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Imagined Noncommunities: National Indifference as a Category of Analysis

  • Tara Zahra

Since the birth of mass political movements, European nationalists have lamented the failure of their constituents to respond to the siren song of national awakening. This article explores the potential of national indifference as a category of analysis in the history of modern central and eastern Europe. Tara Zahra defines indifference, explores how forms of national indifference changed over time, probes the methodological challenges associated with historicizing indifference, and examines the intersections between national indifference and transnational history. Making indifference visible enables historians to better understand the limits of nationalization and thereby helps to challenge the nationalist narratives and categories that have traditionally dominated the historiography of eastern Europe.

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I thank Pieterjudson, Jeremy King, the participants at the 2008 Conference “Sites of Indifference to Nation in Habsburg Central Europe” at the University of Alberta, and the anonymous referees for Slavic Review for their helpful feedback on earlier drafts of this essay.

1. národní, Vyroční zpráva jednoty severočeské” (1908), 4 .

2. Gary Cohen drew historians’ attention to national indifference almost thirty years ago by highlighting the social dynamics of national affiliation in Prague. See Cohen, Gary B., The Politics of Ethnic Survival: Germans in Prague, 1861-1914 (Princeton, 1981). More recently, see, for example, Judson, Pieter M., Guardians of the Nation: Activists on the Language Frontiers of Imperial Austria (Cambridge, Mass., 2006); King, Jeremy, Budiueisers into Czechs and Germans: A Local History of Bohemian Politics, 1848-1948 (Princeton, 2002); Glassheim, Eagle, Noble Nationalists: The Transformation of the Bohemian Aristocracy (Cambridge, Mass., 2005); Bryant, Chad, Prague in Black: Nazi Rule and Czech Nationalism (Cambridge, Mass., 2007); Bjork, James, Neither German nor Pole: Catholicism and National Indifference in a Central European Borderland (Ann Arbor, 2008); Snyder, Timothy, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999 (New Haven, 2003); Dragostinova, Theodora, “Speaking National: Nationalizing the Greeks of Bulgaria,” Slavic Review 67, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 154-81; TaraZahra, , Kidnapped Souls: National Indifference and the Battle for Children in the Bohemian Lands, 1900-1948 (Ithaca, 2008).

3. Lewis, Diane, “Anthropology and Colonialism,” Current Anthropology 14, no. 5 (December 1973): 581602 . For an early critique of anthropology's relationship to colonialism, see Asad, Talal, ed., Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter (London, 1973).

4. This phrase comes from Duara's, Prasenjit Rescuing History from the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China (Chicago, 1995). On the dominance of the national paradigm in the historical profession, see also Berger, Stefan, “A Return to the National Paradigm? National History Writing in Germany, Italy, France, and Britain from 1945 to the Present,” Journal of Modern History 77, no. 3 (September 2005): 629-78.

5. Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard and Kocka, Jürgen, Geschichte und Vergleich: Ansätze und Ergebnisse international vergleichender Geschichtsschreibung (Frankfurt am Main, 1996); Kocka, Jürgen, “Comparison and Beyond,” History and Theory 42, no. 1 (February 2003): 3944 ; Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard and Kocka, Jurgen, “Comparative History: Methods, Aims, Problems,“ in Deborah Cohen and Maura O'Connor, eds., Comparison and History: Europe in Cross-National Perspective (New York, 2004), 2341 . For insightful reflections on the promises and pitfalls of comparative history, see also Nancy L. Green, “Forms of Comparison,“ Deborah Cohen, “Comparative History: Buyer Beware,” and Peter Baldwin, “Comparing and Generalizing: Why All History Is Comparative, Yet No History Is Sociology,” all in Cohen and O'Connor, eds., Comparison and History, 41-56, 57-70, 1-22.

6. On regionalism and localism, see, among others, Cole, Laurence, ed., Different Paths to the Nation: Regional and National Identities in Central Europe and Italy, 1830-1870 (New York, 2007); Ther, Philipp and Sundhaussen, Holm, Regionale Beiuegungen und Regionalismus in europäischen Zwischenräumen seit der Mitte des 19. fahrhunderts (Marburg, 2003); Blackbourn, David and Retallack, James, eds., Localism, Landscape, and the Ambiguities of Place: German-Speaking Central Europe, 1890-1930 (Toronto, 2007); Haslinger, Peter and Puttkamer, Joachim von, eds., Staat, Loyalität und Minderheiten in Ostmiltel- und Südosteuropa 1918-1941 (Munich, 2007). On borderlands, see Petri, Rolf and Muller, Michael, Die Nationalisierung von Grenzen: Zur Konstruktion nationaler Identität in sprachlich gemischten Grenzregionen (Marburg, 2002); Haslinger, Peter, ed., Grenze im Kopf: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Grenze in Ostmitleleuropa (New York, 1999); Murdock, Caitlin, Changing Places: Mobilizing Society, Culture, and Territory in Central Europe's Borderlands, 1870-1946 (Ann Arbor, 2010).

7. See, for example, Applegate, Celia, “A Europe of Regions: Reflections on the Historiography of Sub-National Places in Modern Times,” American Historical Review 104, no. 4 (October 1999): 1157-82; Confino, Alon, The Nation as a Local Metaphor: Württembuig, Imperial Germany, and National Memory, 1871-1918 (Chapel Hill, 1997); Gerson, Stéphane, The Pride of Place: Local Memories and Political Culture in Nineteenth-Century France (Ithaca, 2003); Ford, Caroline, Creating the Nation in Provincial France: Religion and Political Identity in Brittany (Princeton, 1993); Applegate, Celia, A Nation of Provincials: The German Idea of Heimat (Berkeley, 1990); Peter, Sahlins, Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees (Berkeley, 1989).

8. On indifference in the kresy, see Brown, Kate, A Biography of No Place: From Ethnic Borderland to Soviet Heartland (Cambridge, Mass., 2004); Snyder, Reconstruction of Nations. On the Windische, see Andreas Moritsch, “Das Windische—eine nationale Hilfsideologie,“ in Moritsch, Andreas, ed., Problemfelder der Geschichte und Geschichtsschreibung der Kärntner Slovenen (Klagenfurt, 1995), 1529 .

9. For a critique of the “ethnicist” presumptions dominating the history of east central Europe, see Jeremy King, “The Nationalization of East Central Europe: Ethnicism, Ethnicity, and Beyond,” in Wingfield, Nancy M. and Bucur, Maria, eds., Staging the Past: The Politics of Commemoration in Habsburg Central Europe, 1848 to the Present (West Lafayette, 2001), 112-52.

10. Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London, 1983); Gellner, Ernest, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca, 1983); Ranger, Terence and Hobsbawm, Eric, eds., Thelnvention of Tradition (Cambridge, Eng., 1983); Hobsbawm, Eric, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge, Eng., 1990); Weber, Eugen, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870- 1914 (Stanford, 1976).

11. Brubaker, Rogers, Ethnicity luithout Groups (Cambridge, Mass., 2004), 12 .

12. Gellner, Nations and Nationalism, 43.

13. Brubaker, Ethnicity without Groups, 22.

14. Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen, 343.

15. Ibid., 67-94.

16. Ibid., 485.

17. See, for example, Ford, Creating the Nation; Gerson, Pride ojPlace; Daughton, James, An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880-1914 (New York, 2006).

18. Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen, 494. The conclusion can be read as an apology for French colonialism.

19. Quoted in Bjork, Neither German nor Pole, 1.

20. Ibid., 4.

21. Ibid., 172, 129, and 131. On Upper Silesia, see also Struve, Kai and Ther, Philipp, eds., Grenzen der Nationen: Identitätenwandel in Oberschksien in derNeuzeit (Marburg, 2002).

22. Dominique Reill, “A Mission of Mediation: Dalmatia's Multi-National Regionalism from the 1830s-60s,” in Cole, ed., Different Paths to theNation, 16-36.

