Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Of Psychometric Means: Starke R. Hathaway and the Popularization of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

  • Rebecca Schilling (a1) and Stephen T. Casper (a2)
Argument
Argument

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, in the 1930s and 1940s. It became a highly successful and highly controversial psychometric tool. In professional terms, psychometric tools such as the MMPI transformed psychology and psychiatry. Psychometric instruments thus readily fit into the developmental history of psychology, psychiatry, and neurology; they were a significant part of the narrative of those fields’ advances in understanding, intervening, and treating people with mental illnesses. At the same time, the advent of such tools also fits into a history of those disciplines that records the rise of obsessional observational and evaluative techniques and technologies in order to facilitate patterns of social control that became typical during the Progressive Era in the United States and after. It was those patterns that also nurtured the resistance to psychometrics that emerged during the Vietnam War and after.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Anon. 1947. “Mental Treatment: Method Devised for Separating Curables from Incurables.” New York Times, 27 April.
Anon. c. 1947. “Application for Grant-in-Aid.” In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 14.
Anon. 1965a. “Personality Tests.” Washington Post, 9 June, p. a24.
Anon. 1965b. “Yes, I Believe I am Being Followed,” Time: The Weekly Magazine 85 (25) 18 June, p. 25A. In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 2: Hathaway, Starke. Media Clippings, 1939–1984.
Anon. 1966a. “Test Given Pupils Meant for Adults. Publisher Says Questions on Sex and Religion are not Designed for Youths.” New York Times, 8 Feburary, p. 41.
Anon. 1966b. “City Schools Bar Sex-Habits Test: Donovan Says It Is ‘Clearly Invasion of Privacy’.” New York Times, 10 February, p. 44.
Anon. 1986. “Starke Rosecrans Hathaway (1903–1984).” American Psychologist 41 (7):834835.
Appel Toby A. 2000. Shaping Biology: The National Science Foundation and American Biological Research, 1945–1975. Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bard B. 1966. “The ‘Brain Watchers’ in the Schools,” New York Post, May 21. In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 2: Hathaway, Starke. Media Clippings, 1939–1984.
Boden Margaret A. 2006. Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science, vols. 1–2. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Buchanan Roderick D. 1994. “The Development of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 30:148161.
Buchanan Roderick D. 1997. “Ink Blots or Profile Plots: The Rorschach versus the MMPI as the Right Tool for a Science-Based Profession.” Science, Technology & Human Values 22 (2):168206.
Buchanan Roderick D. 2002. “On Not Giving Psychology Away: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Public Controversy over Testing in the 1960s.” History of Psychology 5 (3):284309.
Burnham John C., ed. 2012. After Freud Left: A Century of Psychoanalysis in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Burnham John C. 1988. Paths into American Culture: Psychology, Medicine, and Morals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Capshew James H. 1999. Psychologists on the March: Science, Practice, and Professional Identity in America, 1929–1969. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Casper Stephen T. 2008. “Atlantic Conjunctures in Anglo-American Neurology: Lewis H. Weed and Johns Hopkings Neurology.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 82 (3):646671.
Causey Mike. 1965. “Personality-Test Ban Set by Civil Service.” Washington Post, 4 June, p. b1.
Clawson R. 1975. “Somebody's Looking in Your Skull.” Billings Gazette Sunday Magazine. In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 2 Hathaway, Starke. Media Clippings, 1939–1984.
Coon Deborah J. 1993. “Standardizing the Subject: Experimental Psychologists, Instrospection, and the Technoscientific Ideal.” Technology and Culture 34:757783.
Corrigan Richard. 1965. “Pupils Given ‘Offensive’ Personality Test.” Washington Post, 11 June, p. b4.
Dahlstrom W. Grant. 1992. “The Growth in Acceptance of the MMPI.” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 23 (5):345348.
Danziger Kurt. 1990. Constructing the Subject: Historical Origins of Psychological Research. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Engstrom Eric J. 2003. Clinical Psychiatry in Imperial Germany: A History of Psychiatric Practice. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.
Evans Bonnie Louise. 2011. “Mental Defectives, Child Psychotics, and the Origins of Autism Research at the Maudsley Hospital, 1913–1983.” Ph.D. diss., Kings College Cambridge.
Farreras Ingrid G., Hannaway Caroline, and Harden Victoria A.. 2004. Mind, Brain, Body and Behavior: Foundations of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research at the National Institutes of Health. Washington DC: IOS Press.
Forman Paul. 2007. “The Primacy of Science in Modernity, of Technology in Postmodernity, and of Ideology in the History of Technology.” History and Technology 23 (1/2):1152.
Forman Paul. 2010. “(Re)cognizing Postmodernity: Help for Historians – of Science Especially.” Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 33 (2):157175.
Forman Paul. 2012. “On the Historical Forms of Knowledge Production and Curation: Modernity Entailed Disciplinarity, Postmodernity Entails Antidisciplinarity.” Osiris 27 (1):5697.
Foucault Michel. 1988. “Technologies of the Self.” In Technologies of the Self, edited by Martin Luther H., Gutman Huck, and Hutton Patrick H., 1649. London: Tavistock.
Friendly Alfred. 1966. “Personalities Resent Testing: Touted MMPI System of Determining Emotional Stability Riddled by Invasion of Privacy Charges.” Washington Post, 18 September, p. e3.
Gavrus Delia. 2011. “Men of Dreams and Men of Action: Neurologists, Neurosurgeons, and the Performance of Professional Identity, 1920–1950.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 85 (1):5792.
Gibby Robert E., and Zickar Michael J.. 2008. “A History of the Early Days of Personality Testing in American Industry: An Obsession with Adjustment.” History of Psychology 11:164184.
Gould Stephen J. 1981. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton.
Gregg Alan. 1941. What Is Psychiatry?” RG 3. Series 906. Box 2. Folder 19: Program and Policy. Rockefeller Archive Center.
Grob Gerald A. 1983. Mental Illness and American Society, 1875–1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Grob Gerald A. 1991a. From Asylum to Community: Mental Health Policy in Modern America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Grob Gerald A. 1991b. “Origins of DSM-I: A Study in Appearance and Reality.” American Journal of Psychiatry 148 (4):421431.
Grubb Robert L. 2011. Neurosurgery at Washington University: A Century of Excellence. St. Louis MO: Washington University Press.
Hale Nathan G. 1995. The Rise and Crisis of Psychoanalysis in the United States: Freud and the Americans, 1917–1985. New York: Oxford University Press.
Harrison Emma. 1961. “‘Normal’ Man Sits for His Portrait.” New York Times, 12 May, p. 31.
Hathaway Starke R. 1939. “The Personality Inventory as an Aid in the Diagnosis of Psychopathic Inferiors.” Journal of Consulting Psychology 3:112117.
Hathaway Starke R. 1942. Physiological Psychology. New York and London: D. Appleton Century Co.
Hathaway Starke R. July 1963. “Bibliographic Sketch.” In University of Minnesota Archives. Hathaway, Starke R. Personal Papers. Box 1. Folder 10: Hathaway, Starke. Publication Lists.
Hathaway Starke R. 1964a. “MMPI: Professional Use by Professional People.” American Psychologist 19:204211.
Hathaway Starke R. 1964b. “The Many Voices of Division 12.” Presidential Address, Division 12, American Psychological Association. September 1964. University of Minnesota Archives. Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 4: Hathaway, Starke. Photography, c. 1930–1977.
Hathaway Starke R. 1971. “Foreword.” In University of Minnesota Archives. Hathaway, Starke R. Personal Papers. Box 1. Folder 16.
Hathaway Starke R. 1974. “Through Psychology My Way.” In The Psychologists, vol. 2, edited by Krawiec Theophile S., 105123. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hathaway Starke R., and McKinley John C.. 1940. “A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: I. Construction of the Schedule.” Journal of Psychology 10:249254.
Hathaway Starke R., and McKinley John C.. 1943a. Booklet for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Hathaway Starke R., and McKinley John C.. 1943b. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. University of Minnesota Archives.
Hathaway Starke R., and Meehl Paul E.. 1951. An Atlas for the Clinical Use of the MMPI. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Hathaway Starke R., and Monachesi E. D.. 1961. An Atlas of Juvenile MMPI Profiles. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Herman Ellen. 1995. The Romance of American Psychology: Political Culture in the Age of Experts. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Igo Sarah Elizabeth. 2007. The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Kennedy Craig Hall, Hughes Jamie G. H. H., and McNeil Jeffrey A.. 2012. “A History of Military Psychology.” In Military Psychology: Clinical and Operational Applications, edited by Kennedy Craig Hall and Zillmer Eric A., 124. New York and London. Guilford Press.
Kevles Daniel J. 1968. “Testing the Army's Intelligence: Psychologists and the Military in World War I.” Journal of American History 55:565581.
King Patricia, Good Ellison, and Brantner John P.. 1961. The Physician's Guide to MMPI. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
King Patricia, Good Ellison, and Brantner John P.. 1974. A Practical Guide to the MMPI: An Introduction for Psychologists, Physicians, Social Workers, and Other Professionals. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Laing Ronald David. 1967. The Politics of Experience. New York: Random House.
Lyotard Jean-Francois. 1984. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis. University of Minnesota.
Marks Harry. 2000. The Progress of Experiment: Science and Therapeutic Reform in the United States, 1900–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mazie David. 1963. “What Does Sex Life Have to Do With a Job?” Minneapolis Tribune. June 16. In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 2 Hathaway, Starke. Media Clippings, 1939–1984.
McKinley John C., Baker Abraham Bert, and Hathaway Starke R.. 1940. An Outline of Neuropsychiatry. Minneapolis: S.N.
McKinley John C., and Hathaway Starke R.. 1940. “A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: II. A Differential Study of Hypochondriasis.” Journal of Psychology 10:255268.
McKinley John C., and Hathaway Starke R.. 1942a. “A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: III. The Measurement of Symptomatic Depression.” Journal of Psychology 14:7384.
McKinley John C., and Hathaway Starke R.. 1942b. “A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: IV. Psychasthena.” Journal of Psychology 26:614624.
McKinley John C., and Hathaway Starke R.. 1944. “The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. V. Hysteria, Hypomania and Psychopathic Deviate.” Journal of Applied Psychology 28 (2):153–17.
Micale Mark. S. 1993. “On the ‘Disappearance’ of Hysteria.” Isis 84 (3):496526.
O’Donnell John M. 1985. The Origins of Behaviorism: American Psychology, 1870–1920. New York: New York University Press.
Napoli Donald S. 1981. Architects of Adjustment: The History of the Psychological Profession in the United States. London: Kennikat Press.
Porter Theodore. 1986. The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820–1900. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Pressman Jack. 1998. Last Resort: Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rose Nikolas. 1985. The Psychological Complex: Psychology, Politics and Society in England, 1869–1939. London: Routledge.
Rose Nikolas. 1989. Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. London and New York: Routledge
Rose Nikolas. 1996. Inventing Our Selves: Psychology, Power, and Personhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson Douglas. 1969. “Psychologist, Testifying for the Defense, Says Tests Indicate Sirhan Has Paranoid Tendencies.” New York Times, 11 March, p. 24.
Rutherford Alexandra. 2009. Beyond the Box: B. F. Skinner's Technology of Behavior from Laboratory to Life, 1950s-1970s. Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press.
Scull Andrew. 2009. Hysteria: The Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schneider William H., ed. 2002. Rockefeller Philanthropy and Modern Biomedicine: International Initiatives from World War I to the Cold War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Skinner Burrhus Frederick. 1972. Walden Two, 24th ed.New York: Macmillan Company.
Shorter Edward. 2009. Before Prozac: The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shorter Edward, and Healy David. 2007. Shock Therapy: A History of Electroconvulsive Treatment in Mental Illness. New Brunswick NJ and London: Rutgers University Press.
Sokal Michael M. 1987. Psychological Testing and American Society, 1890–1930. New Brunswick NJ and London: Rutgers University Press.
Spingarn Jerome. 1957. “The Manipulation of Buyers, Voters.” Washington Post, 28 April, e. 6.
Sturm Thomas, and Ash Mitchell G.. 2005. “Roles of Instruments in Psychological Research.” History of Psychology 8 (1):334.
Szasz Thomas S. 1960. “The Myth of Mental Illness.” American Psychologist 15 (2):113118.
Vidal Fernando. 2009. “Brainhood, Anthropology of Modernity.” History of Human Sciences 22:536.
Weiss Sheila F. 2010. The Nazi Symbiosis: Human Genetics and Politics in the Third Reich. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, Winston D. n.d. “A Guide to the MMPI” in University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 16. Pages 1–32.
Wolin Sheldon S. 2010. Democracy Inc.: Managed Democracy and the Spectre of Inverted Totalitarianism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Science in Context
  • ISSN: 0269-8897
  • EISSN: 1474-0664
  • URL: /core/journals/science-in-context
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 23 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 387 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.