Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Social Movements, Brexit and Social Policy

  • Armine Ishkanian (a1)
Abstract

In this article, I examine the relationship between social movements, Brexit and social policy and consider how political and socio-economic developments since the 2008 financial crisis helped create a fertile ground for Brexit. I query the assumption that Brexit was simply a result of those left behind by globalisation and instead explore why and how actors from across the ideological spectrum supported Brexit and examine the sources of discontent which created the conditions from which Brexit emerged. To understand the relationship, role and impact of social movements and, more widely, civil society on social policy, I argue that it is important to critically examine how diverse actors within civil society are campaigning for the recognition of unmet needs and challenging systems of redistribution and the ways in which they interact and engage with governance institutions and policy processes.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alcock, P. (2010) ‘A strategic unity: defining the third sector in the UK’, Voluntary Sector Review, 1, 524.
Appadurai, A. (2017) ‘Democracy Fatigue’, in Geiselberger, H. (ed.), The Great Regression, Cambridge: Polity.
Badiou, A. and Gauchet, M. (2016) What Is To Be Done? A Dialogue on Communism, Capitalism, and the Future of Democracy, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Biekart, K. and Fowler, A. (2013) ‘Transforming activisms 2010+: exploring ways and waves’, Development and Change, 44, 527–46.
Billis, D. (1993) Organising Public and Voluntary Agencies, London, Routledge.
Billis, D. and Glennerster, H. (1998) ‘Human services and the voluntary sector: towards a theory of comparative advantage’, Journal of Social Policy, 27, 7998.
Bobel, C. (2007) ‘‘I'm not an activist, though I've done a lot of it’: doing activism, being activist and the ‘perfect standard’ in a contemporary movement’, Social Movement Studies 6, 147–59.
Boukalaa, S. and Dimitrakopoulou, D. (2017) ‘The politics of fear vs. the politics of hope: analysing the 2015: Greek election and referendum campaigns’, Critical Discourse Studies,17, 1, 3955.
Brown, W. (2015) Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism's Stealth Revolution, New York: Zone Books.
Buxton, X. (2017) ‘Lexit: looking forwards, not backwards’, openDemocracy, https://www.opendemocracy.net/looking-at-lexit/xavier-buxton/lexit-looking-forwards-not-backwards [accessed 14.12.2017].
Calhoun, C. (2013) ‘Occupy Wall Street in perspective’, British Journal of Sociology, 64, 2638.
Castells, M. (2012) Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age, Cambridge, Polity.
Choonara, J. (2015) ‘EU referendum: should we stay or should we go?’, Socialist Review, http://socialistreview.org.uk/404/eu-referendum-should-we-stay-or-should-we-go [accessed 20.11.2017].
Clarke, J. (2004) ‘Dissolving the public realm? The logics and limits of neo-liberalism’, Journal of Social Policy, 33, 2748.
Clinton, H. (2016) ‘Hillary Clinton: 'half of Trump's supporters go into the basket of deplorables'’ [Video], The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/video/2016/sep/10/hillary-clinton-half-of-trumps-supporters-go-into-the-basket-of-deplorables-video [accessed 20.12.2017].
Collier, S. J. (2012) ‘Neoliberalism as big Leviathan, or. . .? A response to Wacquant and Hilgers’, Social Anthropology, 20, 186–95.
Corbett, S. and Walker, A. (2018) ‘Review article: between neoliberalism and nationalist populism: what role for the ′European social model′ and social quality in post-Brexit Europe?’, Social Policy and Society, doi: 10.1017/S1474746418000349.
Crouch, C. (2011) The Strange Non-Death of Neoliberalism Cambridge: Polity Press.
Deakin, N. (2001) In Search of Civil Society, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Deakin, N. (2014) ‘Seize the agenda or risk becoming an instrument of the state’, in Slocock, C. (ed.), Making Good: The Future of the Voluntary Sector. London: Civil Exchange.
Della Porta, D. (2015) Social Movements in Times of Austerity, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Della Porta, D. (2017) ‘Progressive and regressive politics in late neoliberalism’, in Geiselberger, H. (ed.), The Great Regression, Cambridge: Polity.
Della Porta, D. and Diani, M. (2006) Social Movements: An Introduction, London, Blackwell.
Dwyer, P. (1998) ‘Conditional citizens? Welfare rights and responsibilities in the late 1990s’, Critical Social Policy, 18, 493518.
Field, F. (2016) ‘Brexit would help us control immigration. Like me, many Labour voters want out’, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jun/14/eu-immigration-control-labour-supporters-voters-party [accessed 27.11.2017].
Flaherty, J. (2016) No More Heroes: Grassroots Challenges to the Savior Mentality, Chico, CA: AK Press.
Flinders, M. (2016) ‘The problem with democracy’, Parliamentary Affairs, 69, 181203.
Geiselberger, H. (ed.) (2017) The Great Regression, Cambridge: Polity.
George, V. and Wilding, P. (1994) Welfare and Ideology, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Giugni, M. G. (1998) ‘Was it worth the effort? The outcomes and consequences of social movements’, Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 371–93.
Glasius, M. and Ishkanian, A. (2015) ‘Surreptitious symbiosis: engagement between activists and NGOs’, Voluntas 26, 2620–44.
Glasius, M. and Pleyers, G. (2013) ‘The global moment of 2011: democracy, social justice and dignity’, Development and Change, 44, 547–67.
Goodwin, J. and Jasper, J. M. (eds.) (2012) Contention in Context: Political Opportunities and the Emergence of Protest, Palo Alto: Stanford.
Goodwin, M. and Heath, O. (2016) Brexit Vote Explained: Poverty, Low Skills, and Lack of Opportunities, London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Gramsci, A. (1978) Selections from Political Writings 1921–1926, London: Laurence and Wishart.
Halfpenny, P. and Reid, M. (2002) ‘Research on the voluntary sector: an overview’, Policy and Politics, 30, 533–50.
Harris, B. (2010) ‘Voluntary action and the state in historical perspective’, Voluntary Sector Review, 1, 2540.
Harris, M., Rochester, C. and Halfpenny, P. (2001) ‘Voluntary organisations and social policy: twenty years of change’, in Harris, M. and Rochester, C. (eds.), Voluntary Organisations and Social Policy: Perspectives on Change and Choice, London: Palgrave.
Harvey, D. (2007) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ishkanian, A. and Ali, I. S. (2018) ‘From consensus to dissensus: the politics of anti-austerity activism in London and its relationship to voluntary organizations’, Journal of Civil Society, 14, 119.
Ishkanian, A. and Glasius, M. (2017) ‘What does democracy mean? Activist views and practices in Athens, Cairo, London and Moscow’, Democratization, 24, 1006–24.
Ishkanian, A. and Glasius, M. (2018) ‘Resisting neoliberalism? Movements against austerity and for democracy in Cairo, Athens and London’, Critical Social Policy, 38, 527–44.
Jasper, J. M. (2014) ‘Constructing indignation: anger dynamics in protest movements’, Emotion Review, 6, 208–13.
Joya, A. (2011) ‘The Egyptian revolution: crisis of neoliberalism and the potential for democratic politics’, Review of African Political Economy, 38, 367–86.
Kaldor, M. and Selchow, S. (2012) The 'Bubbling Up' of Subterranean Politics in Europe, Civil Society and Human Security Research Unit, London School of Economics.
Kaufman, E. (2016) ‘It's NOT the economy, stupid: Brexit as a story of personal values’, LSE British Politics and Policy, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/personal-values-brexit-vote/ [accessed 07.07.2016 and 20.12. 2017].
Keane, J. (2009) The Life and Death of Democracy, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kriesi, H., Grande, E., Lachat, R., Dolezal, M., Bornschier, S. and Frey, T. (2008) West European Politics in the Age of Globalization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laclau, E. (2005) On Populist Reason, London: Verso.
Laclau, E. and Mouffe, C. (1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics, London, Verso.
Lewis, J. (1999) ‘Reviewing the relationship between the voluntary sector and the state in Britain in the 1990s, Voluntas, 10, 255–69.
Lupton, R., Burchard, T., Hills, J. and Stewart, K. (2013) ‘A framework for analysing the effects of social policy’, Social Policy in a Cold Climate, London: LSE CASE.
MacGregor, S. (2005) ‘The welfare state and neoliberalism’, in Sad-Filho, A. and Jonston, D. (eds.), Neoliberalism: A Critical Reader, London: Pluto Press.
Martin, G. (2001) ‘Social movements, welfare and social policy: a critical analysis’, Critical Social Policy, 21, 361–83.
Matsaganis, M. and Leventi, C. (2014) ‘Poverty and inequality during the Great Recession in Greece’, Political Studies Review, 12, 209–23.
Merkel, W. (2014a) ‘Is capitalism compatible with democracy?’, Zeitshrift fur Vergleichende Politkwissenschaft, 8, 109–28.
Merkel, W. (2014b) ‘Is there a crisis of democracy?’, Democratic Theory, 1, 1125.
Milbourne, L. and Cushman, M. (2015) ‘Complying, transforming or resisting in the new austerity? Realigning social welfare and independent action among English voluntary organisations’, Journal of Social Policy, 44, 463–85.
Milbourne, L. and Murray, U. (eds.) (2017) Civil Society Organizations in Turbulent Times: A gilded web?, London UCL Institute of Education Press.
Mishra, P. (2017) The Age of Anger: A History of the Present, London, Penguin.
Müller, J. W. (2017) What is Populism?, London: Penguin.
Murray, U. and Milbourne, L. (2017) ‘Civil society and neo-liberalism’, in Milbourne, L. and Murray, U. (eds.), Civil Society Organizations in Turbulent Times, London: UCL IOE Press.
Ong, A. (2007) ‘Neoliberalism as a mobile technology’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 32, 38.
Peck, J., Theodore, N. and Brenner, N. (2012) ‘Neoliberalism, interrupted’, in Cahill, D., Edwards, L. and Stillwell, F. (eds.), Neoliberalism: Beyond the Free Market, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Peterson, A., Wahlstrom, M. and Wennerhag, M. (2015) ‘European anti-austerity protests - beyond “old” and “new” social movements’, Acta Sociologica, 58, 293310.
Plattner, M. F. (2015) ‘Is democracy in decline’, Journal of Democracy, 26, 510.
Pleyers, G. (2011) Alter-Globalization: Becoming Actors in the Global Age, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Powell, F. (2009) ‘Civil Society, social policy and participatory democracy: past, present, and future’, Social Policy and Society, 8, 4958.
Rochester, C. (2013) Rediscovering Voluntary Action: The Beat of a Different Drum, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Rochon, T. R. and Mazmanian, D. (1993) ‘Social movements and the policy process’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 528, 7587.
Simiti, M. (2017) ‘Civil society and the economy: Greek civil society during the economic crisis, Journal of Civil Society, 13, 357–73.
Smith, M. and Colliver, C. (2016) The Impact of Brexit on Far-Right Groups in the UK: Research Briefing, London: Institute of Strategic Dialogue.
Streeck, W. (2014) ‘How will capitalism end?’, New Left Review, 87, 3564.
Streeck, W. (2017) ‘The return of the repressed as the beginning of the end of neoliberal capitalism’, in Geiselberger, H. (ed.), The Great Regression, Cambridge: Polity.
Tarrow, S. (2011) Power in Movement, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tejerina, B., Perugorria, I., Benski, T. and Langman, L. (2013) ‘From indignation to occupation: a new wave of global mobilization’, Current Sociology, 61, 377–92.
Thatcher, M. and Schmidt, V. A. (2013) ‘Conclusion: explaining the resilience of neo-liberalism and possible pathways out’, in Schmidt, V. A. and Thatcher, M. (eds.), Resilient Liberalism in Europe's Political Economy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Tilly, C. and Tarrow, S. (2007) Contentious Politics, Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Touraine, A. (1984) Le Retour de l'Acteur, Paris: Fayard.
Tuck, R. (2016) ‘The left case for Brexit’, Dissent Magazine, https://www.dissentmagazine.org/online_articles/left-case-brexit [accessed 27.11. 2017].
Van Stekelenburg, J. and Klandermans, B. (2013) ‘The social psychology of protest’, Current Sociology, 61, 886905.
Walker, A. (1998) ‘The Amsterdam declaration on the social quality of Europe’, European Journal of Social Work, 1, 109111.
Weldon, L. S. (2011) When Protest Makes Policy: How Social Movements Represent Disadvantaged Groups, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Wieviorka, M. (2005) ‘After new social movements’, Social Movement Studies, 4, 119.
Wintour, P. (2017) ‘Nick Clegg says threat of wealthy Brexit elite and populism damages UK’, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jun/22/nick-clegg-says-threat-of-wealthy-brexit-elite-and-populism-damages-uk [accessed 20.12. 2017].
Wolf, M. (2017) ‘The economic consequences of Jeremy Corbyn’, Financial Times, https://www.ft.com/content/0e956c1e-a8e5-11e7-93c5-648314d2c72c [accessed 20.12.2017].
Zagoria, T. (2017) ‘What next for Lexit? Left-wing Eurosceptics and their vision for Brexit’, New Statesman, https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/staggers/2017/08/what-next-lexit-left-wing-eurosceptics-and-their-vision-brexit [accessed 27.11.2017].
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Social Policy and Society
  • ISSN: 1474-7464
  • EISSN: 1475-3073
  • URL: /core/journals/social-policy-and-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed