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The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism

  • Yuri Slezkine (a1)
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Soviet nationality policy was devised and carried out by nationalists. Lenin's acceptance of the reality of nations and "national rights" was one of the most uncompromising positions he ever took, his theory of good ("oppressed-nation") nationalism formed the conceptual foundation of the Soviet Union and his NEP-time policy of compensatory "nation-building" (natsional'noe stroitel'stvo) was a spectacularly successful attempt at a state-sponsored conflation of language, "culture," territory and quota-fed bureaucracy.

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1. Not the first such attempt, of course, but sufficiently different from the previous ones to make it worth the effort, I hope. My greatest debt is to the work of Ronald Grigor Suny, most recently summarized in his The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism, Revolution, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993). On the last three decades, see also Kenneth C. Farmer, Ukrainian Nationalism in the Post-Stalin Era (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1980); Gail Warshofsky Lapidus, “Ethnonationalism and Political Stability: The Soviet Case,” World Politics 36, no. 4 (July 1984): 355–80; Philip G. Roeder, “Soviet Federalism and Ethnic Mobilization,” World Politics 23, no. 2 (January 1991): 196–233; Teresa Rakowska-Harmstone, “The Dialectics of Nationalism in the USSR,” Problems of Communism XXIII (May-June 1974), 1–22; and Victor Zaslavsky, “Nationalism and Democratic Transition in Postcommunist Societies,” Daedalus 121, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 97–121. On the promotion of “national languages” and bilingualism, see the work of Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, especially “Equality, Efficiency, and Politics in Soviet Bilingual Education Policy, 1934–1980,” American Political Science Review 78, No. 4 (October 1984): 1019–39; and “Some Factors in the Linguistic and Ethnic Russification of Soviet Nationalities: Is Everyone Becoming Russian?” in Lubomyr Hajda and Mark Beissinger, eds., The Nationalities Factor in Soviet Politics and Society (Boulder: Westview Press, 1990). For a fascinating analysis of state-sponsored nationalism in a non-federal communist state, see Katherine Verdery, National Ideology under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceaus,escu's Romania (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991).

2. For an excellent overview of recent debates on the ethnic boundaries of political communities, see A. Hollinger, David, “How Wide the Circle of the ‘We'? American Intellectuals and the Problem of Ethnos since World War Two,American Historical Review 98, no. 2 (April 1993): 317–37.

3. Vareikis, I. and Zelenskii, I., Natsional'no-gosudarstvennoe razmezhevanie Srednei Azii (Tashkent: Sredne-Aziatskoe gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo, 1924), 59 .

4. For a witty elaboration of the reverse metaphor (the communal apartment as the USSR), see Boym, Svetlana, “The Archeology of Banality: The Soviet Home,” Public Culture 6, no. 2 (1994): 263–92.

5. Stalin, I. V., Marksizm i natsional'nyi vopros (Moscow: Politizdat, 1950), 51 .

6. For early marxist debates on nationalism, see Connor, Walker, The National Question in Marxist-Leninist Theory and Strategy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984 ; Helene, Carrere d'Encausse, The Great Challenge: Nationalities and the Bolshevik State, 1917–1930 (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1992 ; Konrad, Helmut, “Between ‘Little International’ and Great Power Politics: Austro-Marxism and Stalinism on the National Question,” in Richard, L. Rudolph and David, F. Good, eds., Nationalism and Empire: The Habsburg Empire and the Soviet Union (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992); Pipes, Richard, The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism, 1917–1923 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964 ; Szporluk, Roman, Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx versus Friedrich List (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988 .

7. Stalin, Marksizm i natsional'nyi vopros, 51. See also Lenin, V. I., Voprosy natsional'noi politiki i proletarskogo internatsionalizma (Moscow: Politizdat, 1965 , passim.

8. The “oppressor” was not always “civilized,” as in most marxist analyses of Russia vis-a-vis Poland or Finland.

9. Stalin, Marksizm, 37. The view of a nation (as opposed to a nationality) as a “historical category belonging to a particular epoch, the epoch of rising capitalism” became something of a truism and was reconfirmed without debate at the X Party Congress.

10. Lenin, , “Kriticheskie zametki po natsional'nomu voprosu” (1913), in Voprosy, 3234.

11. Ibid., 33; and Lenin, “Itogi diskussii o samoopredelenii” (1916), in Voprosy, 128.

12. Lenin, “Kriticheskie zametki,” 26.

13. Ibid., 33–34.

14. Ibid., 15, 16; and Lenin, “O prave natsii na samoopredelenie” (1914), in Voprosy, 81 (footnote), and “O natsional'noi gordosti velikorossov” (1914), in Voprosy, 107.

15. Lenin, “Kriticheskie zametki,” 9.

16. Ibid., 9, 28; and “O prave,” 61, 83–84.

17. Kreindler, Isabelle, “A Neglected Source of Lenin's Nationality Policy,” Slavic Review 36, no. 1 (March 1977): 86100.

18. Quoted in Isabelle Kreindler, “Educational Policies toward the Eastern Nationalities in Tsarist Russia: A Study of the Il'minskii System,” Ph.D. Diss., Columbia University, 1969, 75–76.

19. Stalin, Marksizm, 21.

20. Veniamin, Arkhiepiskop Irkutskii i Nerchinskii, Zhiznennye voprosy pravoslavnoi missii v Sibiri (St. Petersburg: A. M. Kotomin, 1885), 7 . For a discussion of the controversy, see Slezkine, Yuri, “Savage Christians or Unorthodox Russians? The Missionary Dilemma in Siberia,” in Galya, Diment and Yuri, Slezkine, eds., Between Heaven and Hell: The Myth of Siberia in Russian Culture (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993), 1827 .

21. Lenin, “Kriticheskie zametki,” 7.

22. Cf. Gellner, Ernest, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983), 1 ; Hobsbawm, E. J., Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 9 ; Breuilly, John, Nationalism and the State (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 3 .

23. Lenin, “O natsional'noi programme RSDRP” (1913), in Voprosy, 41; idem, “O prave,” 61–62, 102; idem, “Sotsialisticheskaia revoliutsiia i pravo natsii na samoopredelenie” (1916), in Voprosy, 113–14.

24. Stalin, Marksizm, 163. The same applied to national schools, freedom of religion, freedom of movement and so on.

25. Lenin, “Itogi diskussii o samoopredelenii” (1916), in Voprosy, 129.

26. “Peoples” and “nations” were used interchangeably.

27. Dekrety Sovetskoi vlasti (Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1957), 1: 39–41, 113–15, 168–70, 195–96, 340–44, 351, 367.

28. Dimanshtein, S., “Narodnyi komissariat po delam natsional'nostei,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 41 (49) (26 October 1919).

29. Dimanshtein, S., “Sovetskaia vlast’ i melkie natsional'nosti,” Zhizn' natsional'nostei 46 (54) (7 December 1919). See also Pestkovskii, S., “Natsional'naia kul'tura,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 21 (29) (8 June 1919).

30. Nenarokov, A. P., K edinstvu ravnykh: Kul'turnye faktory ob “edinitel'nogo dvizheniia sovetskikh narodov, 1917–1924 (Moscow: Nauka, 1991, 9192 .

31. Ibid., 92–93.

32. Vos'moi s “ezd RKP (b): Protokoly (Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1959), 46–48, 77–81.

33. Ibid., 55.

34. Ibid., 106.

35. Ibid., 53. In the same speech, Lenin argued that even the most “advanced” western countries were hopelessly behind Soviet Russia in terms of social differentiation (which meant that they could—and sometimes should—be regarded as integral nations rather than as temporarily isolated class battlefields). By being Soviet, Russia was more advanced than the advanced west.

36. Ibid., 82.

37. Kriuchkov, Fedor, “O Kriashenakh,” Zhizn'natsional'nostei 27 (84) (2 September 1920).

38. El'mets, R., “K voprosu o vydelenii chuvash v osobuiu administrativnuiu edinitsu,” Zhizn1 natsional'nostei 2 (59) (11 January 1920).

39. Vilenskii, V. (Sibiriakov), “Samoopredelenie iakutov,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 3 (101) (2 February 1921).

40. Bogoraz-Tan, V. G., “O pervobytnykh plemenakh,” Zhizn'natsional'nostei 1 (130) (10 January 1922); idem, “Ob izuchenii i okhrane okrainnykh narodov,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 3–4 (1923): 168–177; Ianovich, Dan, “Zapovedniki dlia gibnushchikh tuzemnykh piemen,Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 4 (133) (31 January 1922); TsGAOR, f. 1377, op. 1, d. 8, 11. 126–27, d. 45, 11. 53, 77, 81.

41. “Chetyre goda raboty sredi estontsev Sovetskoi Rossii,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 24 (122) (5 November 1921).

42. TsGAOR, f. 1318, op. 1, d. 994, 1. 100.

43. See Zhizn' natsional'nostei (1921) and TsGAOR, f. 1318.

44. Segal, L., “Vserossiiskoe soveshchanie rabotnikov po prosveshcheniiu narodov ne-russkogo iazyka,” Zhizn1 natsional'nostei 33 (41) (31 August 1919).

45. Trainin, I., “Ekonomicheskoe raionirovanie i natsional'naia politika,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 21 (119) (10 October 1921); K., S., “Ekonomicheskoe raionirovanie i problemy avtonomno-federativnogo stroitel'stva,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 25 (123) (12 November 1921).

46. Desiatyi, sezd Rossiiskoi Kommunisticheskoi partii: Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo, 1921), 101 .

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., 371.

49. Ibid., 372.

50. Ibid., 115.

51. “Belorusskii natsional'nyi vopros i kommunisticheskaia partiia,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 2 (131) (17 January 1922).

52. Vareikis and Zelenskii, Natsional'no-gosudarstvennoe razmezhevanie, 57.

53. Ibid., 60. “Nations that have not yet reached the capitalist stage” were not nations according to Stalin's definition.

54. Desiatyi s “ezd, 112, 114.

55. For two different interpretations, see Lewin, Moshe, Lenin's Last Struggle (New York: Pantheon, 1968 ; and Pipes, Richard, The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism, 1917–1923 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954 .

56. Lenin, V. I., “K voprosu o natsional'nostiakh ili ob ‘avtonomizatsii,'” in Voprosy, 167.

57. Ibid., 168–70.

58. Dvenadtsatyi s “'ezd Rossiiskoi Kommunisticheskoi partii (bol'shevikov). Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Glavpolitprosvet, 1923), 462, 552.

59. Ibid., 439–54, 561–65.

60. Quoted in Nenarokov, K edinstvu, 116–17.

61. Dvenadtsatyi s “ezd, 543–45.

62. Ibid., 449.

63. See, for example, “S” ezd po narodnomu obrazovaniiu,” Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnago prosvieshcheniia L (March-April 1914): 195, 242–44.

64. Ob uchrezhdenii Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii. Izvestiia Kommissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii (Petrograd: Rossiiskaia AkademiiaNauk, 1917), 1: 8.

65. Gertsenberg, I., “Natsional'nyi printsip v novom administrativnom delenii RSFSR,” Zhizn’ natsional'nostei 37 (94) (25 November 1920).

66. N. La., Marr, Plemennoi sostav naseleniia Kavkaza: Trudy Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii (Petrograd: Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk, 1920), 3: 9, 2122 . See also Marr, N. La., “Ob iafeticheskoi teorii,” Novyi vostok 5 (1924): 303–9.

67. “The richest associations and the strongest perceptions are those acquired through the mother tongue” (Segal', “Vserossiiskoe soveshchanie “).

68. Karskii, E. F., Etnograficheskaia karta Bielorusskago plemeni: Trudy Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii, vol. 2 (Petrograd: Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk, 1917 .

69. Zarubin, I. I., Spisok narodnostei Turkestanskogo kraia: Trudy Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii, vol. 9 (Leningrad: Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk, 1925 ; Zarubin, I. I., Naselenie Samarkandskoi oblasti: Trudy Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii, vol. 10 (Leningrad: AN SSSR, 1926 ; Allworth, Edward A., The Modern Uzbeks: From the Fourteenth Century to the Present (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1990), 181 ; Alexandre, Bennigsen and Chantal, Lemercier-Quelquejay, Islam in the Soviet Union (New York: Praeger, 1967, 131–33; Teresa, Rakowska-Harmstone, Russia and Nationalism in Central Asia: The Case of Tadzhikistan (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1970), 78 .

70. Instruktsiia k sostavleniiu plemennykh kart, izdavaemykh Komissieiu po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii: Trudy Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii (Petrograd: Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk, 1917), 1: 11.

71. Karskii, Etnograficheskaia karta, 19.

72. Marr, N. La., Plemennoi sostav naseleniia Kavkaza: Trudy Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii (Petrograd: Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk, 1920), 9: 2425 ; Marr, N. La., Talyshi: Trudy Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii (Petrograd: Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk, 1922), 4: 35, 22 .

73. Marr, Plemennoi sostav, 9.

74. Ibid., 59–61. Cf. Patkanov, S. K., Spisok narodnostei Sibiri: Trudy Komissii po izucheniiu plemennogo sostava naseleniia Rossii (Petrograd: Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk, 1923), 7: 3 .

75. See, for example, Patkanov on “Paleoasiatics” in Patkanov, Spisok, 8.

76. Kun, VI., “Izuchenie etnicheskogo sostava Turkestana,” Novyi vostok 6 (1924): 351–53; Zarubin, Spisok, 10.

77. Khodorov, I., “Natsional'noe razmezhevanie Srednei Azii,” Novyi vostok 8–9 (1926): 69.

78. See, for example, Dimanshtein, S., “Desiat’ let natsional'noi politiki partii i sovvlasti,” Novyi vostok 19 (1927): vi ; “Vremennoe polozhenie ob upravlenii tuzemnykh narodnostei i piemen Severnykh okrain,” Severnaia Aziia 2 (1927): 85–91; Leonov, N. I., “Tuzemnye sovety v taige i tundrakh,Sovetskii Sever: Pervyi sbornik statei (Moscow: Komitet Severa, 1929, 225–30; Gitelman, Zvi Y., Nationality and Soviet Politics: The Jewish Sections of the CPSU, 1917–1930 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), 289 ; Simon, Gerhard, Nationalism and Policy toward the Nationalities in the Soviet Union: From Totalitarian Dictatorship to Post-Stalinist Society (Boulder: Westview Press, 1991), 58 .

79. Davydov, I., “O probleme iazykov v prosvetitel'noi rabote sredi natsional'-nostei, ' Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 1 (1929): 18.

80. After the abolition of the “Highland” (Gorskaia) republic, the only autonomous republic that had no ethnic “landlord” and hence no obvious official language was Dagestan, one of the most linguistically diverse places on earth (see Takho-Godi, A., “Problema iazyka v Dagestane,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 2 [1930]: 6875 ).

81. Gurko-Kriazhin, V. A., “Abkhaziia,” Novyi vostok 13–14 (1926): 115.

82. See, in particular, Fierman, William, Language Planning and National Development: The Uzbek Experience (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1991 ; and Crisp, Simon, “Soviet Language Planning since 1917–53,” in Michael Kirkwood, ed., Language Planning in the Soviet Union (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989), 2345 . The quote is from Agamalyogly, , “K predstoiashchemu tiurkologicheskomu” sezdu v Azerbaidzhane,” Novyi vostok 10–11 (1925): 216.

83. Davydov, “O probleme iazykov,” 18.

84. See, for example, Fierman, Language Planning, 149–63; Dingley, James, “Ukrainian and Belorussian—A Testing Ground,” in Kirkwood, ed., Language Planning, 180–83; Bogoraz-Tan, V. G., “Chukotskii bukvar,” Sovetskii Sever 10 (1931): 126.

85. Borozdin, I., “Sovremennyi Tatarstan,” Novyi vostok 10–11 (1925): 132.

86. Pavlovich, M., “Kul'turnye dostizheniia tiurko-tatarskikh narodnostei so vremeni Oktiabr'skoi revoliutsii,” Novyi vostok 12 (1926): viii.

87. Simon, Nationalism, 46. The number of Yiddish books and brochures, for example, rose from 76 in 1924 to 531 in 1930 (see Gitelman, Jewish Nationality, 332–33).

88. See, for example, Fierman, Language Planning, 170–76; Gitelman, Jewish Nationality, 351–65; Mace, James E., Communism and the Dilemmas of National Liberation: National Communism in Soviet Ukraine, 1918–1933 (Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1983), 96 ; Simon, Nationalism, 42.

89. Davydov, “O probleme iazykov,” 23.

90. The Ukrainian Commissar of Education, Mykola Skrypnyk, denned the Donbass vernacular as a “neither Russian nor Ukrainian” patois in need of proper Ukrainianization (see Mace, Communism and the Dilemmas, 213).

91. Simon, Nationalism, 49.

92. I. Bulatnikov, “Ob ukrainizatsii na Severnom Kavkaze,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 1 (1929): 94–99; Gitelman, Jewish Nationality, 341–44.

93. Gitelman, Jewish Nationality, 342.

94. For a survey, see Simon, Nationalism, 20–70.

95. See, for instance, Borozdin, “Sovremennyi Tatarstan,” 118–19; 122–23; Dimanshtein, “Desiat’ let,” v-vi, xvii.

96. Simon, Nationalism, 32–33, 37.

97. Skachko, A., “Vostochnye respubliki na S.-Kh. Vystavke SSSR v 1923 godu,” Novyi vostok 4 (1923): 482–84. Emphasis in the original.

98. Vareikis and Zelenskii, Natsional'no-gosudarstvennoe razmezhevanie, 59.

99. Stalin, Sochineniia, 8: 153.

100. Ibid., 151.

101. Quoted in Nenarokov, K edinstvu ravnykh, 132.

102. See, in particular, Agurskii, M., Ideologiia natsional-bol'shevizma (Paris: YMCA Press, 1980 .

103. Dvenadtsatyi s “ezd, 554, 556, 564.

104. Konoplev, N., “Shire front internatsional'nogo vospitaniia,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 2 (1931): 49 . See also Konoplev, N., “Za vospitanie internatsional'nykh boitsov,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 4–5 (1930): 5561.

105. TsGAOR, f. 1377, op. 1, d. 224, 11. 8, 32; Amyl'skii, N., “Kogda zatsvetaiut zharkie tsvety,” Severnaia Aziia 3 (1928): 5758 ; Fierman, Language Planning, 177–85; Leonov, N. I., “Tuzemnye shkoly na Severe,Sovetskii Sever: Pervyi sbornik statei (Moscow: Komitet Severa, 1929, 200–4; Leonov, “Tuzemnye sovety,” 242, 247–48; Med vedev, D. F., “Ukrepim sovety na Krainem Severe i ozhivim ikh rabotu,” Sovetskii Sever] (1933): 68 ; Rysakov, P., “Praktika shovinizma i mestnogo natsionalizma,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 8–9 (1930): 28 ; Semushkin, T., Chukotka (Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel, 1941), 48 ; Sergeev, I., “Usilit’ provedenie natspolitiki v Kalmykii,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 7 (1930): 66 ; Simon, Nationalism, 25, 41, 73–74.

106. Gitelman, Jewish Nationality, 386, 398, 402–3.

107. Davydov, “O probleme iazykov,” 22; Konoplev, “Shire front,” 50; A. Valitov, “Protiv opportunisticheskogo otnosheniia k stroitel'stvu natsshkoly,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 5–6 (1932): 68.

108. Skachkov, I., “Prosveshchenie sredi belorusov RSFSR,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 3 (1931): 76 ; Kovalevskii, P., “V shkole-iurte,” Sovetskii Sever 2 (1934): 105–6; Nesterenok, I., “Smotr natsional'nykh shkol na Taimyre,” Sovetskii Sever 6 (1932): 84 ; Prokof'ev, G. N., “Tri goda v samoedskoi shkole,” Sovetskii Sever 7–8 (1931): 144 ; Stebnitskii, S., “Iz opyta raboty v shkole Severa,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 8–9 (1932): 4951.

109. For professional abolitionism during the first five-year plan, see Fitzpatrick, Sheila, ed., Cultural Revolution in Russia, 1928–1931 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978 . On linguistics and ethnography, see Slezkine, Yuri, “The Fall of Soviet Ethnography, 1928–38,” Current Anthropology 32, no. 4 (1991): 476–84.

110. Slezkine, “The Fall,” 478.

111. Marr, N. la., “K zadacham nauki na sovetskom vostoke,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 2 (1930): 12 ; Asfendiarov, S., “Problema natsii i novoe uchenie o iazyke,” Novyi vostok 22 (1928): 174.

112. Asfendiarov, “Problema natsii,” 174.

113. Davydov, I., “Ocherednye zadachi prosveshcheniia natsional'nostei,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 4–5 (1930): 3034 ; Vanne, M., “Russkii iazyk v stroitel'stve natsional'nykh kul'tur,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 2 (1930): 3140.

114. Kusikian, I., “Ocherednye zadachi marksistov-iazykovedov v stroitel'stve iazykov narodov SSSR,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 11–12 (1931): 75 ; Krotevich, E., “Vypravit’ nedochety v stroitel'stve Kazakhskoi terminologii,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 8–9 (1932): 9496 ; Fierman, Language Planning, 126–129; Mace, Communism, 277–79; Roman Smal-Stocki, The Nationality Problem of the Soviet Union and Russian Communist Imperialism (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1952, 106–41.

115. Stalin, I. V., Sochineniia (Moscow: Politizdat, 1952), 13: 4 . Emphasis in the original.

116. Ibid., 12: 365–66.

117. See, for example, Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 11–12 (1931): 102–6.

118. Fierman, Language Planning, 177; Evgen'ev, and Bergavinov, , “Nachal'niku Obdorskogo politotdela Glavsevmorputi t. Mikhailovu,” Sovetskaia Arktika 4 (1936): 6567.

119. Rysakov, P., “Praktika shovinizma i mestnogo natsionalizma,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 8–9 (1930): 29.

120. Akopov, S., “K voprosu ob uzbekizatsii apparata i sozdanii mestnykh rabochikh kadrov promyshlennosti Uzbekistana,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 12 (1931): 2223.

121. Rodnevich, B., “Korenizatsiia apparata v avtonomiiakh i raionakh natsmen'shinstv RSFSR,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 12 (1931): 1920.

122. Mace, Communism, 212. See also Simon, Nationalism, 39–40.

123. Oshirov, A., “Korenizatsiia v sovetskoi strane,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 4–5 (1930): 111.

124. Gitlianskii, A., “Leninskaia natsional'naia politika v deistvii (natsional'nye men'shinstva na Ukraine),” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 9 (1931): 37 ; Zuev, A., “Natsmeny Kazakhstana,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 4 (1932): 48.

125. Or so most people thought. Cf. Stalin, Sochineniia 13: 91–92 and Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 1 (1932); and Iiul'skii, “Pis'mo t. Stalina—orudie vospitaniia Bol'shevistskikh kadrov,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 2–3 (1932): 9.

126. See for example I., K., “Indoevropeistika v deistvii,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 11–12 (1931): 97102 ; Kusikian, I., “Protiv burzhuaznogo kavkazovedeniia,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 1 (1932): 4547 ; Zhvaniia, I., “Zadachi sovetskogo i natsional'nogo stroitel'stva v Mingrelii,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 7 (1930): 6672 ; Savvov, D., “Za podlinno rodnoi iazyk grekov Sovetskogo Soiuza,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 4 (1932): 6474 ; M. Bril', “Trudiashchiesia tsygane v riady stroitelei sotsializma,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 7 (1932): 6066 ; S., D., “Evreiskaia avtonomnaia oblast'—detishche Oktiabr'skoi revoliutsii,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 6 (1934): 1325.

127. Simon, Nationalism, 46.

128. Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 1 (1930): 117; A., Takho-Godi, “Problema iazyka v Dagestane,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 2 (1930): 6875 ; Gitlianskii, “Leninskaia natsional'naia politika,” 77.

129. See, for example, Akopov, G., “Podgotovka natsional'nykh kadrov,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 4 (1934): 5460 ; Polianskaia, A., “Natsional'nye kadry Belorussii;, “Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 8–9 (1930): 7988 ; Rodnevich, “Korenizatsiia apparata “; Zuev, “Natsmeny “; Popova, E., “Korenizatsiia apparata—na vysshuiu stupen',” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 7 (1932): 5055 ; Iuabov, I., “Natsmeny Uzbekskoi SSR,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 9 (1932): 7478 ; Sch, P., “Partorganizatsii natsional'nykh raionov,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 10–11 (1932): 143–48; Karneev, I., “Nekotorye tsifry po podgotovke inzhenerno-tekhnicheskikh kadrov iz korennykh natsional'nostei,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 3 (1933): 8692.

130. Khazanskii, Kh., Gazeliridi, I., “Kultmassovaia rabota sredi natsional'nykh men'shinstv na novostroikakh,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 9 (1931): 8691 ; Kachanov, A., “Kul'turnoe obsluzhivanie rabochikh-natsmen Moskovskoi oblasti,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 6 (1932): 5458 ; Sabirzianov, I., “Natsmenrabota profsoiuzov Moskvy,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 9 (1932): 6974.

131. Mitrofanov, A., “K itogam partchistki v natsrespublikakh i oblastiakh,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 1 (1930): 2936 ; Martha, Brill Olcott, The Kazakhs (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1987, 216–20; Mace, Communism, 264–80; Rakowska-Harmstone, Russia and Nationalism, 39–41; Rorlich, Azade-Ayse, The Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1986, 155–56.

132. In other words, women and children could become default proletarians. See Massell, Gregory, The Surrogate Proletariat: Moslem Women and Revolutionary Strategies in Soviet Central Asia, 1919–1929 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974 ; Slezkine, Yuri, “From Savages to Citizens: The Cultural Revolution in the Soviet Far North, 1928–1938,” Slavic Review 51, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 5276.

133.Vskrytie klassovoi rozni.” See N. Krupskaia, “O zadachakh natsional'nokul'turnogo stroitel'stva v sviazi s obostreniem klassovoi bor'by,” Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 4–5 (1930): 19.

134. Dimanshtein, S., “Za klassovuiu chetkost’ v prosveshchenii natsional'nostei,” Prnsveshchenie natsional'nostei 1 (1929): 9.

135. Bilibin, N., “U zapadnykh koriakov,” Sovetskii Sever 1–2 (1932): 207.

136. See, for example, Olcott, The Kazakhs, 219; Rakowska-Harmstone, Russia and Nationalism, 100–1.

137. Zaslavskii, D., “Na protsesse ‘vyzvolentsev,'Prosveshchenie natsional'nostei 6 (1930): 13.

138. Stalin, Sochineniia, 13: 306, 309.

139. For two remarkable exceptions, see Anderson, Barbara A. and Silver, Brian D., “Equality, Efficiency, and Politics in Soviet Bilingual Education Policy, 1934–1980,” American Political Science Review 78, no. 4 (October 1984): 1019–39; and Grigor Suny, Ronald, “The Soviet South: Nationalism and the Outside World,” in Michael Mandelbaum, ed., The Rise of Nations in the Soviet Union (New York: Council of Foreign Relations Press, 1991): 69 .

140. Fitzpatrick, Sheila, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union, 1921–1934 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 235 .

141. Pervyi vsesoiuznyi s “ezd sovetskikh pisatelei. Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1934), 625.

142. Compare, for example, Stalin, Sochineniia, 8: 149–54; and Dimanshtein, S., “Bol'shevistskii otpor natsionalizmu,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 4 (1933): 113 ; S. D., , “Bor'ba s natsionalizmom i uroki Ukrainy,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 1 (1934): 1522.

143. Simon, Nationalism, 148–55.

144. After Stalin's speeches at the XVII party Congress and at the Conference of the Leading Collective Farmers of Tajikistan and Turkmenistan (see Stalin, Sochineniia, 13: 361; 14 [1]: 114–115).

145. M. Austin, Paul, “Soviet Karelian: The Language That Failed,Slavic Review 51, no. 1 (Spring 1992), esp. 2223.

146. This is, in effect, a crude summary of Vladimir Papernyi's delightful Kul'tura Dva (Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1985).

147. On the “passport system,” see Zaslavsky, Victor, The Neo-Stalinist State (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1982), 92ff .

148. Krasovskii, L., “Chem nado rukovodstvovat'sia pri sostavlenii spiska narodnostei SSSR,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 4 (1936): 7071.

149. Dimanshtein, S., “Otvet na vopros, sostavliaiut li soboi evrei v nauchnom smysle natsiiu,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 10 (1935): 77.

150. Simon, Nationalism, 61.

151. Castillo, Greg, “Gorki Street and the Design of the Stalin Revolution,” in Zeynep Celik, Diane G. Favro and Richard Ingersoll, eds. Streets: Critical Perspectives on Public Space (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994 .

152. Pervyi vsesoiuznyi s “’ ezd, 43, 49.

153. Ibid., 104.

154. Ibid., 116–17.

155. Ibid., 136, 142, 77.

156. Zaslavsky, “Nationalism and Democratic Transition,” 102.

157. North Ossetian, Iakut, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Kara-Kalpak, Kabarda, Balkar, Turkmen, Tajik, Adyge and Kalmyk (see Furmanova, A., “Podgotovka natsional'nykh kadrov dlia teatra,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 5 [1936]: 2930 ).

158. Chanyshev, A., “V bor'be za izuchenie i sozdanie natsional'noi kul'tury,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 9 (1935): 61.

159. Pervyi vsesoiuznyi s “ezd, 43. “Turk” stands for “Azerbaijani. “

160. Stalin, Sochineniia 2 (XV): 204.

161. “Khronika,” Revoliutsiia i natsional'nosti 8 (1936): 80; Rakowska-Harmstone, Russia and Nationalism, 250–59; Allworth, The Modern Uzbeks, 229–30; Bilinsky, Yaroslav, The Second Soviet Republic: The Ukraine after World War II (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1964), 191 .

162. Tillett, Lowell, The Great Friendship: Soviet Historians on the Non-Russian Nationalities (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969), passim.

163. Bilinsky, The Second Soviet Republic, 15–16; Conquest, Robert, Soviet Nationalities Policy in Practice (New York: Praeger, 1967, 6566 .

164. Stalin, Sochineniia 3 (XVI): 100.

165. Ibid., 146.

166. Ibid., 117, 119, 138.

167. See Bilinsky, Yaroslav, “The Soviet Education Laws of 1958–9 and Soviet Nationality Policy,” Soviet Studies 14, no. 2 (October 1962): 138–57.

168. Quoted in T. Kreindler, Isabelle, “Soviet Language Planning since 1953,” in Kirkwood, ed., Language Planning, 49 . See also Bilinsky, , The Second Soviet Republic, 20–35; Farmer, Ukrainian Nationalism, 134–43; Hodnett, Grey, “The Debate over Soviet Federalism,” Soviet Studies 28, no. 4 (April 1967): 458–81; Simon, Nationalism, 233–64.

169. See, in particular, Lapidus, “Ethnonationalism and Political Stability,” 355–80; Zaslavsky, “Nationalism and Democratic Transition “; Farmer, Ukrainian Nationalism, 61–73.

170. Karklins, Rasma, Ethnic Relations in the USSR: The Perspective from Below (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1986 .

171. See Roeder, “Soviet Federalism,” 196–233.

172. Rakowska-Harmstone, “The Dialectics,” 10–15. Cf. Hroch, Miroslav, Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985 .

173. See, in particular, Farmer, Ukrainian Nationalism, 85–121. Also Allworth, The Modern Uzbeks, 258–59; Simon, Nationalism, 281–82.

174. For a remarkably elegant interpretation of this tension, see Rogers Brubaker, “Nationhood and the National Question in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Eurasia: An Institutionalist Account,” forthcoming in Theory and Society.

175. Zaslavsky, Victor, “The Evolution of Separatism in Soviet Society under Gorbachev,” in Gail W. Lapidus and Victor Zaslavsky, with Philip Goldman, eds., From Union to Commonwealth: Nationalism and Separatism in the Soviet Republics (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 83 ; Leokadiia Drobizheva, “Perestroika and the Ethnic Consciousness of the Russians,” in ibid., 98–111.

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Slavic Review
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