Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-xt4p2 Total loading time: 0.337 Render date: 2022-05-28T07:42:17.181Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

PROSODIC TRANSFER IN LEARNER AND CONTACT VARIETIES

Speech Rhythm and Intonation of Buenos Aires Spanish and L2 Castilian Spanish Produced by Italian Native Speakers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 May 2014

Christoph Gabriel*
Affiliation:
University of Hamburg
Elena Kireva
Affiliation:
University of Hamburg
*
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Christoph Gabriel, Department of Romance Studies, University of Hamburg, Von-Melle-Park 6, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. E-mail: christoph.gabriel@uni-hamburg.de

Abstract

A remarkable example of Spanish-Italian contact is the Spanish variety spoken in Buenos Aires (Porteño), which is said to be prosodically “Italianized” due to migration-induced contact. The change in Porteño prosody has been interpreted as a result of transfer from the first language (L1) that occurred when Italian immigrants learned Spanish as a second language (L2; McMahon, 2004). This article aims to examine if and to what extent prosodic features that are typical of Italian show up in Porteño and in L2 Castilian Spanish produced by Italian native speakers. Specifically, we investigated speech rhythm and the realization of yes-no questions in Porteño and L2 Castilian Spanish in comparison to Italian and L1 Castilian Spanish. We hypothesized that Italian, Porteño, and L2 Castilian Spanish would exhibit similar rhythm patterns, showing high values for the percentage of vocalic material, the variation coefficient of vocalic intervals, and the speech-rate-normalized pairwise variability index for vowels as well as high frequencies of rising prenuclear accents, with the peak located at the end of the syllable (L+H*) and falling final contours in yes-no questions, in contrast to Castilian Spanish. The results confirm our predictions for speech rhythm but not entirely for the intonation of yes-no questions.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

The recordings of the Castilian Spanish, L2 Spanish, and Italian speakers were made by Dr. Ariadna Benet (University of Osnabrück, Germany), to whom we are deeply obliged. We would also like to express our gratitude to Andrea Pešková and Jonas Grünke (both at the University of Hamburg, Germany) for their substantial help with the segmentation of the materials as well as for fruitful discussions. Further thanks go to Vasyl Druchkiv (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany) for his help with the statistical analyses.

