This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
J Barcroft . (2007). Effects of opportunities for word retrieval during second language vocabulary learning. Language Learning, 57, 35–56.
J. Barcroft , & S Rott . (2010). Partial word form learning in the written mode in L2 German and Spanish. Applied Linguistics, 31, 623–650.
W Brown . (1924). Whole and part methods in learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 15, 229–233.
N. J. Cepeda , H. Pashler , E. Vul , J. T. Wixted , & D Rohrer . (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 354–380.
N. J. Cepeda , E. Vul , D. Rohrer , J. T. Wixted , & H Pashler . (2008). Spacing effects in learning: A temporal ridgeline of optimal retention. Psychological Science, 19, 1095–1102.
N. J. Cepeda , N. Coburn , D. Rohrer , J. T. Wixted , M. C. Mozer , & H Pashler . (2009). Optimizing distributed practice: Theoretical analysis and practical implications. Experimental Psychology, 56, 236–246.
C. Chen , & J Truscott . (2010). The effects of repetition and L1 lexicalization on incidental vocabulary acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 31, 693–713.
J Cohen . (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.
E. Crothers , & P Suppes . (1967). Experiments in second language learning. New York, NY: Academic Press.
I Elgort . (2011). Deliberate learning and vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Language Learning, 61, 367–413.
N. C Ellis . (1995). The psychology of foreign language vocabulary acquisition: Implications for CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 8, 103–128.
N. C Ellis . (2002). Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 143–188.
T. Fitzpatrick , I. Al-Qarni , & P Meara . (2008). Intensive vocabulary learning: A case study. Language Learning Journal, 36, 239–248.
G. Gillund , & R. M Shiffrin . (1984). A retrieval model for both recognition and recall. Psychological Review, 91, 1–67.
H. Hausman , & N Kornell . (2014). Mixing topics while studying does not enhance learning. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 153–160.
J. H Hulstijn . (2002). What does the impact of frequency tell us about the language acquisition device?
Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 269–273.
S. Joseph , Y. Watanabe , Y.-J. Shiung , B. Choi , & C Robbins . (2009). Key aspects of computer assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL): Combined effects of media, sequencing and task type. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 4, 1–36.
S. H. K. Kang , R. V. Lindsey , M. C. Mozer , & H Pashler . (2014). Retrieval practice over the long term: Should spacing be expanding or equal-interval?
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1544–1550.
J. D. Karpicke , & H. L Roediger . (2008). The critical importance of retrieval for learning. Science, 319, 966–968.
N Kornell . (2009). Optimising learning using flashcards: Spacing is more effective than cramming. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 1297–1317.
D Larsen-Freeman . (2002). Making sense of frequency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 275–285.
J. M. Logan , & D. A Balota . (2008). Expanded vs. equal interval spaced retrieval practice: Exploring different schedules of spacing and retention interval in younger and older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 15, 257–280.
G. O McGeoch . (1931). The intelligence quotient as a factor in the whole-part problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14, 333–358.
J. Metcalfe , N. Kornell , & B Finn . (2009). Delayed versus immediate feedback in children’s and adults’ vocabulary learning. Memory & Cognition, 37, 1077–1087.
J.-A. Mondria , & B Wiersma . (2004). Receptive, productive and receptive + productive L2 vocabulary learning: What difference does it make? In B. Laufer (Ed.), Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition, and testing (pp. 79–100). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Benjamins.
T Nakata . (2011). Computer-assisted second language vocabulary learning in a paired-associate paradigm: A critical investigation of flashcard software. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24, 17–38.
). Effects of expanding and equal spacing on second language vocabulary learning: Does gradually increasing spacing increase vocabulary learning?
Studies in Second Language Acquisition
. . doi: 10.1017/S0272263114000825
I. S. P Nation . (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening?
The Canadian Modern Language Review, 63, 59–82.
H. Pashler , D. Rohrer , N. J. Cepeda , & S. K Carpenter . (2007). Enhancing learning and retarding forgetting: Choices and consequences. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 14, 187–193.
M. A. Pyc , & K. A Rawson . (2007). Examining the efficiency of schedules of distributed retrieval practice. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1917–1927.
M. A. Pyc , & K. A Rawson . (2012). Are judgments of learning made after correct responses during retrieval practice sensitive to lag and criterion level effects?
Memory & Cognition, 40, 976–988.
J. G. W. Raaijmakers , J. M. C. Schrijnemakers , & F Gremmen . (1999). How to deal with “the language-as-fixed-effect fallacy”: Common misconceptions and alternative solutions. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 416–426.
D. Rohrer , & H Pashler . (2007). Increasing retention without increasing study time. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 183–186.
M. P. Steinel , J. H. Hulstijn , & W Steinel . (2007). Second language idiom learning in a paired-associate paradigm: Effects of direction of learning, direction of testing, idiom imageability, and idiom transparency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29, 449–484.
B. C. Storm , R. A. Bjork , & J. C Storm . (2010). Optimizing retrieval as a learning event: When and why expanding retrieval practice enhances long-term retention. Memory & Cognition, 38, 244–253.
F. J. J Van Bussel . (1994). Design rules for computer-aided learning of vocabulary items in a second language. Computers in Human Behavior, 10, 63–76.
S. A Webb . (2005). Receptive and productive vocabulary learning: The effects of reading and writing on word knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 33–52.
S. A Webb . (2008). Receptive and productive vocabulary sizes of L2 learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30, 79–95.
S. A Webb . (2009). The effects of pre-learning vocabulary on reading comprehension and writing. Canadian Modern Language Review, 65, 441–470.
K. T. Wissman , K. A. Rawson , & M. A Pyc . (2012). How and when do students use flashcards?
Memory, 20, 568–579.
R. Zahar , T. Cobb , & N Spada . (2001). Acquiring vocabulary through reading: Effects of frequency and contextual richness. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57, 541–572.