23. Ballinger, Pamela, History in Exile: Memory and Identity at the Borders of the Balkans (Princeton, 2002), 262 .

24. Hůrský, Josef, Zjistování národnosti (Prague, 1947), 9294 .

25. King, Budweisers, 114-53; Stourzh, Gerald, Die Glekhberechtigung der Nationalitaten in der Verfassung und Venualtung Österreichs (Vienna, 1985).

26. On national classification, see Zahra, Tara, “The ‘Minority Problem’ and National Classification in the French and Czechoslovak Borderlands,” Contemporary European History 17, no. 2 (May 2008): 137-65.

27. Bakke, Elizabeth, “The Making of Czechoslovakism in the First Czechoslovak Republic,” in Martin Schulze-Wessel, ed., Loyalitäten in der Tschechoslowakisclien Republik, 1918-1938 (Munich, 2004), 2344 .

28. Dzaja, Srecko M., Die politische Realität des Jugoslawismus (1918-1991) (Munich, 2002); See also Charles Jelavich, “South Slav Education: Was There Yugoslavism?” and Arnold Suppan, “Yugoslavism versus Serbian, Croatian, and Slovene Nationalism: Political, Ideological, and Cultural Causes of the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia,” both in Naimark, Norman M. and Case, Holly, eds., Yugoslavia and Its Historians: Understanding the Balkan Wars (Stanford, 2003), 93115 and 116-39.

29. Jelavich, “South Slav Education,” 95.

30. Martin, Terry, The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939 (Ithaca, 2001); Hirsch, Francine, Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knmuledge and the Making of the Soviet Union (Ithaca, 2005); Slezkine, Yuri, “The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism,” Slavic Review 53, no. 2 (Summer 1994): 414-52.

31. Brown, Biography of No Place, 33.

32. Ibid., 39.

33. Heller, Hugo, Die Erziehung zum deutschen Wesen (Prague, 1936), 9 .

34. King, Budxveisers, 164-66.

35. See, for example, Judson, Guardians of the Nation; Wingfield, Nancy M., Flag Wars and Stone Saints: How the Bohemian Lands Became Czech (Cambridge, Mass., 2007); Harvey, Elizabeth, Women and the Nazi East: Agents and Witnesses of Germanization (New Haven, 2003); Bryant, Prague in Black; Zahra, Kidnapped Souls.

36. Zahra, Kidnapped Souls, 144.

37. Quoted in Ingo Eser, “'Loyalität’ als Mittel der Integration oder Restriktion? Polen und seine deutsche Minderheit, 1918-1939,” in Haslinger and von Puttkamer, eds., Staat, Loyalität and Minderheiten, 23-24.

38. Gerhard Seewann, “'Ungamdeutschtum’ als Identitätskonzept und politische Ressource,” in Haslinger and von Puttkamer, eds., Staat, Loyalität und Minderheit, 20, 99-126.

39. Baumgartner, Gerhard and Hemetek, Ursula, 6 x Österreich: Geschichte und aktuelle Situation der Volksgruppen (Klagenfurt, 1995), 60 .

40. Anonymous, , Unsere deutsche Schulen und das Vernichtungsgesetz (Eger, 1920), 7 .

41. On the danger of conflating categories of analysis with categories of practice, see Brubaker, Ethnicity without Groups; Brubaker, Rogers, Feischmidt, Margit, Fox, Jon, and Grancea, Liana, Nationalist Politics and Everyday Ethnicity in a Transylvanian Town (Princeton, 2006).

42. For the details of the case, see Hudson, Manley O., ed., World Court Reports: A Collection of the Judgments, Orders and Opinions of the Permanent Court of International Justice, vol. 2, 1927-1932 (Washington, D.C., 1935), 268320, 690-91.

43. Hudson, ed., World Court Reports, 292. For more on the issue of Silesian schools, see Fink, Carole, Defending the Rights of Others: The Great Powers, thejews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938 (New York, 2004); Frentz, Christian Raitz von, A Lesson Forgotten: Minority Protection tinder the League of Nations: The Case of the German Minority in Poland, 1920-1934 (New York, 1999).

44. Seejudson, Guardians of the Nation, esp. 1-18.

45. On the Mittelpartei in Moravia, see Luft, Robert R., “Die Mittelpartei des mahrischen Grossgrundbesitzes 1879-1918,” in Ferdinand Seibt, ed., Die Chance der Verständigung: Absichten und Ansätze zu übernationaler Zusammenarbeit in den böhmischen Ländern 1848-1918 (Munich, 1987), 218-36.

46. Sčitání lidu 1930, Memo from the Czech National Council to the State Statistical Office and the Presidium of the Council of Ministers, 16 May 1930, Carton 183, Národní rada česká, Národní archiv (NA), Prague.

47. Rauchberg, Heinrich, Der nationale Besitzstand in Böhmen (Leipzig, 1905), 435 .

48. On early Czech nationalists, see Bugge, Peter, “Czech Nation-Building, National Self-Perception and Politics, 1780-1914” (PhD diss., University of Aarhus, 1994).

49. Kapras, Jan, Řeč mateská orgánem školy obecné a znakem národnosti (Prague, 1883), 910 .

50. Frommer, Benjamin, National Cleansing: Retribution against Nazi Collaborators in Postwar Czechoslovakia (Cambridge, Eng., 2005), 18 .

51. Generalreferat Für politische Angelegenheiten, Prague, 12 August 1939. Carton 520, Úřad řišského protektora, NA.

52. Zahra, Kidnapped Souls, 193.

53. On Alsace, see Fischer, Christopher J., “Alsace to the Alsatians? Visions and Divisions of Alsatian Regionalism, 1890-1930” (PhD diss., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2003); Boswell, Laird, “From Liberation to Purge Trials in the ‘Mythic Provinces': Recasting French Identities in Alsace and Lorraine, 1918-1920,” French Historical Studies23, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 129-62; Zahra, “The ‘Minority Problem.'“

54. Wetterlé, L'abbé Émile, Ce qu'était I ‘Alsace-Lorraine et ce qu'elle sera (Paris, 1915), 305 .

55. Cited in King, Budiueisers, 176. From Kennan, George, From Prague after Munich, Diplomatic Papers 1938-1940 (Princeton, 1968), 134.

56. See Bergen, Doris, “The Nazi Concept of ‘Volksdeutsche’ and the Exacerbation of Anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe, 1939-45,” Journal of Contemporary History 29, no. 4 (October 1994): 569-82; on Germanization in Nazi-occupied Europe, see also Mazower, Mark, Hitler's Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe (New York, 2008).

57. Brubaker, Ethnicity without Groups, 3.

58. Brubaker, Rogers and Cooper, Fred, “Beyond ‘Identity,'” Theory and Society 29, no. 1 (February 2000): 1 .

59. Martin Schulze-Wessel, “Loyalität als Geschichtlicher Grundbegriff und Forschungskonzept: Zur Einleitung,” in Schulze-Wessel, ed., Loyalitäten in der Tschechoslowakischen Republik, 10.

60. Peter Haslinger and Joachim von Puttkamer, “Staatsmacht, Minderheit, Loyalitätkonzeptionelle Grundlagen am Beispiel Ostmittel und Südosteuropas in der Zwischenkriegzeit,“ in Haslinger and von Puttkamer, eds., Staat, Loyalität und Minderheiten, 2 - 3, 9. 61. Musil, Robert, The Man without Qualities, trans. Sophie Wilkins (New York, 1995), 30 .

62. With few exceptions, the essays in Haslinger and von Puttkamer's volume on state, loyalty, and minorities in east central and southeastern Europe do not question the extent to which “national minorities” existed as self-evident communities. Two exceptions are Albert F. Reiterer, “Abkehr, Widerstand, Loyalität: Die Minderheiten und die Erste Österreichische Republik,” and Elena Mannová, “Identitätsdiskurse und lokale Lebenswelten in der Südslowakei,” both in Haslinger and von Puttkamer, eds., Staat, Loyalitüt und Minderheiten, 141 and 45-67.

63. Scott, Joan W., “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” American Historical Review 91, no. 5 (December 1986): 1053-75. On the trajectory from social to cultural history, see Eley, Geoff, A Crooked Line: From Cultural History to the History of Society (Ann Arbor, 2005).

64. For a recent reflection on revisionism in Soviet historiography, see Fitzpatrick, Sheila, ed., Stalinism: New Directions (London, 2000); Fitzpatrick, Sheila, “Revisionism in Soviet History,” History and Theory 46, no. 4 (December 2007): 7791 ; Sheila Fitzpatrick and Michael Geyer, “Introduction: After Totalitarianism. Stalinism and Nazism Compared,“ in Geyer, Michael and Fitzpatrick, Sheila, eds., Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared (Cambridge, Eng., 2009), 140 . Some examples of this approach in the historiography of Nazi Germany include Gellately, Robert, Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany (Oxford, 2001); Peukert, Detlev, Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life (New Haven, 1987).

65. On the presumed triumph of individualism in postwar west European politics and human rights activism, see Tonyjudt, , Poshuar: A History of Europe since 1945 (New York, 2005), 564-65; Lauren, Paul, The Evolution of International Human Rights (Philadelphia, 1998); Mazower, Mark, “The Strange Triumph of Human Rights, 1933-1950,” The Histori calJournal 47, no. 2 (Spring 2004): 386-88; Simpson, A. W. Brian, Human Rights and the End of Empire: Britain and the Genesis of the European Convention (Oxford, 2001), 157220 ; Borgwardt, Elizabeth, A New Deal for the World: America's Vision for Human Rights (Cambridge, Mass., 2005), 59 .

66. For an argument contesting the apolitical nature of postwar Europe, see Mary Nolan, “Utopian Visions in a Post Utopian Era: Human Rights, Americanism, Market Fundamentalism“ (keynote address for conference on “Utopia, Gender, and Human Rights,“ Vienna, 12 December 2007).

67. For reflections on the agency exercised by peasants through evasion or inaction, see Scott, James C., Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven, 1985).

68. On “normality” and Nazism, see Kershaw, Ian, “'Normality’ and Genocide: The Problem of Historicization,” The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and, Perspectives of Interpretation (London, 1993); Peukert, , Inside Nazi Germany; Harvey, Women in the Nazi East; Alf Ludtke, The History of Everyday Life (Princeton, 1995).

69. See Klaus Michel Mailman and Gerhard Paul, “Omniscient, Omnipotent, Omnipresent? Gestapo, Society, and Resistance,” in Crew, David F., ed., Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945 (New York, 1994); Gellately, Backing Hitler.

70. On a desire for “normality” after World War II, see Bessel, Richard and Schumann, Dirk, eds., Life after Death: Approaches to a Cultural and Social History of Europe during the 1940s and 1950s (New York, 2003).

71. On the theoretical concerns of transnationalism, see in particular Osterhammel, Jürgen and Conrad, Sebastian, eds., Das Kaiserreich Transnational: Deutschland in der Welt, 1871-1914 (Göttingen, 2004); Bender, Thomas, ed., Rethinking America in a Global Age (Berkeley, 2002); Ther, Philipp, “Beyond the Nation: The Relational Basis of a Comparative History of Germany and Europe,” Central European History 36, no. 1 (2003): 4573 ; Frevert, Ute, “Europeanizing Germany's Twentieth Century,” History and Memory: Studies in Representation of the Past 17, no. 1/2 (Fall 2005): 87116 ; Clavin, Patricia, “Defining Transnationalism,“ Contemporary European History 14, no. 4 (November 2005): 421-39; Blackbourn, David, “Europeanizing German History: A Comment,” Bulletin of the German Historical Institute 36 (Spring 2005): 2532 .

72. On histoire croisée and transfer history, see Espagne, Michel, Les transferts culturels franco-allemands (Paris, 1999); Zimmermann, Bénédicte and Werner, Michael, eds., De la comparaison à l'histoire croisée (Paris, 2004). For a discussion of the differences between histoire croisée and cultural transfer, see Haupt and Kocka, “Comparative History,” 31-33. For an introduction to global history in theory and practice, see Mazlish, Bruce and Iriye, Akira, eds., The Global History Reader (New York, 2005).

73. For an example of a history that challenges national frameworks by writing the history of “something else,” see Frank, Alison Fleig, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (Cambridge, Mass., 2005).

74. On the dangers of transnational history, see Bayly, C. A., Beckett, Sven, Connelly, Matthew, Hofmeyr, Isabel, Kozol, Wendy, and Seed, Patricia, “AHR Conversation: On Transnational History,” American Historical Review 111, no. 5 (December 2006): 1442 .

75. See, for example, Bartov, Omer, “Eastern Europe as the Site of Genocide, “Journal of Modern History 80, no. 3 (September 2008): 557-93; Snyder, Timothy, “Holocaust: The Ignored Reality,” New York Review ofBooks 56, no. 12 (16July 2009).

76. See Blackbourn,“Europeanizing German History,” 25-32. On Germany in the east, see Liulevicius, Vejas G., War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity and German Occupation in World War I (Cambridge, Eng., 2000); Liulevicius, , The German Myth oftheEast: 1800 to the Present (Oxford, 2009); Hull, Isabel, Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany (Ithaca, 2005); Sammartino, Annemarie, The Impossible Border: Germany, Migration, and the East, 1914-1922 (Ithaca, 2010); Harvey, Women and the Nazi East; Mazower, Hitler's Empire, Wildenthal, Lora, German Women for Empire, 1884-1945 (Durham, 2001).

77. For more on the turn eastward in German history, see Zahra, Tara, “Looking East: East Central European ‘Borderlands’ in German History and Historiography,” History CompassS, no. 1 (January 2005): 123 .

78. On the nationalization of displaced persons and refugees, see Patt, Avinoam J., FindingHome and Homeland:Jewish Youth and Zionism in the Aftermath of the Holocaust (Detroit, 2009); Grossmann, Atina, Jews, Germans, and Allies: Close Encounters in Occupied Germany (Princeton, 2007); Ballinger, Pamela, “Borders of the Nation, Borders of Citizenship: Italian Repatriation and the Definition of National Identity after World War II,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 49, no. 3 (July 2007): 713-41; Jacobsmeyer, Wolfgang, Vom Zwangsarbeiter zum heimatlosen Ausländer: Die Displaced Persons in Westdeutschland 1945-51 (Göttingen, 1985); Malkki, Liisa, Purity and Exile: Violence, Memory, and National Cosmology among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania (Chicago, 1995); Zahra, Tara, “Lost Children: Displacement, Family and Nation in Postwar Europe,” Journal of Modern History 81, no. 1 (March 2009): 4586 .

79. Arendt, Hannah, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York, 1951), 292 .

80. Memorandum of Agudas Israel, 25 June 1953, Carton 11, 12U-34, Bundesministerium des Innern, Archiv der Republik, Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Vienna. On Soviet displaced persons and national imposture, see Janco, Andrew, “The Soviet Refugees in Postwar Europe and the Cold War, 1945-51” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2010).

81. “Das Problem der D.P.s in Österreich,” 29 April 1947, 5, Carton 35, II-pol 1947, Bundesministerium für auswärtige Angelegenheiten, Archive der Republik, Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Vienna.

82. Removal of Children (Polish) from the St. Joseph's Kinderheim, 14 October 1946, File 16, S-0437- 0013, United Nations Archive, New York; see also W. C. Huyssoon, “Who Is This Child,” Sample of an Interview with an Unaccompanied Child, File 11, S-0437- 0013, United Nations Archive.

83. Ballinger, “Borders of the Nation,” 713-41.

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