References

Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Alfano, I., Savy, R., & Llisterri, J. (2009). Sulla realtà acustica dell’accento lessicale in italiano ed in spagnolo: La durata vocalica in produzione e percezione [On the acoustic reality of lexical stress in Italian and Spanish: Vowel duration in production and perception]. In Romito, L., Galatà, V., & Lio, R. (Eds.), La fonetica sperimentale: Metodo e applicazioni. Atti del 4o convegno nazionale AISV (pp. 2239). Torriana (RN), Italy: EDK Editore.Google Scholar
Beckman, M., Díaz-Campos, M., McGory, J. T., & Morgan, T. A. (2002). Intonation across Spanish, in the tones and break indices framework. Probus, 14, 936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benet, A., Gabriel, C., Kireva, E., & Pešková, A. (2012). Prosodic transfer from Italian to Spanish: Rhythmic properties of L2 speech and Argentinean Porteño. In Ma, Q., Ding, H., & Hirst, D. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Speech Prosody (pp. 438441). Shanghai, China: Tongji University Press.Google Scholar
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2011). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 5.3) [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://www.praat.org/
Bordal, G. (2012). A phonological study of French spoken by multilingual speakers from Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic. In Gess, R., Lyche, C., & Meisenburg, T. (Eds.), Phonological variation in French: Illustrations from three continents (pp. 2343). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boula de Mareüil, P., & Vieru-Dimulescu, B. (2006). The contribution of prosody to the perception of foreign accent. Phonetica, 63, 247267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, A., & Mennen, I. (2008). Encoding interrogativity intonationally in a second language. In Barbosa, P., Madureira, S., & Reis, C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Speech Prosody (pp. 513516). Campinas, Brazil: Editora RG/CNPq.Google Scholar
Colantoni, L., & Gurlekian, J. (2004). Convergence and intonation: Historical evidence from Buenos Aires Spanish. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 107119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dasher, R., & Bolinger, D. (1982). On pre-accentual lengthening. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 12, 5869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dauer, R. M. (1987). Phonetic and phonological components of language rhythm. In Gamkrelidze, T. (Ed.), Proceedings XIth ICPhS: The eleventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 447450). Talinn, Estonia: Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S. S. R.Google Scholar
Dellwo, V., Gutiérrez Díez, F., & Gavaldà, N. (2009). The development of measurable speech rhythm in Spanish speakers of English. In Ruiz Miyares, L. (Ed.), Actas de XI Simposio Internacional de Comunicacion Social (pp. 594597). Santiago de Cuba, Cuba: Centro de lingüística aplicada.Google Scholar
Dellwo, V., & Wagner, P. (2003). Relations between language rhythm and speech rate. In Solé, M. J., Recasens, D., & Romero, J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 461474). Barcelona, Spain: Casual Productions.Google Scholar
Deterding, D. (2001). The measurement of rhythm: A comparison of Singapore and British English. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 217230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devís Herraiz, E. (2008). La Prosodia nell’interferenza tra L1 e L2: due varietà di italiano e spagnolo a confronto [Prosodic transfer between L1 and L2: Comparing two varieties of Italian and Spanish] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Università degli Studi di Pisa, Italy.Google Scholar
Dunn, O. J. (1961). Multiple comparisons among means. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 56, 5264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckman, F. R. (1987). Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis. In Ioup, G. & Weinberger, S. H. (Eds.), Interlanguage phonology: The acquisition of a second language sound system (pp. 5569). Cambridge: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Edwards, A. W. F. (1963). The measure of association in a 2 × 2 table. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A, 126, 109114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Estebas-Vilaplana, E. (2010). The role of duration in intonational modeling: A comparative study of Peninsular and Argentinean Spanish. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, 23, 153173.Google Scholar
Estebas-Vilaplana, E., & Prieto, P. (2010). Castilian Spanish intonation. In Prieto, P. & Roseano, P. (Eds.), Transcription of intonation of the Spanish language (pp. 1847). Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
Face, T. (2002). Intonational marking of contrastive focus in Madrid Spanish. Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
Face, T. (2008). The intonation of Castilian Spanish declaratives and absolute interrogatives. Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
Fagyal, Z. (2010). Accents de banlieue: aspects prosodiques du français populaire en contact avec les langues de l’immigration [Suburban accents: Prosodic aspects of popular French in contact with immigrant languages] . Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
Feldhausen, I., Pešková, A., Kireva, E., & Gabriel, C. (2011). Categorical perception of Porteño nuclear accents. In Lee, W.-S. & Zee, E. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 116119). Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
Fontanella de Weinberg, M. B. (1987). El español bonaerense: Cuatro siglos de evolución lingüística (1580–1980) [Buenos Aires Spanish: For centuries of linguistic evolution] . Buenos Aires: Hachette.Google Scholar
Gabriel, C., Feldhausen, I., Pešková, A., Colantoni, L., Lee, S., Arana, V., & Labastía, L. (2010). Argentinian Spanish intonation. In Prieto, P. & Roseano, P. (Eds.), Transcription of intonation of the Spanish language (pp. 285317). Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
Gabriel, C., Hu, A., Diao, L., & Thulke, J. (2012). Transfer, phonological awareness und Mehrsprachigkeitsbewusstsein: Zum Erwerb des französischen Sprachrhythmus durch Schüler/innen mit chinesischem Sprachhintergrund im deutschen Schulkontext [Transfer, phonological and metalinguistic awareness: The acquisition of French speech rhythm by learners with a Chinese language background in the German school context]. Zeitschrift für Fremdsprachenforschung, 23, 5376.Google Scholar
Gabriel, C., Meisenburg, T., & Selig, M. (2013). Spanisch: Phonetik und Phonologie. Eine Einführung [Spanish: Phonetics and phonology. An introduction] . Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
Gili Fivela, B., & D’Imperio, M. (2010). High peaks versus high plateaux in the identification of two pitch accents in Pisa Italian. In Hasegawa-Johnson, M., Bradlow, A., Cole, J., Livescu, K., Pierrehumbert, J., & Shih, C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Speech Prosody. Chicago. Retrieved from http://speechprosody2010.illinois.edu/papers/100216.pdf Google Scholar
Grabe, E., & Low, E. L. (2002). Durational variability in speech and the rhythm class hypothesis. In Warner, N. & Gussenhoven, C. (Eds.), Papers in laboratory phonology 7 (pp. 515546). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
Greenberg, J. H. (1966). Language universals. The Hague: De Gruyter Mouton.Google ScholarPubMed
Grice, M., D’Imperio, M., Savino, M., & Avesani, C. (2005). Strategies for intonation labelling across varieties of Italian. In Jun, S.-A. (Ed.), Prosodic typology: The phonology of intonation and phrasing (pp. 362389). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gussenhoven, C. (2004). The phonology of tone and intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasegawa, Y., & Hata, K. (1994). Non-physiological differences between male and female speech: Evidence from the delayed F0 fall phenomenon in Japanese. In Third International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 94) (pp. 11791182). Yokohama, Japan: Acoustical Society of Japan (Nippon Onkyō Gakkai). Retrieved from http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/icslp_1994/i94_1179.html Google Scholar
Jun, S.-A., & Oh, M. (2000). Acquisition of second language intonation. In 6th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 2000) (pp. 7679). Beijing, China. Retrieved from http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/icslp_2000/i00_4073.html Google Scholar
Kinoshita, N., & Sheppard, C. (2011). Validating acoustic measures of speech rhythm for second language acquisition. In Lee, W.-S. & Zee, E. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 10861089). Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
Krämer, M. (2009). The phonology of Italian. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ladd, D. R. (1996). Intonational phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ladd, D. R. (2008). Intonational phonology (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehiste, I. (1970). Suprasegmentals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Liberman, M., & Prince, A. (1977). On stress and linguistic rhythm. Linguistics Inquiry, 8, 249336.Google Scholar
Lipski, J. M. (2004). El español de América y los contactos bilingües recientes: apuntes mircrodialectológicos [American Spanish and recent bilingual contacts: Microdialectological remarks]. Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana, 2, 89103.Google Scholar
Mairano, P., & Romano, A. (2010). Un confronto tra diverse metriche ritmiche usando Correlatore [A comparison between various rhythm metrics using Correlatore]. In Schmid, S., Schwarzenbach, M., & Studer, D. (Eds.), La dimensione temporale del parlato (pp. 79100). Torriana (RN), Italy: EDK Editore.Google Scholar
McMahon, A. (2004). Prosodic change and language contact. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 121123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mehler, J., Dupoux, E., Nazzi, T., & Dehaene-Lambertz, G. (1996). Coping with linguistic diversity: The infant’s viewpoint. In Morgan, J. L. & Demuth, K. (Eds.), Signal to syntax: Bootstrapping from speech to grammar in early acquisition (pp. 101116). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Mok, P., & Dellwo, V. (2008). Comparing native and non-native speech rhythm using acoustic rhythmic measures: Cantonese, Beijing Mandarin and English. In Barbosa, P., Madureira, S., & Reis, C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Speech Prosody (pp. 423426). Campinas, Brazil: Editoria RG/CNPq.Google Scholar
Muntendam, A. G. (2013). On the nature of crosslinguistic transfer: A case study of Andean Spanish. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 111131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ordin, M., Polyanskaya, L., & Ulbrich, C. (2011). Acquisition of timing pattern in second language. In Cosi, P., De Mori, R., Di Fabbrizio, G., & Pieraccini, R. (Eds.), 12th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (Interspeech 2011) (pp. 2731). Retrieved from http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/interspeech_2011/i11_1129.html Google Scholar
Pešková, A., Feldhausen, I., Kireva, E., & Gabriel, C. (2012). Diachronic prosody of a contact variety: Analyzing Porteño Spanish spontaneous speech. In Braunmüller, K. & Gabriel, C. (Eds.), Multilingual individuals and multilingual societies (pp. 365389). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pierrehumbert, J. B. (1980). The phonology and phonetics of English intonation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). MIT, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
Pike, K. L. (1945). The intonation of American English. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Piske, T., MacKay, I. R. A., & Flege, J. E. (2001). Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prieto, P., & Roseano, P. (2010). Transcription of intonation of the Spanish language. Munich: Lincom.Google Scholar
Ramírez Verdugo, D., & Romero Trillo, J. (2005). The pragmatic function of intonation in L2 discourse: English tag questions used by Spanish speakers. Intercultural Pragmatics, 2, 151168.Google Scholar
Ramus, F., Nespor, M., & Mehler, J. (1999). Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speech signal. Cognition, 73, 265292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rao, R. (2009). Deaccenting in spontaneous speech in Barcelona Spanish. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 2, 3175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rao, R. (2010). Final lengthening and pause duration in three dialects of Spanish. In Ortega-Llebaria, M. (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology (pp. 6982). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.Google Scholar
Rao, R. (2011). Intonation in Spanish classroom-style didactic speech. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2, 493507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rasier, L., & Hiligsmann, P. (2007). Prosodic transfer from L1 to L2: Theoretical and methodological issues. Nouveaux cahiers de linguistique française, 28, 4166.Google Scholar
Roach, P. (1982). On the distinction between “stress-timed” and “syllable-timed” languages. In Crystal, D. (Ed.), Linguistic controversies (pp. 7379). London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Ryalls, J., Le Dorze, G., Lever, N., Ouellet, L., & Larfeuil, C. (1994). The effects of age and sex on speech intonation and duration for matched statements and questions in French. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 95, 22742276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Savino, M. (2009, June). Where is the rise in Italian yes-no question intonation? A corpus-based study on regional accents. Poster presented at the Phonetics and Phonology in Iberia Conference, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
Schmid, S. (2012). Silbenstrukturen und Dauerverhältnisse in italo-romanischen Dialekten [Syllabic structure and durational ratio in Italo-Romance dialects]. In Selig, M. & Schafroth, E. (Eds.), Testo e ritmi (pp. 4560). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Selkirk, E. O. (1986). On derived domains in sentence phonology. Phonology Yearbook, 3, 371405.Google Scholar
Silva-Corvalán, C. (1994). Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Silverman, K., Beckman, M., Pitrelli, J., Ostendorf, M., Wightman, C., Price, P.,... Hirschberg, J. (1992). TOBI: A standard for labeling English prosody. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (pp. 867870). Banff, Alberta, Canada. Retrieved from http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/icslp_1992/i92_0867.html Google Scholar
Sorianello, P. (2006). Prosodia: Modelli e ricerca empirica [Prosody: Models and empirical research] . Rome: Carocci.Google Scholar
Szakay, A. (2006). Rhythm and pitch as markers of ethnicity in New Zealand English. In Warren, P. & Watson, C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology (pp. 421426). Auckland, New Zealand: Australasian Speech Science and Technology Association.Google Scholar
Thomason, S., & Kaufman, G. (1988). Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Toledo, G. (2010). Métricas rítmicas en tres dialectos Amper-España [Rhythm metrics of three dialects of Amper-Spain]. Estudios filológicos, 45, 93110.Google Scholar
Vaissière, J., & Boula de Mareüil, P. (2004). Identifying a language or an accent: From segments to prosody. In Identification des langues et des varietés dialectales par les humains et par les machines (MIDL 2004) (pp. 16). Paris: Presses de l’École nationale supérieure des télécommunications. Retrieved from http://archives.limsi.fr/2004/MIDL//actes/session%20pleniere/Vaissiere&Boula_MIDL2004.pdf Google Scholar
Vidal de Battini, B. E. (1964). El español de la Argentina. Buenos Aires: Consejo Nacional de Educación.Google Scholar
White, L., & Mattys, S. L. (2007). Calibrating rhythm: First language and second language studies. Journal of Phonetics, 35, 501522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

PROSODIC TRANSFER IN LEARNER AND CONTACT VARIETIES
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

PROSODIC TRANSFER IN LEARNER AND CONTACT VARIETIES
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

PROSODIC TRANSFER IN LEARNER AND CONTACT VARIETIES
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *