.
Goossens Herman, Ferech Matus, Stichele Robert Vander, and Elseviers Monique. 2005. “Outpatient Antibiotic Use in Europe and Association with Resistance: A Cross-National Database Study.” Lancet 365 (9459):579587.
Gradmann Christoph. 2013. “Sensitive Matters: The World Health Organization and Antibiotic Resistance Testing, 1945–1975.” Social History of Medicine 26:555574.
Hamran Olav. 2010. Riktig medisin? En historie om apotekvesenet [The Right Medicine? A Story on the Apothecary System]. Oslo: Pax.
Hestmark Geir. 1999. Vitenskap og nasjon: Waldemar Christopher Brøgger 1851–1905 [Science and the Nation: Waldemar Christopher Brøgger]. Oslo: Aschehoug.
Hvidtfelt Nielsen Kristian, and Nielsen Henry, eds. 2006. Viden uden grænser: 1920–1970 [Knowledge without Borders]. Vol. B. 4, Dansk naturvidenskabs historie [The History of Danish Natural Science]. Århus: Aarhus universitetsforlag.
Imhof Arthur E. 1994. Lebenserwartungen in Deutschland, Norwegen und Schweden im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Jasanoff Sheila, ed. 2004. States of Knowledge: The Co-production of Science and Social Order. London: Routledge.
Jensen Siri, Lindbæk Morten, Gradmann Christoph, and Lie Anne Kveim. 2010. “Erindringer Om Antibiotikaresistensens Historie” [Memories on the History of Antibiotic Resistance]. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening [Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association] 24 (130):24942498.
Kjærgaard Peter C., ed. 2006. Lys over landet: 1850–1920, Dansk naturvidenskabs historie [Light throughout the Country: 1850–1920. The History of Danish Natural Science]. Århus: Aarhus universitetsforlag.
Krige John. 2006. American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Latour Bruno. [1984] 1988. The Pasteurization of France. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Løvoll Øistein, and Sandbu Synne. 2002. “Measles and Measles Immunisation in Norway: Historical Review and Present Situation.” Eurosurveillance (12), http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=2099 (last accessed December 7, 2013).
Moene Karl, and Wallerstein Michael. 2006. “Social Democracy as a Development Strategy.” In Globalization and Egalitarian Redistribution, edited by Wallerstein Michael, Bardhan Pranab K., and Bowles Samuel, 148168. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Myklebust Sissel, ed. 1997. Technology and Democracy: Obstacles to Democratization - Productivism and Technocracy, vol. 28 of TMV Skriftserie. Centre for Technology and Culture. Oslo: University of Oslo.
Rheinberger Hans-Jörg. 2004. “Physics and Chemistry of Life, Commentary.” In The Science-Industry Nexus: History, Policy, Implications: Nobel Symposium 123, edited by Karl Grandin, Nina Wormbs, and Sven Widmalm, 221–225. Sagamore Beach MA: Science History Publications.
Sejersted Francis. [1964] 1993. Demokratisk kapitalisme [Democratic Capitalism]. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Sejersted Francis. 2011. The Age of Social Democracy: Norway and Sweden in the Twentieth Century. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Shapin Steven, and Schaffer Simon. 1985. Leviathan and the Air-pump: Hobbes, Boyle and the Experimental Life. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Siegmund-Schultze Reinhard, and Sørensen Henrik Kragh, eds. 2006. Perspectives on Scandinavian Science in the Early Twentieth Century. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
Sivasundaram Sujit. 2010. “Sciences and the Global: On Methods, Questions, and Theory.” Isis 101:146158.
Sogner Knut. 1997. “The Double Meaning of Vitamins.” Scandinavian Journal of History 22 (3):187198.
Suchman Lucy. 1988. “Designing with the User, a Review of Computers and Democracy: A Scandinavian Challenge.” ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems 6 (2).
Svensson Lennart G. 1987. Higher Education and the State in Swedish History. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.
Walsh Vivien. 2004. “Paradigms in the Evolution of Life Sciences Research, and the Changing Structure of the Innovative Organization.” In The Science-Industry Nexus: History, Policy, Implications: Nobel Symposium 123, edited by Grandin Karl, Wormbs Nina, and Widmalm Sven, 189219. Sagamore Beach MA: Science History Publications.
Waterton Claire. 2010. “Experimenting with the Archive: STS-ers As Analysts and Co-constructors of Databases and Other Archival Forms.” Science, Technology & Human Values 35:645676.
Widmalm Sven. 1999. Vetenskapsbärarna: naturvetenskapen i det svenska samhället, 1880–1950 [Champions of Science: Natural Science and Swedish Society, 1880–1950]. Hedemora: Gidlund.
Witoszek Nina. 1998. Norske naturmytologier: fra Edda til økofilosofi [Norwegian Mythologies of Nature: From the Edda to Eco-Philosophy]. Oslo: Pax.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Science in Context
  • ISSN: 0269-8897
  • EISSN: 1474-0664
  • URL: /core/journals/science-in-context
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 61 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 313 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.