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“THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN EDUCATION” REVISITED: THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF VOUCHERS, WITH POINTERS TO ANOTHER SOLUTION FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 December 2014

James Tooley*
Affiliation:
Education Policy, Newcastle University

Abstract

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Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Social Philosophy and Policy Foundation 2014 

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References

1 This approach emanates from Milton Friedman (Friedman “The Role of Government in Education,” in Economics and the Public Interest, ed. Robert A. Solo [New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,1955]).

2 Allison, John The Financial Crisis and the Free Market Cure (New York: McGraw Hill, 2013), 233.Google Scholar

3 Ibid., 234; 247; 235.

4 Tooley, James, E. G. West: Economic Liberalism and the Role of Government in Education (London and New York: Continuum, 2008)Google Scholar, chap. 4.

5 Tooley, James, Disestablishing the School (Aldershot: Avebury Press, 1995);Google Scholar Tooley, James, Reclaiming Education (London: Cassell, 2000)Google Scholar; Tooley, E. G. West: Economic Liberalism.

6 Tooley, James, From Village School to Global Brand: Changing the World Through Education (London: Profile Books, 2012)Google Scholar, chaps. 4 and 5.

7 Enlow, Robert and Ealy, Lenore T., eds., Liberty and Learning: Milton Friedman’s Voucher Idea at Fifty (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2006).Google Scholar

8 Friedman, Milton, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962), 30.Google Scholar

9 Ibid., 86.

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid., 89.

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid., emphasis added.

16 Friedman, Epilogue, 157.

17 Ibid., 156.

18 Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, The ABCs of School Choice: The Comprehensive Guide to Every Private School Choice Program in America (Indianapolis: Friedman Foundation, 2013), 5.

19 Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice, 6.

20 All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABC’s of School Choice, 2013.

21 Tooley, E. G. West.

22 Ibid., 225.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

25. Ibid., 225–26.

26. Ibid., chap. 4.

27. Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice, 3.

28 Ibid., 13.

29 Ibid., 3.

30 All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABC’S of School Choice.

31 Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice, 3.

32 Friedman Foundation, 35.

33 Ibid., 55.

34 All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice.

35 Note: All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice.

36 Tooley, From Village School to Global Brand.

37 Enlow and Ealy, Liberty and Learning.

38 Milton Friedman, “Prologue: A Personal Retrospective,” in Enlow and Ealy, Liberty and Learning, ix.

39 Friedman, “Prologue,” ix.

40 Ibid.

41 Ibid., x.

42 Friedman, “Epilogue,” 156.

43 Ibid., 157.

44 West, E. G., Non-Public School Aid: The Law, Economics, and Politics of American Education (Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1976).Google Scholar

45 Milton Friedman, “Are Externalities Relevant?” in West, Non-Public School Aid, 92.

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 Ibid.

49 Ibid.

50 Ibid., emphases added.

51 Friedman, Milton and Friedman, R., Free to Choose, (Harmonsworth, England: Pelican Books, 1980), 197.Google Scholar

52 Tooley, E. G. West.

53 Friedman and Friedman, Free to Choose, 197.

54 Ibid., 186.

55 E. G. West, Education and the State: A Study in Political Economy, 3rd ed., rev. and expanded (Indianapolis, IN: The Liberty Fund, 1994).

56 Friedman and Friedman, Free to Choose, 187–88.

57 Tooley, E. G. West.

58 Friedman and Friedman, Free to Choose, 196, emphasis added.

59 Ibid., 196–97, emphasis added.

60 Ibid., 197.

61 Ibid.

62 West, Non-Public School Aid.

63 Milton Friedman, University of Chicago, to Mr. George Pearson, Center for Independent Education, Wichita, Kansas, in E. G. West Archives.

64 All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABC’s of School Choice.

65 Tooley, James, “Challenging Educational Injustice: Grassroots privatisation of education in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa,” Oxford Review of Education 39, no. 4 (2013): 446–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Tooley, James, “Moving From Educational Equality to Improving the Education of the Least Advantaged,” in Brighouse, Harry, Tooley, James, and Howe, Kenneth R., Educational Equality (London and New York: Continuum, 2010), 96129.Google Scholar

66 Tooley, James, The Beautiful Tree: How the World’s Poorest People are Providing Education for Themselves (New Delhi: Penguin, 2009).Google Scholar

67 Weber, Karl, ed., Waiting for “Superman”: How we can save America’s failing public schools, (New York: Public Affairs, 2010).Google Scholar

68 John Merrifield, Choice as an Education Reform Catalyst: Lessons from Chile, Milwaukee, Florida. Cleveland, Edgewood, New Zealand and Sweden, in David Salisbury and James Tooley, eds., What America Can Learn from School Choice in Other Countries (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2005).

69 Tooley, E. G. West.

70 Published as Tooley, James, “Educating Amaretch: Private Schools for the Poor and the New Frontier for Investors,” Economic Affairs 27, no. 2 (2007): 3743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar