Hostname: page-component-f7d5f74f5-z2nk8 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-10-02T15:47:50.021Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Passover and Eucharist in the Fourth Gospel

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 February 2009

J. K. Howard


The events of the Exodus, in which the Passover occupied a central and dominant place, were one of the most deeply rooted of all Israel's traditions. The Passover itself lay at the very heart of the covenant concept and forms the basis of the Heilsgeschichte which records the redemptive acts of God for His people Israel. In later Judaism it became overlaid with eschatological ideas, especially those associated with a Messianic deliverance for the people of God, as God's saving act in the past became the prefigurement of an even greater saving act in the future. The Passover night was thus a night of joy for all Israel, the night on which Israel's future redemption, effected through the Messiah, would be revealed. The early Christians, however, believed that this Messianic deliverance had already appeared in the person of Jesus of Nazareth, and consequently, in Preiss' expression,‘the totality of the events of the Exodus centering on the Passover’ together with its associated ideas occupied a dominant position in Christian soteriological thought in the New Testament period, especially as Jesus Himself had instituted the eucharist in a distinctly Paschal setting. We may trace, as has been done in recent years, the idea of the Exodus complex of events running as a constant theme through the New Testament writings, and Jesus is pictured both as a second Moses leading His people forth from a bondage far greater than the slavery of a human despot, from the thraldom of sin and death, and as the Antitype of the very Passover sacrifice itself, through which the redemption of the New Israel was effected.

Research Article
Copyright © Scottish Journal of Theology Ltd 1967

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


page 329 note 1 Exodus Rabbah 15.1, 18.11, 12, Mekhilta Exodus 12.42.

page 329 note 2 Preiss, T., Life in Christ (ET), 1954, p. 90.Google Scholar

page 329 note 3 Sahlin, H., ‘The New Exodus of Salvation according to St. Paul’ in The Root of the Vine (ed. Fridrichsen, A.), 1953, pp 8193Google Scholar, and Nixon, R. E., The Exodus in the New Testament, 1962.Google Scholar

page 330 note 1 E.g. Bultmann, R., Das Evangelium des Johannes, 1950, p. 360.Google Scholar

page 330 note 2 Guilding, A., The Fourth Gospel and Jewish Worship, 1960, p. 1.Google Scholar

page 331 note 1 Lightfoot, R. H., St. John's Gospel, A Commentary, 1956, pp. 34gffGoogle Scholar, to which note the present writer wishes to state his considerable indebtedness.

page 331 note 2 Taylor, V., Jesus and His Sacrifice, 1939, p. 227Google Scholar, and Zimmerli, W. and Jeremias, J., The Servant of God, 1957, p. 82.Google Scholar

page 331 note 3 R. Bultmann, op. cit., p. 67n.

page 332 note 1 Gray, G. B., Sacrifice in the Old Testament, 1925, p. 397Google Scholar.

page 332 note 2 ibid., pp. 355ff.

page 332 note 3 Stauffer, E., New Testament Theology (ET), 1955, p. 132.Google Scholar

page 333 note 1 Tasker, R. V. G., The Old Testament in the New Testament, 1946, p. 50.Google Scholar

page 334 note 1 Higgins, A. J. B., The Lord's Supper in the New Testament, 1952, pp. 798ff.Google Scholar

page 335 note 1 See Jaubert, A., La Date de la Céne, 1957Google Scholar, and van Goudoever, J., Biblical Calendars (ET), 1959.Google Scholar

page 337 note 1 Clark, N., An Approach to the Theology of the Sacraments, 1956, p. 70.Google Scholar