In submitting a manuscript for consideration, an author acknowledges that the work contained therein is his or her own and that no part of it has been published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere. The author is responsible for obtaining any necessary written permission to reproduce textual material or artwork and for verifying the accuracy of quoted material. In addition, the author agrees to furnish artwork for diagrams and illustrations in an appropriate format. (See the Figures section of these guidelines.)
Social Science History takes submissions via the online platform supported by Editorial Manager. To submit an article, please visit http://www.editorialmanager.com/ssha/.
REQUIRED ITEMS FOR SUBMISSION
Manuscripts should include a title page, an abstract no longer than 250 words, the main text no longer than 12,000 words (inclusive of footnotes and references), the references (works cited), and any footnotes, tables, and/or figures. Submissions that do not include these items will not be considered.
PREPARATION OF SUBMISSIONS
All manuscripts submitted for publication must meet the following criteria:
Manuscripts must be submitted as either a Microsoft Word (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) document, in 12-point font, with one-inch margins on every page and double-spaced text throughout, including block quotations, footnotes, references, and tables. A word count (taking into account text, footnotes, and references) must appear on the title page. Manuscripts must be rendered anonymous, with author information confined to the biographic note (see below) and with names deleted from citations of the author's previous work (e.g., Author 2001); the publications corresponding to these citations must be omitted from the References List.
Article titles should not exceed 140 characters and spaces. Section headings, which indicate major divisions and therefore are used sparingly, should not exceed 70 characters and spaces; they should be identified by hierarchical level (A, B, etc.).
The biographical note, which contains the author's academic affiliation, areas of research, and recent publications, should not exceed 600 characters and spaces, and must be submitted as a separate file independent of the manuscript.
TABLES AND FIGURES
Tables contain data that do not fit comfortably into the text but are nonetheless essential to the author's argument. (Raw data not discussed in the text are to be omitted.) Tables must be composed in Microsoft Word (not in Excel, and not converted from Excel to Word), using Word's table function, and they must be submitted concurrently with but separately from the text. Callouts for each table (e.g., "Table 1 about here") must be included to identify their approximate location within the text. Tables must be numbered in the order in which they are called out (i.e., they must be explicitly cited, as table 1, table 2, etc.). Because a callout indicates only the approximate location of the table in the published issue, such phrasing as "the table below" or "the data on the facing page" must be avoided. Table titles should be clear and explanatory but concise; they should not contain information found in the column headings. Column headings should be short, and abbreviations should be chosen carefully for clarity. Source notes, general notes, specific notes, and probability-level notes appear in that order beneath the table, as follows:
Source: Peabody and Sherman 1954.
Note: All nonsignificant three-way interactions have been omitted.
aThis subject completed all but one trial.
bThis subject completed all but two trials.
*p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .005.
See also A. S. C. Ehrenberg, "The Problem of Numeracy," American Statistician 35 (1981): 67–71.
If the table is a reproduction of a table published previously, please include permission to reproduce or a statement that explains fair use or public domain status.
All textual elements are subject to the journal's style guidelines. Please note that an author whose article is accepted will be asked for figures in one of the formats required for publication if the figures do not already meet standards, and he or she will be asked for replacement figures if editorial emendations are needed.
Figures should be submitted in EPS or TIFF format. Images produced in other electronic formats (JPEG, GIF, etc.) or pasted into a Word or Rich Text Format document are not acceptable because they reproduce poorly. Image resolution must be at least 300 dots per inch (dpi). Original source-application files (PowerPoint, Excel) are acceptable if EPS or TIFF files cannot be furnished (PDFs should be supplied as a visual aid). Social Science History does not publish in color; therefore data must be differentiated by grayscale or a combination of line and symbol. Each figure in EPS or TIFF format must be submitted as a separate electronic file from the text. A caption must accompany every figure but must appear outside it (i.e., the caption should not be integrated into the figure).
Callouts for each figure (e.g., "Figure 1 about here") must be included to identify their approximate location within the text. Figures must be numbered in the order that they are called out (i.e., explicitly cited, as figure 1, figure 2, etc.).Because the callout of a figure indicates only the approximate location of the figure in the published issue, such phrasing as "the graph below" or "the photograph on the facing page" must be avoided.
If the figure is a reproduction of a figure published previously, please include permission to reproduce or a statement that explains fair use or public domain status.
Social Science History first adheres to the rules in this style guide. For issues not covered in the style guide, refer toThe Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (CMS). For legal citations, refer to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 16th ed.
Most abbreviations are confined to parenthetical text and footnotes. Exceptions include "v." (in legal references), "et al." (in references to works with three or more authors or editors), national abbreviations (used as adjectives), and corporate acronyms and initialisms (most of which must be introduced parenthetically following the first reference to the entities they designate).
the landmark case Roe v. Wade
Johnson et al. sought to discredit the NEH's study.
What did NAFTA mean for the nation's newly minted MBAs?
further expansion of NATO's membership
dissent within the AFL-CIO
certain US constituencies; UN peacekeeping forces
Names of states and provinces are spelled out in running text.
Provo, Utah; Windsor, Ontario; Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg
Latin abbreviations, such as "e.g." and "i.e.," are set in roman type, not italics. (The word sic, however, is italicized.)
Personal initials have periods and are spaced.
W. E. B. Du Bois; C. D. Wright
Acknowledgments appear in the first, unnumbered note and are written in the first person.
This essay was first presented as a paper at the Center for Comparative Literature at Amherst College on June 2, 2008. I am grateful for the comments made at that gathering.
A biographical note contains the author's academic affiliation, areas of research, and recent publications. It should not exceed 600 characters and spaces.
Daniel Little is professor of philosophy and chancellor at the University of Michigan at Dearborn. An expanded edition of his book Understanding Peasant China: Case Studies in the Philosophy of Social Science (1989) appeared in Chinese translation in 2008. He is also author of The Paradox of Wealth and Poverty: Mapping the Ethical Dilemmas of Global Development (2003) and is working on a book about new perspectives on the philosophy of history.
CAPITALIZATION. See also QUOTATIONS, SPELLING AND TERMS
After a Colon
If the material introduced by a colon consists of more than one sentence, or if it is a quotation or a speech in dialogue, it begins with a capital letter. Otherwise, it begins with a lowercase letter. See CMS 6.61.
Thus Hanson asks, what were Napoléon's reasons for invading Russia?
The protesters were detained under orders adapted, it would seem, from the game of Monopoly: Go to jail. Go directly to jail. Do not call a lawyer. Do not post bail.
A lowercase style is generally preferred for terms. See CMS, chapter 8, for detailed guidelines on capitalization of terms.
Titles of Works
In the running text, for all titles in English, headline-style capitalization is used: capitalize the first and last words and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions (if, because, that, etc.). Lowercase articles (a, an, the), coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions (regardless of length). The to in infinitives and the word as in any function are lowercased.
For hyphenated and open compounds in titles in English, capitalize first elements; capitalize subsequent elements unless they are articles, prepositions, or coordinating conjunctions. Subsequent elements attached to prefixes are lowercased unless they are proper nouns or proper adjectives. The second element of hyphenated spelled-out numbers or simple fractions should be capitalized. If a compound (other than one with a hyphenated prefix) comes at the end of the title, its final element is always capitalized.
Avoiding a Run-In
Policies on Re-creation
Reading the Twenty-Third Psalm
When titles contain direct quotations, the headline-capitalization style described above and in CMS should be imposed.
"We All Live More like Brutes than Humans": Labor and Capital in the Gold Rush
For titles in any non-English language, capitalize the first letter of the title and subtitle and all proper nouns. For the treatment of Dutch and German titles, respectively, see CMS 11.24 and 11.42. Diacritical marks on capital letters are retained in all languages.
For forms used in capitalizing historical and cultural terms, refer to CMS 8.70–86. In general, terms that refer to a specific period, event, or institution are capitalized.
DATES AND TIMES. See also NUMBERS
April 21, 1983
May 1–3, 1968
on February 8, 1996, at 8:15 a.m. and again at 6:15 p.m.
September 11, 2001; 9/11
from 1967 to 1970
mid-1970s American culture
the 1800s; the years 1800–1804, 1804–6, 1804–15, 1815–1915
the mid-sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries in France; seventeenth-century France; late seventeenth-century
AD 873; 640 BC; 350–345 BCE; 21 BCE–39 CE [Use full caps without periods for era designations. In inclusive
dates used with BCE or BC, where the higher number comes first, all digits are provided in the second
number to prevent confusion (CMS 9.35).]
Social Science History uses the author-date form of citation (see CMS, chap. 15).
Footnotes may include material that cannot be conveniently included in the text, such as discursive adjuncts and additional sources of information. Any material necessary for understanding the argument set forth in the article should be included in the text.
Legal sources (court cases, constitutions, treaties, statutes, and legislative materials, such as unenacted bills, hearings, and reports) should be cited in the main body of the article, not in the notes. If a case or law is well known (e.g., Roe v. Wade), it is not necessary to provide a full citation. The general form of legal citations should follow the conventions for law review footnotes in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 16th ed. (especially secs. 1, 10, and 12–14).
In-Text Citation Style
In-text citations (enclosed in parentheses) should contain the author's surname (with first initial if ambiguous), the date, and the pages cited.
Wert (1984: 115–17) insists that his predecessors' conclusions were the merest speculation (see M. McLain 1981; P. McLain 1981).
If more than one work by the same author is cited, the author's name is not repeated.
(Wilson 1963, 1974)
(Miller 1978: 267; 1994)
For works by three or more authors, only the surname of the first author is used, followed by "et al."
not (Cobb, Hornsby, and Ott 1982) but (Cobb et al. 1982)
If the work is meant, rather than the author, the parentheses are omitted.
Medwick 1924 remains the standard reference.
For reprints, the date of first publication is given in brackets.
(Williams 1974 )
To refer again to the most recently cited source, "ibid." is used.
When several sources are listed in a single citation, they are arranged first alphabetically by author, then chronologically in ascending order.
The facts of the case appear to admit several plausible interpretations (Chylak 1982; Denkinger 1976, 1996; Klem
1992; Luciano 1947).
In attributions of quoted matter, however, the order of the sources cited must match that of the quotations.
Some researchers view this application of data as "fudging" or "making it up" (McGowan 1978: 2; Gorman 1984: 13).
When a comparison of sources is intended, "cf." is used. (Note that this abbreviation, derived from confer, means "compare"; it does not mean "see.")
(Northrup 1935, 1936; cf. Stanley 1956)
When one volume of a multivolume work is cited, the volume number is indicated after the date.
(Koufax 1973, 1: 223)
Personal communications, such as telephone conversations, e-mail messages, and nonarchived letters, are identified as "pers. comm." and dated in the text but are not included in the References section.
Wilson (pers. comm., March 13, 2007) proved the hypothesis false.
Latin Abbreviations and Terms in Documentation
Apart from "ibid.," "et al.," and "cf.," Latin abbreviations and terms are not used. These abbreviations are not italicized. Note that "et" in "et al." is a whole word (meaning "and") and therefore is not followed by a period.
The References section at the end of the article provides full bibliographic information for all works cited in the text. Works that are not cited should not be included in this section. References are arranged alphabetically by author, then chronologically in ascending order. In the first entry by a given author or group of authors, all authors are named, regardless of number. Works published in the same year by the same author are labeled "a," "b," and so on.
In titles of works, serial commas are added and ampersands are spelled out, and numbers are spelled out (contraCMS 14.96).
If the place of publication is not widely recognized or is ambiguous, it is specified with a state, provincial, or national abbreviation.
If the publisher is a university press, the words "University Press" are spelled out.
Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press
For online works, if no publication date is provided, an access date is required. In all URLs, "http://" is omitted unless the URL does not function without it.
Lockridge, Kenneth A. (1970) A New England Town: The First Hundred Years. New York: Norton. [Book titles use headline-style
capitalization but are not italicized.]
Fainstein, Norman I., and Susan S. Fainstein, eds. (1982) Urban Policy under Capitalism. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Dewey, Lawrence, Mary Cheatham, and Nicholas Howe (1991) "Picking fights: Preconditions of civil war in modern nation-states," in Bruce Morecalm (ed.) Affairs of State in Contemporary Terms, 2nd ed. New York: XYZ: 135–69. [Chapter titles and subtitles are quoted; only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized; the book editors are named and identified as such;
inclusive page numbers are given.]
Pelikan, Jaroslav (1978) The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Vol. 3, The Growth of Medieval Theology (600–1300). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [Individually titled volume: first the general title is given, then the number and title of the cited volume.]
Fisk, Carleton (1978) Beantown Remembers the '75 World Series. Vol. 2. Boston: Foul Pole Entertainments. [Untitled volume.]
Foucault, Michel (1978–86) The History of Sexuality, trans. Robert Hurley. 3 vols. New York: Pantheon. [Multivolume work cited as a whole.]
Pyatt, Timothy D., ed. (1996) Guide to African American Documentary Resources in North Carolina. Charlottesville:
University of Virginia Press, www.upress.virginia.edu/epub/pyatt/index.html.
Rivera, José (1999) Labor Unions in Baja, California, trans. Will Moore. Richmond, VA: University of Richmond
Abdulhadi, Rabab (2003) "Where is home? Fragmented lives, border crossings, and the politics of exile." Radical History Review (86): 89–101. [Journal published by issue, not by volume.]
Bailyn, Bernard S. (1982) "The challenge of modern historiography." American Historical Review 87 (1): 2–24. [Article titles and subtitles are quoted; only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized; journal titles use headline-style capitalization but are not italicized. For journals published in volumes, the month or season is not required. As a courtesy to readers, who increasingly locate articles online, issue numbers should be given.]
Davis, Peter (2003) "Ignited Iraq: Baghdad journal." Nation, August 28.
Tuckman, Mitch (1976) "Exiled on Main Street." Village Voice, July 26. [The is dropped before periodical titles.]
DeParle, Jason (1993) "Whither on welfare: Clinton's actions are far from bold." New York Times, February 3. [For newspaper entries, a page number is not necessary (CMS 14.203).]
Associated Press (2003) "Jackson arrested at Yale after protest backing strike." Washington Post, September 2,
Esposito, Joseph. (2010) "Stage five book publishing." Journal of Electronic Publishing 13 (2),
Jovanovic, Boyan, and Peter L. Rousseau (2008) "Specific capital and technological variety." Journal of Human Capital 2 (2): 129–52, doi:10.1086/590066. [If the author has provided a DOI rather than a URL, use the DOI; no URL is needed in that case. See CMS 14.6.]
WEBSITE (OTHER THAN ONLINE BOOKS AND PERIODICALS)
[Include as much of the following information as possible: author, title of the page (if there is one), site title or site owner, URL, and access date (if no publication date is provided). The titles of websites and blogs generally use headline-style capitalization. See CMS 8.186 and 14.244 to decide whether such titles should be set in roman type or italicized.]
Kloman, Harry (2003) "Introduction," The Gore Vidal Index, www.pitt.edu/~kloman/vidalframe.html (accessed July 27).
Lasar, Matthew (2008) "FCC chair willing to consecrate XM-Sirius union." Ars Technica (blog), June 16,
Southern Poverty Law Center (2003) "Center information," www.splcenter.org/centerinfo/ci-index.html (accessed August 27). [If there is no author, the owner of the site may stand in the author's place.]
Rabier, Jacques-René, Hélène Riffault, and Ronald Inglehart (1988) Euro-barometer 25: Holiday Travel and Environmental Problems, April 1986 [machine-readable dataset]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university
Consortium for Political and Social Research.
Weiler, N. S. (1983) "The aged, the family, and the problems of a maturing industrial society: New York, 1900–1930."
PhD diss., University of Illinois at Chicago.
Vazquez, Jay (1995) Author interview, Fairfax County, VA, February 20.
PAPER OR PRESENTATION
Gilmore, Donald (1989) "What does hermeneutics really mean in art?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the College Art Association, Boston, February 13.
UNPUBLISHED OR ARCHIVAL SOURCE
Purcell, Joseph (c. 1772) "A map of the southern Indian district of North America." MS 228, Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago.
ELLIPSES. See also QUOTATIONS
Three dots indicate an ellipsis within a sentence or fragment; a period plus three dots indicates an ellipsis between grammatically complete sentences, even when the end of the first sentence in the original source has been omitted. Three-point ellipses need not be used (1) before or after an obviously incomplete sentence, (2) before or after a run-in quotation of a complete sentence, (3) before a block quotation beginning a complete sentence or an incomplete sentence that completes a sentence in the text, or (4) after a block quotation ending with a complete sentence. A four-point ellipsis (i.e., a period and a three-point ellipsis) indicates that closing punctuation is included in the omitted material; thus what precedes and follows a four-point ellipsis should functionally be a sentence. See CMS 13.48–56for more detailed guidelines on the use of ellipses.
An epigraph appears between the abstract and the main text of the article and is right-justified. The attribution, which includes the author's name and the title of the work, appears in parentheses and is run into the epigraph text. No footnote or reference entry is provided.
Thought has known and forgotten the reproaches of positivism a thousand times, and only through such knowing and forgetting did it first become thought. (Theodor W. Adorno, Minima Moralia)
Gender-specific and otherwise sexist language (chairman, mankind, etc.) is avoided, as are the use of alternating masculine and feminine pronouns and the form s/he. Instead, both pronouns are given—he or she, him or her, his or her—or the sentence should be recast in the plural.
INITIALS. See ABBREVIATIONS LISTS
Short lists and lists of short items are run into the text. Parenthetical numerals are used, when necessary, to separate the items (CMS 6.123).
This article attempts to demonstrate three points: (1) Lewis and Sullivan had been political opponents since their student government days at Yale. (2) It was primarily to avenge a bitter defeat to Sullivan back then that Lewis decided to run against him for Congress in 1992. (3) Contrary to popular opinion, Lewis did not buy the election; his father did.
Long lists or lists of long items (containing several sentences each) are set off from the text and arranged vertically, with a hanging indention. On numbering, capitalizing, and punctuating such lists, see CMS 6.124–25.
Cardinal and ordinal numbers greater than or equal to 10 are written as Arabic numerals except when they designate centuries, occur at the beginning of a sentence, or are part of a title; such numbers less than 10 are spelled out except when used in comparisons with numbers greater than or equal to 10.
on the 16th day, two subjects dropped out
nine hands were lost during the fourth storm
but 2 of the 18 patients who used placebos
Eighty thousand people died of it in the thirteenth century.
All numbers that represent decimal quantities or are used in combination with symbols are written as numerals.
weighed 4.5 tons or exactly 2 percent of the total
averaged only 8ºC for 8.7 weeks [There is no space between number and symbol or between symbol and letter (CMS 9.18, 15.55).]
For very large numbers, a combination of numeral and word is used:
2 million, 6 billion
For inclusive page numbers (see CMS 9.60), if the beginning number is
less than 100, use all digits: 4–67, 35–112
100 or a multiple of 100, use all digits: 100–115, 1800–1807
101 through 109, in multiples of 100, use only the changed part after the dash: 101–4, 2002–8
110 through 199, in multiples of 100, use two digits or more as needed: 111–14, 279–320, 1975–76
four digits long and three of them change, use all digits: 2578–2612
Roman numerals are used in the pagination of preliminary matter in books, in family names and the names of monarchs and other leaders in a succession, in the names of world wars, in legal instruments, and in the titles of certain sequels.
On page iii Bentsen sets out his agenda.
Neither John D. Rockefeller IV, Elizabeth II, nor John Paul II was born before World War I.
Title XII was meant to rectify not only inequities but iniquities.
Most critics consider The Godfather, Part II a better movie than Jaws 2. [Follow the usage in the original work (CMS 9.44).]
Arabic numerals are used for the parts of books.
Part 2, chapter 2, of volume 11 of the Collected Works overturns our assumptions.
The possessive of all nouns ending with the letter s are formed by adding an apostrophe and an s.
Quotations must reproduce the wording, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation of the original exactly, with the following exceptions: (1) Initial capitalization is changed silently (without brackets) if the quotation's syntactic relationship to the preceding text suggests it (see CMS 13.14):
Smith stated that "we must carefully consider all aspects of the problem."
Smith stated, "We must carefully consider all aspects of the problem."
A lowercase letter following a period plus three dots should be silently capitalized if it begins a grammatically complete sentence (CMS 13.51).
The spirit of our American radicalism is destructive. . . . The conservative movement . . . is timid, and merely defensive of property. [In the original source, the before conservative is lowercase, but in the quotation it is capitalized because it serves as the beginning of a grammatical sentence.]
Other changes in capitalization within a quotation must be bracketed. (2) The terminal punctuation may be omitted or changed to a comma if necessary, and internal punctuation before or after ellipsis points may be omitted. (3) Original notes and their superscript callouts are omitted. (4) Obvious typographical errors (e.g., "teh") may be silently corrected, but idiosyncratic spellings found in older works must be preserved. Such spellings that are likely to be thought erroneous may be, and grammatical errors in the original should be, followed by sic in brackets; those that may pose a hindrance to the reader may be followed by the modern spellings in brackets.
In general, prose quotations that are at least 400 characters and spaces long or that comprise more than one paragraph are set off from the text. Whether such quotations are introduced with a colon, a comma, or no punctuation depends on their syntactic relationship to the preceding text. The first line is not indented. Verse quotations of one line or two lines are run into the text.
Williams's elegy to his contemporary begins, "Green points on the shrub / and poor Lawrence dead."
SPELLING AND TERMS
Follow Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. (W11), and Webster's Third New International Dictionaryfor spelling. If more than one spelling is provided in the dictionary, follow the first form given (e.g., judgment, notjudgement; focused, not focussed; traveling, not travelling). Common foreign terms (defined as terms with main entries in W11) are set in roman type.
Prefixes are generally hyphenated only before numerals and proper nouns. Temporary compound adjectives are hyphenated before the noun to avoid ambiguity but are left open after the noun. Non-English phrases used as modifiers are open in any position unless they are hyphenated in the original language.
Neologisms are quoted on the first occurrence.
In this article I call "fallacies" those assertions that are colloquially known as old wives' tales.
A term referred to as the term itself is italicized.
In the twentieth century socialism acquired many meanings.
The word hermeneutics is overused in recent monographs.
The term lyricism was misused in Smith's book review.
When an original non-English title and its translation appear together in the text, the first version (whether original or translation) takes the form of an original title, and the second version is always enclosed in parentheses and treated like a bona fide title (whether or not the work represents a published translation) with title capitalization appropriate to the language.
I read Mi nombre es Roberto (My Name Is Roberto) in 1989.
I read My Name Is Roberto (Mi nombre es Roberto) in 1989.
Rubén Darío's poem "Azul" ("Blue") is one of my favorites.
Rubén Darío's poem "Blue" ("Azul") is one of my favorites.
A translation of a quotation follows the original quotation in parentheses, without quotation marks.
Lindbergh, flying over Paris, recalled Apollinaire's famous "Zone": "Bergère ô tour Eiffel le troupeau des ponts bêle ce matin" (Shepherdess, O Eiffel Tower, the flock of bridges is bleating this morning).
If the translation is used in the running text, the original may be provided in parentheses in roman type, without quotation marks.
Lindbergh, flying over Paris, recalled Apollinaire's famous "Zone": "Shepherdess, O Eiffel Tower, the flock of bridges is bleating this morning" (Bergère ô tour Eiffel le troupeau des ponts bêle ce matin).
aged (as in "People aged 25 years")
ancien régime but Old Regime
civil rights movement
Civil War (American, Spanish)
Cold War (n., adj.)
communism, -ist (ideology)
Communist (of or having to do with the Party)
the East; East Asia; Eastern cultures but eastern seaboard; easterner
First World (n., adj.)
Old Regime but ancien régime
ordinary least squares
the Revolution (American, French, Russian); revolutionary America, France, Russia
Romantic, -ism (movement)
Third World (n., adj.)
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