Skip to main content


  • Shaofeng Li (a1)

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the construct validity of language aptitude by synthesizing the existing research that has been accumulated over the past five decades. The study aimed to provide a thorough understanding of the construct by aggregating the data reported in the primary research on its correlations with other individual difference variables and with second language (L2) achievement. A total of 66 studies were retrieved that contributed effect sizes based on 109 unique samples and 13,035 foreign language learners. The results revealed that (1) aptitude was independent of other cognitive and affective factors: it was distinct from motivation, had a negative correlation with anxiety, and overlapped with, but was distinguishable from, intelligence; (2) executive working memory was more strongly associated with aptitude and aptitude components than phonological short-term memory; (3) aptitude measured using full-length tests was a strong predictor of general L2 proficiency, but it had low predictive validity for vocabulary learning and L2 writing; and (4) different aptitude components demonstrated differential predictive validity for different aspects of learning. The findings are useful for tackling a number of conundrums surrounding language aptitude and shed light on how to reconceptualize the construct and reorient the research.

Hide All
Abrahamsson, N., & Hyltenstam, K. (2008). The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30, 481509.
Ackermen, P., Beier, M., & Boyle, M. (2005). Working memory and intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 3060.
Alderson, J. C., Clapham, C., & Steel, D. (1997). Metalinguistic knowledge, language aptitude and language proficiency. Language Teaching Research, 1, 93121.
Baddeley, A., Gathercole, S., & Papagno, C. (1998). Phonological loop as a language learning device. Psychological Review, 105, 158–73.
Bain, S. K., McCallum, R. S., Bell, S. M., Cochran, J. L., & Sawyer, S. C. (2010). Foreign language learning aptitudes, attitudes, attributions, and achievement of postsecondary students identified as gifted. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22, 130.
Bell, P. (2009). Le cadeau or la cadeau? The role of aptitude in learner awareness of gender distinctions in French. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 65, 615643.
Bell, S. M., & McCallum, R. S. (2012). Do foreign language learning, cognitive, and affective variables differ as a function of exceptionality status and gender? International Education, 42, 86106.
Bialystok, E., & Fröhlich, M. (1978). Variables of classroom achievement in second language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 62, 327336.
Biedron, A., & Szczepaniak, A. (2012). Working memory and short-term memory abilities in accomplished multilinguals. Modern Language Journal, 96, 290306.
Bond, K. (2011). Examining morphological sensitivity and individual differences in the acquisition of agreement in a second language (Unpublished MA thesis). University of Kansas.
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Burgos-Kohler, N. (2002). The effect of a selected group of language learning strategies upon language development (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Texas at Austin.
Carpenter, H. S. (2008). A behavioural and electrophysiological investigation of different aptitudes for L2 grammar in learners equated for proficiency level (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Georgetown University.
Carroll, J. (1973). Implications of aptitude test research and psycholinguistic theory for foreign-language teaching. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 2, 514.
Carroll, J. (1981). Twenty-five years of research on foreign language aptitude. In Diller, K., (Ed.), Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude (pp. 83118). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Carroll, J. (1990). Cognitive abilities in foreign language aptitude: Then and now. In Parry, T. & Stansfield, C. (Eds.), Language aptitude reconsidered (pp. 1129). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Carroll, J., & Sapon, S. (1959). Modern language aptitude test. New York, NY: The Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Carroll, J., & Sapon, S. (2002). Manual for the MLAT. Second Language Testing. N. Bethesda, MD.
Carroll, J., Sapon, S., Reed, D., & Stansfield, C. (2010). Manual for the MLAT. Second Language Testing. N. Bethesda, MD.
Child, J. (1998). Language aptitude testing: Learners and applications. Applied Language Learning, 9, 110.
Clément, R., & Kruidenier, B. (1985). Aptitude, attitude and motivation in second language proficiency: A test of Clément’s model. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 4, 2137.
Cochran, J. L., McCallum, R. S., & Bell, S. M. (2010). Three A’s: How do attributions, attitudes, and aptitude contribute to foreign language learning? Foreign Language Annals, 43, 566582.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cooper, C. (1964). Some relationships between paired-associates learning and foreign-language aptitude. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 132138.
Cronbach, J., & Meehl, P. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281302.
Cross, C., Copping, L., & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 97130.
Curtin, C., Avner, A., & Smith, L. A. (1983). The Pimsleur Battery as a predictor of student performance. The Modern Language Journal, 67, 3340.
Daneman, M., & Merikle, P. M. (1996). Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 422433.
de Graaff, R. (1997). The eXperanto experiment: Effects of explicit instruction on second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 249276.
DeKeyser, R. (1993). The effect of error correction on L2 grammar knowledge and oral proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 501514.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2000). The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 499533.
DeKeyser, R., & Koeth, J. (2011). Cognitive aptitudes for second language learning. In Hinkel, E. (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 395406). New York, NY: Routledge.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ehrman, M. (1998). The modern language aptitude test for predicting learning success and advising students. Applied Language Learning, 9, 3170.
Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. L. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 6789.
Eisenstein, M. (1980). Childhood bilingualism and adult language learning aptitude. Applied Psychology, 29, 159172.
Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 141172.
Engel de Abreu, P. M., & Gathercole, S. E. (2012). Executive and phonological processes in second-language acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 974986.
Erlam, R. (2005). Language aptitude and its relationship to instructional effectiveness in second language acquisition. Language Teaching Research, 9, 147171.
Erlam, R. (2006). Elicited imitation as a measure of L2 implicit knowledge: An empirical validation study. Applied Linguistics, 27, 464491.
Fischer, R., & Boer, D. (2011). What is more important for national well-being: Money or autonomy? A meta-analysis of well-being, burnout, and anxiety across 63 societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 164184.
Fujii, A. (2005). Individual differences in task performance: Aptitude profiles, orientation to form, and second language production in the EFL classroom (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Georgetown University.
Ganschow, L., & Sparks, R. (1995). Effects of direct instruction in Spanish phonology on the native-language skills and foreign-language aptitude of at-risk foreign-language learners. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 107120.
Ganschow, L., & Sparks, R. (1996). Anxiety about foreign language learning among high school women. Modern Language Journal, 80, 199212.
Garcia, R. T. (1996). The relation among college student attitudes, motivation and aptitude to foreign language achievement: A test of Gardner’s model (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Houston.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1965). Language aptitude, intelligence, and second-language achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 56, 191199.
Gardner, R., & Lysynchuk, L. (1990). The role of aptitude, attitudes, motivation, and language use on second-language acquisition and retention. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 22, 254270.
Gardner, R., Moorcroft, R., & Metford, J. (1989). Second language learning in an immersion program: Factors influencing acquisition and retention. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 8, 287305.
Gardner, R., Tremblay, P., & Masgoret, A. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: An empirical investigation. The Modern Language Journal, 81, 344362.
Goodman, J. F., Freed, B., & McManus, W. J. (1990). Determining exemptions from foreign language requirements: Use of the modern language aptitude test. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 15, 131141.
Gordon, M. E. (1980). Attitudes and motivation in second-language achievement: A study of primary school students learning English in Belize, Central America (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Toronto.
Granena, G. (2012). Age differences and cognitive aptitudes for implicit and explicit learning in ultimate second language attainment (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Maryland.
Granena, G. (2013). Individual differences in sequence learning ability and second language acquisition in early childhood and adulthood. Language Learning, 63, 665704.
Granena, G. (2015). Cognitive aptitudes for implicit and explicit learning and information-processing styles: An individual differences study. Applied Linguistics, online. DOI: 10.1017/S0142716415000120
Granena, G., & Long, M. H. (2013). Age of onset, length of residence, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment in three linguistic domains. Second Language Research, 29, 311343.
Grigorenko, E., Sternberg, R., & Ehrman, M. (2000). A theory-based approach to the measurement of foreign language learning ability: The Canal-F theory and test. The Modern Language Journal, 84, 390405.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2003). Handbook of psychological assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Harley, B., & Hart, D. (1997). Language aptitude and second language proficiency in classroom learners of different starting ages. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 379400.
Harley, B., & Hart, D. (2002). Age, aptitude, and second language learning on a bilingual exchange. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 302330). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Hauptman, P. C. (1971). A structural approach vs. a situational approach to foreign-language teaching. Language Learning, 21, 235244.
Horwitz, E. K. (1980). The relationship of conceptual level to the development of communicative competence in French (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112126.
Hsieh, C. (2004). Relationships between non-linguistic variables in second language acquisition and the attained English language proficiency of Taiwanese university students (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Lynn University.
Hummel, K. 2009. Aptitude, phonological memory, and second language proficiency in nonnovice adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 225249.
Hwu, F., & Sun, S. (2012). The aptitude-treatment interaction effects on the learning of grammar rules. System, 40, 505521.
In’nami, Y., & Koizumi, R. (2010). Database selection guidelines for meta-analysis in applied linguistics. TESOL Quarterly, 44, 169184.
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2012). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44, 137166.
Keitges, D. J (1986). Relationships between foreign-language aptitude, attitudes and motivation, and personality traits, and the attained English language proficiency of Japanese university students (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Texas at Austin.
Kormos, J., & Trebits, A. (2012). The role of task complexity, modality, and aptitude in narrative task performance. Language Learning, 62, 439472.
Krashen, S. (1981). Aptitude and attitude in relation to second language acquisition and learning. In Diller, K. (Ed.), Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude (pp. 155175). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Lado, B. (2008). The role of bilingualism, type of feedback, and cognitive capacity in the acquisition of non-primary languages: A computer-based study (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Georgetown University.
Lalonde, R. N., & Gardner, R. C. (1984). Investigating a causal model of second language acquisition: Where does personality fit? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 16, 224237.
Lee, S. (2008). Salience, frequency, and aptitude in the learning of unaccusativity in a second language: An input enhancement study (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Hawaii.
Li, S. (2013). The interactions between the effects of implicit and explicit feedback and individual differences in language analytic ability and working memory. Modern Language Journal, 97, 634654.
Li, S. (2015). The associations between language aptitude and second language grammar acquisition: A meta-analytic review of five decades of research. Applied Linguistics, 36, 385408.
Li, S., Shintani, N., & Ellis, R. (2012). Doing meta-analysis in SLA: Practices, choices, and standards. Contemporary Foreign Language Studies, 384, 117.
Linck, J., et al. (2013). Hi-LAB: A new measure of aptitude for high-level language proficiency. Language Learning, 63, 530566.
Linck, J., Osthus, P., Koeth, J., & Bunting, M. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 861883.
Lipsey, M., & Wilson, D. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
MacIntyre, P. (1995). How does anxiety affect second language learning? A reply to Sparks and Ganschow. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 9099.
Mackey, A., Philp, J., Egi, Takako, Fujii, A., & Tatsumi, T. (2002). Individual differences in working memory, noticing of interactional feedback and L2 development. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 181209). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Masgoret, A., & Gardner, R. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53, 123163.
McMullin, J. J. (1988). The effects of gender and the total physical response strategy on the retention of French commands by seventh-grade black students (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Temple University.
Meara, P. (2005). LLAMA Language Aptitude Tests. Swansea: Lognostics.
Messick, S. (1989). Validity. In Linn, R. L. (Ed.), Educational measurement (pp. 13103). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. (1998). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In Healy, A. & Bourne, L. (Eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 339364). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Myer, B. J. (1985). Relationships among selected measures of auditory foreign language aptitude and achievement, musical aptitude and experience, prior academic achievement, sex and handedness factors at the secondary school level (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Ohio State University.
Natelson, E. R. (1975). The predictive validity of each of the five parts of the modern language aptitude test: The effect of previous language training on MLAT scores: The correlation of MLAT scores and achievement in specific language groups (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Georgetown University.
Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T., Boykin, A., Brody, N., Ceci, S., & Urbina, S. (1996). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51, 77101.
Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L. (2000). Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50, 417528.
Oswald, F., & Plonsky, L. (2010). Meta-analysis in second language research: Choices and challenges. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 30, 85110.
Parry, T., & Child, J. (1990). Preliminary investigation of the relationship between VORD, MLAT and Language Proficiency. In Thomas, P. & Stansfield, C. (Eds.), Language aptitude reconsidered (pp. 3066). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
Petersen, C., & Al-Haik, A. (1976). The development of the Defence Language Aptitude Battery (DLAB). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 36, 369380.
Phillips, S. K. (1988). Predictive validity for the modern language aptitude test (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
Pimsleur, P. (1966). Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery (PLAB). San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Pimsleur, P., Reed, D., & Stansfield, C. (2004). Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery (PLAB). N. Bethesda, MD: Second Language Testing.
Piske, T., MacKay, I., & Flege, J. (2001). Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191215.
Plonsky, L., & Brown, D. (2015). Domain definition and search techniques in meta-analyses of feedback (Or why 18 meta-analyses of feedback have different results). Second Language Research, 31, 267278.
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. (2014). How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64, 878912.
Popham, J. (2000). Modern educational measurement. Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Rachlin, S. (2005). Reading, mathematics, language, second language aptitude scores and personality type as predictors of success in beginning second language study (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Hofstra University.
Ranta, L. (2002). The role of learners’ language analytic ability in the communicative classroom. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 159180). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Révész, A. (2012). Working memory and the observed effectiveness of recasts on different L2 outcome measures. Language Learning, 62, 93132.
Robinson, P. (2001). Individual differences, cognitive abilities, aptitude complexes and learning conditions in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 17, 368392.
Robinson, P. (2002). Effects of individual differences in intelligence, aptitude and working memory on adult incidental SLA. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 212266). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Robinson, P. (2005). Cognitive abilities, chunk-strength, and frequency effects in implicit artificial grammar and incidental L2 learning: Replications of Reber, Walkenfield, and Hernstatd (1991) and Knowlton and Squire (1996) and their relevance for SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 235268.
Roehr, K., & Gánem-Gutiérrez, G. (2009). The status of metalinguistic knowledge in instructed adult L2 learning. Language Awareness, 18, 165181.
Ross, S., Yoshinaga, N., & Sasaki, M. (2002). Aptitude-exposure interaction effects on Wh-movement violation detection by pre-and-post-critical period Japanese bilinguals. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 267299). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Sachs, R. (2010). Individual differences and the effectiveness of visual feedback of reflexive binding in L2 Japanese (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Georgetown University.
Sáfár, A. & Kormos, J. (2008). Revisiting problems with foreign language aptitude. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 46, 113136.
Sasaki, M. (1996). Second language proficiency, foreign language aptitude, and intelligence: Quantitative and qualitative analyses. New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Seipp, B. (1990). Anxiety and academic performance: A meta-analysis of findings. Anxiety Research, 91, 2741.
Sheen, Y. (2007). The effects of corrective feedback, language aptitude, and learner attitudes on the acquisition of English articles. In Mackey, A. (Ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition (pp. 301322). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Skehan, P. (2002). Theorizing and updating aptitude. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 6994). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Skehan, P. (2012). Language aptitude. In Gass, S. & Mackey, A. (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 381395). New York, NY: Routledge.
Snow, R. E. (1991). Aptitude-treatment interaction as a framework for research on individual differences in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 205216.
Sparks, R. L., & Patton, J. (2013). Relations of L1 skills and L2 aptitude to L2 anxiety on the foreign language classroom anxiety scale. Language Learning, 63, 870895.
Sparks, R. L., Ganschow, L., & Patton, J. (1995). Prediction of performance in first-year foreign language courses. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 638655.
Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., & Humbach, N. (2009). Long-term relationships among early first language skills, second language aptitude, second language affect, and later second language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 725755.
Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., & Humbach, N. (2011). Subcomponents of second- language aptitude and second-language proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 95, 253273.
Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., & Humbach, N. (2012). Relationships among L1 print exposure and early L1 literacy skills, L2 aptitude, and L2 proficiency. Reading and Writing, 25, 15991634.
Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J. (2006). Native language predictors of foreign language proficiency and foreign language aptitude. Annals of Dyslexia, 56, 129160.
Sparks, R. L., Artzer, M., Ganschow, L., Siebenhar, D., Plageman, M., & Patton, J. (1998). Differences in native-language skills, foreign-language aptitude, and foreign-language grades among high-, average-, and low-proficiency foreign-language learners: Two studies. Language Testing, 15, 181216.
Speciale, G., Ellis, N. C., & Bywater, T. (2004). Phonological sequence learning and short-term store capacity determine second language vocabulary acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistic, 25, 293332.
Suzuki, Y., & DeKeyser, R. (2015) Comparing elicited imitation and word monitoring as measures of implicit knowledge. Language Learning, online. DOI: 10.1111/lang.12138
Thompson, A. (2013). The interface of language aptitude and multilingualism: Reconsidering the bilingual/multilingual dichotomy. Modern Language Journal, 97, 685701.
Tobias, S. (1985). Test anxiety: Interference, defective skills, and cognitive capacity. Educational Psychologist, 20, 135142.
Valentine, J., Pigott, T., & Rothstein, H. (2010). How many studies do you need? A primer on statistical power for meta-analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 35, 215247.
Wasserman, J. (2012). A history of intelligence assessment: The unfinished tapestry. In Flanagan, D. & Harrison, P. (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 355). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Wen, Z. (2015). Working memory in second language acquisition and processing: The phonological/executive model. In Wen, Z., Mailce, B., & McNeill, A. (Eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing (pp. 4162), Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Wesche, M., Edwards, H., & Wells, W. (1982). Foreign language aptitude and intelligence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 127140.
Westen, D., & Rosenthal, R. (2003). Quantifying construct validity: Two simple measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 608618.
Williams, J. N. (2009). Implicit learning in second language acquisition. In Ritchie, W. & Bhatia, T. (Eds.), The new handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 319353), Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Winke, P. (2005). Individual differences in adult Chinese second language acquisition: The relationships between aptitude, memory, and strategies for language learning (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Georgetown University.
Winke, P. (2013). An investigation into second language aptitude for advanced Chinese language learning. Modern Language Journal, 97, 109130.
Yoshizawa, K. (2002). Relationships among strategy use, foreign language aptitude, and second language proficiency: A structural equation modelling approach (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Temple University.
Zikmund, W., Babin, B., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business research methods. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition
  • ISSN: 0272-2631
  • EISSN: 1470-1545
  • URL: /core/journals/studies-in-second-language-acquisition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Li supplementary material
Appendices A and B

 Word (552 KB)
552 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed