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Introduction to “Soviet and Post-Soviet Sexualities”

  • Richard C. M. Mole
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1. Štulhofer, Aleksandar and Sandfort, Theo, eds., Sexuality and Gender in Postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia (New York, 2005), 5.

2. Healey, Dan, Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia: The Regulation of Sexual and Gender Dissent (Chicago, 2001), 113; Hazard, John N., “Unity and Diversity in Socialist Law,” Law and Contemporary Problems 30, no.2 (Spring 1965), 270–90.

3. Healey, Dan, “Masculine Purity and “Gentlemen's Mischief”: Sexual Exchange and Prostitution between Russian Men, 1861–1941,” Slavic Review 60, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 258.

4. Kon, Igor S., “Sexuality and Politics in Russia, 1700–2000,” in Eder, Franz X., Hall, Lesley A., and Hekma, Gert, eds., Sexual Cultures in Europe. National Histories (Manchester, 1999), 208.

5. Attwood, Lynne, “Young People, Sex and Sexual Identity,” in Pilkington, Hilary, ed., Gender, Generation and Identity in Contemporary Russia (London, 1996), 102.

6. Pollard, Patrick, “Gide in the USSR: Some Observations on Comradeship,” Journal of Homosexuality 29, no. 2–3 (1995), 186; Karlinsky, Simon, “Russia's Gay Literature and Culture: The Impact of the October Revolution,” in Martin Duberman, Vicinus, Martha, and Chauncey, George Jr., eds., Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past (New York, 1989), 360.

7. Around 1,000 gay men a year were imprisoned in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s; Daniel D. Healey, “Russia,” glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture, at http://www.glbtqarchive.com/ssh/russia_S.pdf (accessed September 3, 2015), 9.; Baird, Vanessa, The No-Nonsense Guide to Sexual Diversity (Oxford 2007), 71.

8. See Essig, Laurie, Queer in Russia: A Story of Sex, Self and the Other (Durham, 1999).

9. Baer, Brian J., “Now You See It: Gay (In)Visibility and the Performance of Post-Soviet Identity,” in Fejes, Nárcisz and Balogh, Andrea P., eds., Queer Visibility in Post-Socialist Cultures (Bristol, 2013), 37.

10. Ibid., 38.

11. Homosexual acts were decriminalized in all former Soviet republics, with the exception of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.

12. Valentine, G., “(Hetero)Sexing Space: Lesbian Perceptions and Experiences of Everyday Spaces,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 11, no. 4 (1993), 396.

13. Ibid.

14. Essig, Queer in Russia, 62.

15. Baer, “Now you see it: gay (in)visibility and the performance of post-Soviet identity,” 40.

16. Inglehart, Ronald and Baker, Wayne E., “Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values,” American Sociological Review 65, no. 1 (February 2000), 28.

17. See Ashwin, Sarah, “Introduction: Gender, State and Society in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia,” in Ashwin, Sarah, ed. Gender, State and Society in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia (London, 2000), 129.

18. Riabov, Oleg and Riabova, Tatiana, “The Remasculinization of Russia? Gender, Nationalism, and the Legitimation of Power under Vladimir Putin,” Problems of Post-Communism 61, no. 2 (2014), 25.

19. Cited in Oleg Riabov and Tatiana Riabova, “The Remasculinization of Russia?,” 25.

20. Nagel, Joane, “Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 21, no. 2 (1998), 245.

21. Mosse, George L., The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity (Oxford, 1996), 4.

22. Ibid., 67–68. In addition to homosexuals, other countertypes have historically included Jews, Gypsies, vagrants, habitual criminals and the insane.

23. Mole, Richard C. M., “Nationalism and Homophobia in Central and Eastern Europe,” in Slootmaeckers, Koen, Touquet, Heleen and Vermeersch, Peter, eds., EU Enlargement and Gay Politics: The Impact of Eastern Enlargement on Rights, Activism and Prejudice (Basingstoke, 2016), 109–10.

24. The full text is available on the Rossiyskaya Gazeta Dokumenty website: http://www.rg.ru/2013/06/30/deti-site-dok.html (Accessed on July 14, 2015).

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Slavic Review
  • ISSN: 0037-6779
  • EISSN: 2325-7784
  • URL: /core/journals/slavic-review
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