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“THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN EDUCATION” REVISITED: THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF VOUCHERS, WITH POINTERS TO ANOTHER SOLUTION FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION

  • James Tooley (a1)
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1 This approach emanates from Milton Friedman (Friedman “The Role of Government in Education,” in Economics and the Public Interest, ed. Robert A. Solo [New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,1955]).

2 Allison, John The Financial Crisis and the Free Market Cure (New York: McGraw Hill, 2013), 233.

3 Ibid., 234; 247; 235.

4 Tooley, James, E. G. West: Economic Liberalism and the Role of Government in Education (London and New York: Continuum, 2008), chap. 4.

5 Tooley, James, Disestablishing the School (Aldershot: Avebury Press, 1995); Tooley, James, Reclaiming Education (London: Cassell, 2000); Tooley, E. G. West: Economic Liberalism.

6 Tooley, James, From Village School to Global Brand: Changing the World Through Education (London: Profile Books, 2012), chaps. 4 and 5.

7 Enlow, Robert and Ealy, Lenore T., eds., Liberty and Learning: Milton Friedman’s Voucher Idea at Fifty (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2006).

8 Friedman, Milton, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962), 30.

9 Ibid., 86.

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid., 89.

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid., emphasis added.

16 Friedman, Epilogue, 157.

17 Ibid., 156.

18 Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, The ABCs of School Choice: The Comprehensive Guide to Every Private School Choice Program in America (Indianapolis: Friedman Foundation, 2013), 5.

19 Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice, 6.

20 All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABC’s of School Choice, 2013.

21 Tooley, E. G. West.

22 Ibid., 225.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

25. Ibid., 225–26.

26. Ibid., chap. 4.

27. Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice, 3.

28 Ibid., 13.

29 Ibid., 3.

30 All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABC’S of School Choice.

31 Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice, 3.

32 Friedman Foundation, 35.

33 Ibid., 55.

34 All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice.

35 Note: All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABCs of School Choice.

36 Tooley, From Village School to Global Brand.

37 Enlow and Ealy, Liberty and Learning.

38 Milton Friedman, “Prologue: A Personal Retrospective,” in Enlow and Ealy, Liberty and Learning, ix.

39 Friedman, “Prologue,” ix.

40 Ibid.

41 Ibid., x.

42 Friedman, “Epilogue,” 156.

43 Ibid., 157.

44 West, E. G., Non-Public School Aid: The Law, Economics, and Politics of American Education (Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1976).

45 Milton Friedman, “Are Externalities Relevant?” in West, Non-Public School Aid, 92.

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 Ibid.

49 Ibid.

50 Ibid., emphases added.

51 Friedman, Milton and Friedman, R., Free to Choose, (Harmonsworth, England: Pelican Books, 1980), 197.

52 Tooley, E. G. West.

53 Friedman and Friedman, Free to Choose, 197.

54 Ibid., 186.

55 E. G. West, Education and the State: A Study in Political Economy, 3rd ed., rev. and expanded (Indianapolis, IN: The Liberty Fund, 1994).

56 Friedman and Friedman, Free to Choose, 187–88.

57 Tooley, E. G. West.

58 Friedman and Friedman, Free to Choose, 196, emphasis added.

59 Ibid., 196–97, emphasis added.

60 Ibid., 197.

61 Ibid.

62 West, Non-Public School Aid.

63 Milton Friedman, University of Chicago, to Mr. George Pearson, Center for Independent Education, Wichita, Kansas, in E. G. West Archives.

64 All Population figures derived from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. All School Choice figures from Friedman Foundation, The ABC’s of School Choice.

65 Tooley, James, “Challenging Educational Injustice: Grassroots privatisation of education in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa,” Oxford Review of Education 39, no. 4 (2013): 446–63; Tooley, James, “Moving From Educational Equality to Improving the Education of the Least Advantaged,” in Brighouse, Harry, Tooley, James, and Howe, Kenneth R., Educational Equality (London and New York: Continuum, 2010), 96129.

66 Tooley, James, The Beautiful Tree: How the World’s Poorest People are Providing Education for Themselves (New Delhi: Penguin, 2009).

67 Weber, Karl, ed., Waiting for “Superman”: How we can save America’s failing public schools, (New York: Public Affairs, 2010).

68 John Merrifield, Choice as an Education Reform Catalyst: Lessons from Chile, Milwaukee, Florida. Cleveland, Edgewood, New Zealand and Sweden, in David Salisbury and James Tooley, eds., What America Can Learn from School Choice in Other Countries (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2005).

69 Tooley, E. G. West.

70 Published as Tooley, James, “Educating Amaretch: Private Schools for the Poor and the New Frontier for Investors,” Economic Affairs 27, no. 2 (2007): 3743.

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