Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Developmental Social Contract and Basic Income in Denmark

  • Louise Haagh (a1)

Abstract

In this article, I discuss why steps towards basic income (BI) ‘from within’ the state are institutionally plausible in Denmark, yet this ‘inside-out’ transition is contested in Danish society. I argue that implementation since the 1990s of the flexicurity regime – labour flexibility with social transfers and training – has stretched the developmental tradition that historically has fed the case for broadly inclusive reforms. An ‘Equality Paradox’ is shaped by two relationships, between high social equality and feasibility of basic income, on the one hand, and high social equality and developmentalism, on the other. The upshot is basic income rests on developmentalism indirectly, as state-promotion of economic equality, cooperative public finance, and human development-oriented governing of core institutions all contribute to the feasibility of a BI reform. The ‘Equality Paradox’ explains why rising inequality and precarity in Denmark make a case for basic income within the public sector but the source of this inequality – neo-liberalism – also puts it at risk.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Kommune, Aarhus (2017) Lantidsledige tager Teten, Statusnotat, Aarhus: Aarhus Kommune.
Adler, M. (2016) ‘A new Leviathan’, Journal of Law and Society, 43, 2, 195227.
Anker, N. (1998) ‘Eleverne, virksomhederne og de nyudlærte’, PhD Afhandling, Handelshøjskolen i København.
Ankestyrelsen (2017) Ankestyrelsens praksisundersøgelse om Kommunernes Anvendelse af Sanktioner, Marts, Copenhagen.
Arbejdsmarkedsstyrelsen (2008) Evaluering af NY CHANCE TIL ALLE, Copenhagen, December 2008.
Arbejdsmarkedsstyrelsen (2007) Afbureaukratisering på Beskæftigelsesområdet – Fase 2 Temaanalyse, Arbejdsmarkedsstyrelsen, Copenhagen.
Beskæftigelsesministeriet (2016) Philip, N. og Sørenen, L. ‘Analyse Effekt af at få en Sanktion for Ledige I Kontanthjælpsystemet’, Copenhagen: November.
Beskæftigelsesudvalget, Bilag 250, 2. June, 2017, BEU Alm.del Bilag 250 Offentligt 2016/7.
Birnbaum, S., Ferrarini, T., Nelson, K. and Palme, J. (2017) The Generational Welfare Contract, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Bjørn, N. H. and Høj, A. K. (2014) Understøttelse ved Ledighed i Syv Lande, Det Økonomiske Råds Sekretariat, Arbejdspapi 2014: 2.
Brady, D. and Bostie, A. (2013) ‘Paradoxes lost and found’, http://pseweb.eu/ydepot/semin/texte1314/BRA2014PAR.pdf [accessed 17.07.2018].
Caswell, D., Andersen, H. L., Høybye-Mortensen, M., Karkussen, A. M. and Thuesen, S. L. (2011) Når Kassen Smækkes I, AKF Rapport, Anvendt KommunalForskning, November.
Christensen, E. (2008) The Heretical Political Discourse, Aalborg: Allborg University Press.
Christensen, E. (2017) På Vej til Borgerløn, Aarhus: Hovedland.
Cuber, D. (2018) Job Advisor in Kalundborg job centre, testimony given on the occasion of the Basic Income in Danish conference, Christiansborg, 15th March.
Danmarks Statistik (2017) ‘Flere Medlemmer as Lønmodtagerorganisationer’, Denmark.
Danske A-Kasser (2014) ‘7 ud af 10 er medlem af an A-Kasse’, https://danskeakasser.dk/aktuelt/nyheder/7-ud-af-10-er-medlem-af-en-a-kasse [accessed 15.03.2018]
Ervik, R., Kildal, N. and Nilssen, E. (2017) New Contractualism in European Welfare State Policies, London: Routledge.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1985) Politics Against Markets – The Social Democratic Road to Power, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1999) Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
European Social Survey (2017) http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org [accessed 18.02.2018].
Fredericksen, A.-M. (2016) Interview with Anne-Marie Fredericksen, senior consultant social worker, Aarhus Council, Aarhus, 5th December 2016.
Haagh, L. (2002) Citizenship, Labour Markets and Democratization, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Haagh, L. (2011) ‘Basic income, social democracy and control over time’, Policy and Politics, 39, 1, 4164.
Haagh, L. (2012) ‘Democracy, public finance, and property rights in economic stability’, Polity, 44, 4, 542–87.
Haagh, L. (2015) ‘Alternative social states and the basic income debate’, Basic Income Studies, August, 45–81.
Haagh, L. (2017) ‘Basic income as a pivoting reform’, Nature Human Behaviour, 1, Article No. 0125, 12th June.
Haagh, L. (2018) The Case for Basic Income, Cambridge: Polity.
Haagh, L. (forthcoming) ‘Public ownership within varieties of capitalism – regulatory foundations for welfare and freedom’, in White, S. and Cummine, A. (eds.), Special Issue on Public Ownership in the Twenty-First Century, International Journal of Public Policy.
Hansen, H., Lind, J. and Møller, I. H. (2017) ‘An argument and an outline for a new employment scheme’, Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 7, 2, 38.
Hills, J. (2015) Good Times – Bad Times – The Welfare Myth of Them and Us, Bristol: Policy Press.
Hvid, M. L. (2016) ‘Indentured servitude and convict labour in the Danish-Norwegian West Indies, 1671–1755’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 41, 4–5, 541–64.
Jensen, H. (1936) Dansk Jordpolitik 1757–1919, København: Gyldendanske boghandel – Nordisk Forlag.
Jensen, V. (2018) Interview with Vibeke Jensen, Head of Department, Sociale Forhold og Beskæftigelse, Aarhus Council, Aarhus, 5th December 2016.
Jonassen, C. T. (1983) Value Systems and Personality in a Western Civilization, Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
Josefsen, A. (2018) Speech given to the conference Basic Income in Danish, Danish Parliament, 15th March, Owner of the leadership firm Alfred AS, and former Administrative Director of IRMA.
Kananen, J. (2014) The Nordic Welfare State in Three Eras, Surrey: Ashgate.
Klos, M. (2014) ‘Rådighed og sanktioner’, AK-Samvirke, Maj 2014 Version 3.
Kongshøj-Madsen, P. (2003) ‘Flexicurity through labour market policies and institutions in Denmark’, Auer, P. and Cazes, S. (eds.), Employment Stability in an Age of Flexibility, Geneva: International Labour Organisation.
Korpi, W. and Palme, J. (1998) ‘The paradox of redistribution and strategies of equality’, American Sociological Review, 63, 5, 661–87.
Kirk, V. S. (2015) ‘Salami-metoden: Så skæres der igen et par skiver af dagpengesystemet’, Politiken, 15th October.
Loftager, J. (2004) Politisk Offentlighed og Demokrati I Danmark, Århus Universitetsforlag.
Marx, I., Salanauskaite, L. and Verbist, G. (2013) ‘The paradox of redistribution revisited’, IZA Discussion Paper Series, IZA DP No. 7414, May.
Meyer, N. I., Helveg Petersen, K. and Sørensen, V. (1978) Oprør fra Midten, Gyldendals Bogklub: Nordisk Forlag.
National Audit Office (2016) Benefit Sanctions, HC 628 Session 2016–17, London: National Audit Office, 30 November.
Nothin, T. (1926) Social demokratisk Jordpolitik, Stockholk: Tidens Förlag.
OECD (2000) OECD Employment Outlook 2000, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2000-en.
OECD (2002) OECD Employment Outlook 2002, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2002-en.
OECD (2007) OECD Employment Outlook 2007, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2007-en.
OECD (2009) OECD Employment Outlook 2009, OECD Publishing, Paris: https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2009-en.
OECD (2010) OECD Employment Outlook 2010, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2010-en.
OECD (2011) OECD Education at a Glance 2011, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/48631582.pdf
OECD (2012) OECD Employment Outlook 2013, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2013-en.
OECD (2013) OECD Employment Outlook 2013, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2013-en.
OECD (2014a) Education at a Glance 2014, OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2014-en.
OECD (2014b) OECD Family Database 2014, http://www.oecd.org/els/family/database.htm.
OECD (2015) OECD Employment Outlook 2015, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2015-en.
OECD (2016a) OECD Employment Outlook 2016, Paris: OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2016-en.
OECD (2016b) OECD National Accounts at a Glance 2016, https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=NAAG.
OECD (2016c) Tax Revenue Statistics 2016, OECD Publishing, https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=REV.
Offe, C. (1984) Contradictions of the Welfare State, Cambridge: MIT Press.
Petersen, J. H. (2017) ‘From unilateral towards reciprocal social policies’, Ervik, R., Kildal, N. and Nilssen, E. (eds.), New Contractualism in European Welfare State Policies, London: Routledge.
Sandberg, L. G. (1978) ‘Banking and economic growth in Sweden before World War I’, The Journal of Economic History, 38, 3, 650–80.
Sandberg, L. G. (1979) ‘The case of the impoverished sophisticate’, Journal of Economic History, XXXIX, 1, March, 225–41.
Sanders, A. R. D., Sandvik, P. T. and Storli, E. (2016) ‘Dealing with globalisation: the Nordic countries and inward FDI, 1990-1930’, Business History, 58, 8, 1210–35.
Solås, S. (2018) Social worker, testimony given on the occasion of the Basic Income in Danish conference, Christiansborg, 15th March.
Sorgenfrey, B. (2018) Speech given to the conference ‘Basic Income in Danish’, held at the Danish Parliament, 15th March.
Standing, G. (1999) Global Labour Flexibility, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Standing, G. (2014) The Precariat Charter, Norfolk: Bloomsbury
Steinmo, S. (2010) The Evolution of Modern States, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Svallfors, S. (2006) The Moral Economy of Class, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sørensen, F. (2016) ‘Basisindkomst er ikke Svaret på Udfordringerne’ in Nytfokus, December, 8–11.
Tesfaye, M. (2013) Kloge Hænder – et Forsvar for Håndværk og Faglighed, Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
The Money Charity (2016) http://themoneycharity.org.uk/money-statistics/, 5th July [accessed 03.02.2018].
Thelen, K. (2014) Varieties of Liberalization, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Thelen, K. and Streeck, W. (2005) Beyond Continuity, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tilly, C. (1985), ‘War making and state making as organized crime’, in Evans, P., Rueschemeyer, D. and Skocpol, T. (eds.), Bringing the State Back In, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Undervisningsministeriet (2004) Privatskoler i Danmark, http://pub.uvm.dk/2004/oecd/bil03.html, points 95–97 [accessed 14.08.2015].
Van Parijs, P. (1995) Real Freedom for All, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Van Parijs, P. and Vanderborght, Y. (2017) Basic Income, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Vanderborght, Y. (2006) ‘Why trade unions oppose Basic Income’, Basic Income Studies, 1, 1, 120.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Haagh supplementary material
Table A1

 Word (466 KB)
466 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed