Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-ttsf8 Total loading time: 0.489 Render date: 2021-07-29T11:27:13.325Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

VARIABLES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ATTRITION

Advancing the State of the Art

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 February 2010

Kathleen Bardovi-Harlig
Affiliation:
Indiana University
David Stringer
Affiliation:
Indiana University
Corresponding

Abstract

This article provides a comprehensive synthesis of research on language attrition to date, with a view to establishing a theoretically sound basis for future research in the domain of second language (L2) attrition. We identify the variables that must be tracked in populations who experience language loss, and we develop a general model for the assessment of the processes involved. This critical review suggests that future research in this domain should establish baselines for attainment against which to measure attrition, and that learners must be compared to themselves in longitudinal designs that involve periodic assessment of both linguistic and extralinguistic factors. In the proposed model, populations are defined as sets of variables, which are subject to change following shifts in discrete time periods in the general process of acquisition and attrition. A working model is elaborated for the assessment of L2 attrition and retention, which, we hope, might encourage additional work in this area.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Altenberg, E. P. (1991). Assessing first language vulnerability to attrition. In Seliger, H. W. & Vago, R. M. (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 189206). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ammerlaan, T. (1996). ‘You get a bit wobbly’: Exploring bilingual lexical retrieval processes in the context of first language attrition. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Andersen, R. W. (1982). Determining the linguistic attributes of language attrition. In Lambert, R. D. & Freed, B. F. (Eds.), The loss of language skills (pp. 83118). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Andersen, R. W. (1983). Transfer to somewhere. In Gass, S. M. & Selinker, L. (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 177201). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
As, A. (1962). The recovery of forgotten language knowledge through hypnotic age regression: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 5, 2429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Au, T. K., Knightly, L. M., Jun, S.-A., & Oh, J. S. (2002). Overhearing a language during childhood. Psychological Science, 13, 238243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bahrick, H. (1984a). Fifty years of second language attrition: Implications for programming research. Modern Language Journal, 68, 105111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bahrick, H. (1984b). Semantic memory content in permastore: Fifty years of memory for Spanish learned in school. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bailey, N., Madden, C., & Krashen, S. (1974). Is there a ‘natural sequence’ in adult second language learning? Language Learning, 24, 235243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, W. (2007, January). The impact of dialect and cross-language similarity on learning French and German vowels. Paper presented at Indiana University, Bloomington.Google Scholar
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2000). Tense and aspect in second language acquisition: Form, meaning, and use. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Berko-Gleason, J. (1982). Insights from child language acquisition for second language loss. In Lambert, R. D. & Freed, B. F. (Eds.), The loss of language skills (pp. 1323). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Berman, R. A., & Olshtain, E. (1983). Features of first language transfer in second language attrition. Applied Linguistics, 4, 222234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berman, R., & Slobin, D. (1994). Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Best, C. T. (1995). A direct realist view on cross-language speech perception. In Strange, W. (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience (pp. 171204). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Birdsong, D. (Ed.). (1999). Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caramazza, A., & Zurif, E. (1978). Comprehension of complex sentences in children and aphasics: A test of the regression hypothesis. In Caramazza, A. & Zurif, E. (Eds.), The acquisition and breakdown of language: Parallels and divergencies (pp. 145161). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1959). A review of B. F. Skinner’s verbal behavior. Language, 35, 2658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, J. L. D. (1981). Language. In Barrows, T. S. (Ed.), College students’ knowledge and beliefs: A survey of global understanding (pp. 87100). New Rochelle, NY: Change Magazine Press.Google Scholar
Clark, J. L. D. (1982). Measurement considerations in language attrition research. In Lambert, R. D. & Freed, B. F. (Eds.), The loss of language skills (pp. 138152). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Clark, J. L. D., & Jorden, E. H. (1984). A study of language attrition in former U.S. students of Japanese and implications for design of curriculum and teaching materials: Final Project Report [Online]. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from ERIC Document Reproduction Service, http://www.eric.ed.gov, No. ED243317.Google Scholar
Cohen, A. D. (1974). The Culver City Spanish immersion program: How does summer recess affect Spanish speaking ability? Language Learning, 24, 5568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, A. D. (1975). Forgetting a second language. Language Learning, 25, 127138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, A. D. (1986). Forgetting foreign language vocabulary. In Weltens, B., de Bot, K., & van Els, T. J. M. (Eds.), Language attrition in progress (pp. 143158). Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
Cohen, A. D. (1989). Attrition in the productive lexicon of two Portuguese third language speakers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 135149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, R. D. (1929). The effect of a summer vacation on students’ knowledge of French. Modern Language Journal, 14, 117121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook, V. J. (1991). The poverty-of-the-stimulus argument and multi-competence. Second Language Research, 7, 103117.Google Scholar
de Bot, K. (1996). Language loss. In Goebl, H., Nelde, P. H., Stary, Z., & Wölke, W. (Eds.), Contact linguistics: An international handbook of contemporary research (Vol. 1, pp. 579585). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
de Bot, K., & Clyne, M. G. (1989). Language reversion revisited. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 167177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Bot, K., & Lintsen, T. (1986). Foreign-language proficiency in the elderly. In Weltens, B., de Bot, K., & van Els, T. J. M. (Eds.), Language attrition in progress (pp. 131141). Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
de Bot, K., & Stoessel, S. (2000). In search of yesterday’s words: Reactivating a long forgotten language. Applied Linguistics, 21, 364384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Bot, K., & Weltens, B. (1991). Recapitulation, regression and language loss. In Seliger, H. W. & Vago, R. M. (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 3151). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dugas, L. G. (1999). Attrition of pronunciation accuracy among advanced American learners of French. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington.Google Scholar
Dulay, H. C., & Burt, M. K. (1973). Should we teach children syntax? Language Learning, 23, 245258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dulay, H. C., & Burt, M. K. (1974). Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning, 24, 3753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, G. (1976). Second-language retention in the Canadian public services. Canadian Modern Language Review, 32, 305308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1995). Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In Strange, W. (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 233277). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Footnick, R. (2007). A hidden language: Recovery of a lost language is triggered by hypnosis. In Köpke, B., Schmid, M. S., Keijzer, M., & Dostert, S. (Eds.), Language attrition: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 169187). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fromm, E. (1970). Age-regression with unexpected reappearance of a repressed childhood language. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 7988.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, R. C., Lalonde, R. N., & MacPherson, J. (1985). Social factors in second language attrition. Language Learning, 35, 519540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, R. C., Lalonde, R. N., Moorcroft, R., & Evers, F. T. (1987). Second language attrition: The role of motivation and use. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 6, 2947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2008). Second language acquisition: An introductory course (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ginsberg, R. B. (1986). Issues in the analysis of language loss: Methodology of the language skills attrition project. In Weltens, B., de Bot, K., & van Els, T. J. M. (Eds.), Language attrition in progress (pp. 1936). Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
Grosjean, F., & Py, B. (1991). La restructuration d’une première langue: L’intégration de variantes de contact dans la compétence de migrants bilingues. [Restructuring of a first language: The integration of contact variables in the competence of bilingual migrants]. La Linguistique, 27, 3560.Google Scholar
Guasti, M. T. (2002). Language acquisition: The growth of grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Håkansson, G. (1995). Syntax and morphology in language attrition: A study of five bilingual ex-patriate Swedes. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5, 153171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, L. (1999). Not a total loss: The attrition of Japanese negation over three decades. In Hansen, L. (Ed.), Second language attrition in Japanese contexts (pp. 142153). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hansen, L. (2001). Language attrition: The fate of the start. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 6073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, L., & Chantrill, C. (1999). Literacy as a second language anchor: Evidence from L2 Japanese and L2 Chinese. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Representation and process: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific Second Language Research Forum (Vol. 1, pp. 279286). Tokyo: Aoyama Gakuin University.Google Scholar
Hansen, L., & Chen, Y.-L. (2001). What counts in the acquisition and attrition of numeral classifiers? Japanese Association for Language Teaching, 23, 90110.Google Scholar
Hansen, L., & Kurashige, A. (1999). Investigating second language attrition: An introduction. In Hansen, L. (Ed.), Second language attrition in Japanese contexts (pp. 318). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hansen, L., Umeda, Y., & McKinney, M. (2002). Savings in the relearning of second language vocabulary: The effects of time and proficiency. Language Learning, 52, 653678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, R. (2001). Second language syntax: A generative introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Hayashi, B. (1999). Testing the regression hypothesis: The remains of the Japanese negation system in Micronesia. In Hansen, L. (Ed.), Second language attrition in Japanese contexts (pp. 154168). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hedgcock, J. (1991). Foreign language retention and attrition: A study of regression models. Foreign Language Annals, 24, 4355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herschensohn, J. (2007). Language development and age. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isurin, L. (2007). Teachers’ language: L1 attrition in Russian-English bilinguals. Modern Language Journal, 91, 357371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jordens, P., de Bot, K., & Trapman, H. (1989). Linguistic aspects of regression in German case marking. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 179204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jordens, P., de Bot, K., Van Os, C., & Schumans, J. (1986). Regression in German case marking. In Weltens, B., de Bot, K., & van Els, T. J. M. (Eds.), Language attrition in progress (pp. 159176). Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
Kaufman, D., & Aronoff, M. (1991). Morphological disintegration and reconstruction in first language attrition. In Seliger, H. W. & Vago, R. M. (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 175188). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kennedy, L. (1932). The retention of certain Latin syntactical principles by first and second year Latin students after various time intervals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 23, 132146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Köpke, B. (1999). L’attrition de la première langue chez deux groupes de bilingues tardifs [First language attrition in two groups of late bilinguals]. Revue Parole, 11/12, 199220.Google Scholar
Köpke, B., & Schmid, M. S. (2004). First language attrition: The next phase. In Schmid, M. S., Köpke, B., Keijzer, M., & Weilemar, L. (Eds.), First language attrition: Interdisciplinary perspectives on methodological issues (pp. 143). Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
Kuhberg, H. (1992). Longitudinal L2-attrition versus L2-acquisition in three Turkish children: Empirical findings. Second Language Research, 8, 138154.Google Scholar
Lambert, R. D. (1982). Setting the agenda. In Lambert, R. D. & Freed, B. F. (Eds.), The loss of language skills (pp. 610). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Lambert, R. D. (1989). Language attrition. I. T. L. Review of Applied Linguistics, 83, 118.Google Scholar
Lambert, R. D., & Freed, B. F. (Eds.). (1982). The loss of language skills. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Lambert, R. D., & Moore, S. J. (1986). Problem areas in the study of language attrition. In Weltens, B., de Bot, K., & van Els, T. J. M. (Eds.), Language attrition in progress (pp. 177186). Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
Lardiere, D. (2006). Ultimate attainment in second language acquisition: A case study. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Lenneberg, E. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Lowe, P. Jr. (1982). The U.S. government’s foreign language attrition and maintenance experience. In Lambert, R. D. & Freed, B. F. (Eds.), The loss of language skills (pp. 176192). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Maher, J. (1991). A crosslinguistic study of language contact and language attrition. In Seliger, H. W. & Vago, R. M. (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 6784). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Makino, T. (1980). Acquisition order of English morphemes by Japanese adolescents. Tokyo: Shinozaki Shorin Press.Google Scholar
Maury, F. (1999). L’adoption interraciale [Interracial adoption]. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
Mayer, M. (1969). Frog, Where are you? New York: Dial Press.Google Scholar
Meara, P. (2004). Modelling vocabulary loss. Applied Linguistics, 25, 137155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moorcroft, R., & Gardner, R. C. (1987). Linguistic factors in second-language loss. Language Learning, 37, 327340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S. (2008). Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagasawa, S. (1999a). The effects of initial achievement, learning experience and classroom instruction on adult attrition/retention of L2 Japanese. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Representation and process: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific Second Language Research Forum (Vol. 1, pp. 287296). Tokyo: Aoyama Gakuin University.Google Scholar
Nagasawa, S. (1999b). Learning and losing Japanese as a second language: A multiple case study of American university students. In Hansen, L. (Ed.), Second language attrition in Japanese contexts (pp. 169200). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nakuma, C. (1997). A method for measuring the attrition of communicative competence: A pilot study with Spanish L3 subjects. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18, 219235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neisser, U. (1984). Interpreting Harry Bahrick’s discovery: What confers immunity against forgetting? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 3235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, T. (1978). Detecting small amounts of information in memory: Savings for non-recognized items. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 453468.Google Scholar
Nicoladis, E., & Grabois, H. (2002). Learning English and losing Chinese: A case study of a child adopted from China. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6, 441454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oh, J., Au, T. K., & Jun, S.-A. (2009). The nature of childhood language memory: Korean adoptees learning Korean as adults. In Chandlee, J., Franchini, M., Lord, S., & Rheiner, G.-M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, (Vol. 2, pp. 391397). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.Google Scholar
Oh, J., Jun, S.-A., Knightly, L., & Au, T. K. (2003). Holding on to childhood language memory. Cognition, 86, B53B64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olshtain, E. (1986). The attrition of English as a second language with speakers of Hebrew. In Weltens, B., de Bot, K., & van Els, T. J. M. (Eds.), Language attrition in progress (pp. 187204). Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
Olshtain, E. (1989). Is second language attrition the reversal of second language acquisition? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 151165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oxford, R. L. (1982). Research on language loss: A review with implications for foreign language teaching. Modern Language Journal, 66, 160169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pallier, C. (2007). Critical periods in language acquisition and language attrition. In Köpke, B., Schmid, M. S., Keijzer, M., & Dostert, S. (Eds.), Language attrition: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 155168). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pallier, C., Dehaene, S., Poline, J.-B., LeBihan, D., Argenti, A.-M., Dupoux, E., et al. (2003). Brain imaging of language plasticity in adopted adults: Can a second language replace the first? Cerebral Cortex, 13, 155161.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paradis, M. (2004). A neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paradis, M. (2007). L1 attrition features predicted by a neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. In Köpke, B., Schmid, M. S., Keijzer, M., & Dostert, S. (Eds.), Language attrition: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 121133). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pavlenko, A. (2004). L2 influence and L1 attrition in adult bilingualism. In Schmid, M. S., Köpke, B., Keijzer, M., & Weilemar, L. (Eds.), First language attrition: Interdisciplinary perspectives on methodological issues (pp. 4759). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prévost, P., & White, L. (2000). Missing surface inflection or impairment in second language acquisition? Evidence from tense and agreement. Second Language Research, 16, 103133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raffaldini, T. (1987). Attrition of communicative ability among former year abroad students of French. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington.Google Scholar
Reetz-Kurashige, A. (1999). Japanese returnees’ retention of English-speaking skills: Changes in verb usage over time. In Hansen, L. (Ed.), Second language attrition in Japanese contexts (pp. 2158). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Robinson, P. (2005). Aptitude and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 4673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, R. A. (1999a). Lexical maintenance and attrition in Japanese as a second language. In Hansen, L. (Ed.), Second language attrition in Japanese contexts (pp. 114141). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Russell, R. A. (1999b). Measuring attrition in L2 Japanese syntactic competence. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Representation and process: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific Second Language Research Forum (Vol. 1, pp. 297308). Tokyo: Aoyama Gakuin University.Google Scholar
Scherer, G. A. C. (1957). The forgetting rate of learning German. German Quarterly, 30, 275277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmid, M. S. (2002). First language attrition, use and maintenance: The case of German Jews in Anglophone countries. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schultheiss, L. K. G. (2008). Cross-language perception of German vowels by speakers of American English. Unpublished master’s thesis, Brigham Young University, Utah.Google Scholar
Schreuder, R., & Weltens, B. (1993). Attrition of vocabulary knowledge. In Schreuder, R. & Weltens, B. (Eds.), The bilingual lexicon (pp. 135156). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seliger, H. W. (1991). Language attrition, reduced redundancy and creativity. In Seliger, H. W. &Vago, R. M. (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 227240). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharwood Smith, M. A. (1989). Crosslinguistic influence in language loss. In Hyltenstam, K. & Obler, L. K. (Eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan (pp. 185201). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharwood Smith, M. A., & Van Buren, P. (1991). First language attrition and the parameter setting model. In Seliger, H. W. & Vago, R. M. (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 1730). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smythe, P. C., Jutras, G. C., Bramwell, J. R., & Gardner, R. C. (1973). Second language retention over varying intervals. Modern Language Journal, 57, 400405.Google Scholar
Snow, M. A., Padilla, A. M., & Campbell, R. N. (1988). Factors influencing language retention of graduates of a Spanish immersion program. Applied Linguistics, 9, 182197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tees, R. C., & Werker, J. F. (1984). Perceptual flexibility: Maintenance or recovery of the ability to discriminate nonnative speech sounds. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 38, 579590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tomiyama, M. (1999a). The first stage of second language attrition: A case study of a Japanese returnee. In Hansen, L. (Ed.), Second language attrition in Japanese contexts (pp. 5979). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tomiyama, M. (1999b). The later stages of natural L2 attrition. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Representation and process: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific Second Language Research Forum (Vol. 1, pp. 309320). Tokyo: Aoyama Gakuin University.Google Scholar
Tomiyama, M. (2000). Child second language attrition. Applied Linguistics, 21, 304332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomiyama, M. (2008). Age and proficiency in L2 attrition: Data from two siblings. Applied Linguistics, 29, 123.Google Scholar
Vechter, A., Lapkin, S., & Argue, V. (1990). Second language retention: A summary of the issues. Canadian Modern Language Review, 46, 189203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ventureyra, V., & Pallier, C. (2004). In search of the lost language: The case of adopted Koreans in France. In Schmid, M. S., Köpke, B., Keijzer, M., & Weilemar, L. (Eds.), First language attrition: Interdisciplinary perspectives on methodological issues (pp. 207221). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ventureyra, V., Pallier, C., & Yoo, H.-Y. (2004). The loss of first language phonetic perception in adopted Koreans. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17, 7991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weltens, B. (1987). The attrition of foreign-language skills: A literature review. Applied Linguistics, 8, 2237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weltens, B. (1989). The attrition of French as a foreign language. Dordrecht: Foris.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weltens, B., & Cohen, A. D. (1989). Language attrition research: An introduction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 127133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weltens, B., & Grendel, M. (1993). Attrition of vocabulary knowledge. In Schreuder, R. & Weltens, B. (Eds.), The bilingual lexicon (pp. 135156). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weltens, B., & van Els, T. J. M. (1986). The attrition of French as a foreign language: Interim results. In Weltens, B., de Bot, K., & van Els, T. J. M. (Eds.), Language attrition in progress (pp. 205221). Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
Weltens, B., van Els, T. J. M., & Schils, E. (1989). The long-term retention of French by Dutch students. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1, 205216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoshitomi, A. (1992). Towards a model of language attrition: Neurobiological and psychological contributions. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 3, 293318.Google Scholar
Yoshitomi, A. (1999). On the loss of English as a second language by Japanese returnee children. In Hansen, L. (Ed.), Second language in Japanese contexts (pp. 80113). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
33
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

VARIABLES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ATTRITION
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

VARIABLES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ATTRITION
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

VARIABLES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ATTRITION
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *