Politically, the phrase “Polish October” refers to the installation of a new government in October 1956, along with the hopes this event inspired for a more liberalized regime. In cultural terms, however, the Polish October is analogous to the “Thaw” in the Soviet Union—but much warmer—and it includes a period of about two or three years, roughly from 1955 to 1958, during which intense debate, settling of accounts, and a reevaluation of tradition took place. Socialist Realism was discredited once and for all, and a burst of new publishing occurred. Drawers were emptied of manuscripts by already established writers as well as by those who were making belated debuts, while postwar West European literature appeared in translation. In addition, many forgotten or forbidden works of Polish interwar literature were reissued, and a selective program of publishing emigre works in Poland was initiated.