Baddeley A. D. (1997). Human memory: Theory and practice (Rev. ed.). East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.
Balota D. A., Duchek J. M., Sergent-Marshall S. D., & Roediger H. L. (2006). Does expanded retrieval produce benefits over equal-interval spacing? Explorations of spacing effects in healthy aging and early stage Alzheimer’s disease. Psychology and Aging, 21, 19–31.
Barcroft J. (2002). Semantic and structural elaboration in L2 lexical acquisition. Language Learning, 52, 323–363.
Barcroft J. (2007). Effects of opportunities for word retrieval during second language vocabulary learning. Language Learning, 57, 35–56.
Barcroft J. (2013, December). Four input-retrieval patterns and incidentally oriented vocabulary learning during reading. Paper presented at the Vocab@Vic Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Bjork R. A. (1994). Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In Metcalfe J. & Shimamura A. (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp. 185–205). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carpenter S. K., & DeLosh E. L. (2005). Application of the testing and spacing effects to name learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 619–636.
Cepeda N. J., Coburn N., Rohrer D., Wixted J. T., Mozer M. C., & Pashler H. (2009). Optimizing distributed practice: Theoretical analysis and practical implications. Experimental Psychology, 56, 236–246.
Cepeda N. J., Pashler H., Vul E., Wixted J. T., & Rohrer D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 354–380.
Cohen J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Crothers E., & Suppes P. (1967). Experiments in second language learning. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Cull W. L. (2000). Untangling the benefits of multiple study opportunities and repeated testing for cued recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 215–235.
Cull W. L., Shaughnessy J. J., & Zechmeister E. B. (1996). Expanding understanding of the expanding-pattern-of-retrieval mnemonic: Toward confidence in applicability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2, 365–378.
Dobson J. L. (2011). Effect of selected “desirable difficulty” learning strategies on the retention of physiology information. Advances in Physiology Education, 35, 378–383.
Dobson J. L. (2012). Effect of uniform versus expanding retrieval practice on the recall of physiology information. Advances in Physiology Education, 36, 6–12.
Elgort I. (2011). Deliberate learning and vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Language Learning, 61, 367–413.
Ellis N. C. (1995). The psychology of foreign language vocabulary acquisition: Implications for CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 8, 103–128.
Fitzpatrick T., Al-Qarni I., & Meara P. (2008). Intensive vocabulary learning: A case study. Language Learning Journal, 36, 239–248.
Griffin G. F., & Harley T. A. (1996). List learning of second language vocabulary. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, 443–460.
Hulstijn J. H. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary learning: A reappraisal of elaboration, rehearsal, and automaticity. In Robinson P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 258–286). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kang S. H. K., Lindsey R. V., Mozer M. C., & Pashler H. (2014). Retrieval practice over the long term: Should spacing be expanding or equal-interval? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1544–1550.
Karpicke J. D., & Bauernschmidt A. (2011). Spaced retrieval: Absolute spacing enhances learning regardless of relative spacing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 1250–1257.
Karpicke J. D., & Roediger H. L. (2007). Expanding retrieval practice promotes short-term retention, but equally spaced retrieval enhances long-term retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 704–719.
Karpicke J. D., & Roediger H. L. (2010). Is expanding retrieval a superior method for learning text materials? Memory and Cognition, 38, 116–124.
Landauer T. K., & Bjork R. A. (1978). Optimum rehearsal patterns and name learning. In Gruneberg M. M., Morris P. E., & Sykes R. N. (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory (pp. 625–632). London, UK: Academic Press.
Laufer B. (2012). Second language word difficulty. In Chapelle C. A. (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (pp. 5151–5156). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Logan J. M., & Balota D. A. (2008). Expanded vs. equal interval spaced retrieval practice: Exploring different schedules of spacing and retention interval in younger and older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 15, 257–280.
Maddox G. B., Balota D. A., Coane J. H., & Duchek J. M. (2011). The role of forgetting rate in producing a benefit of expanded over equal spaced retrieval in young and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 26, 661–670.
Metcalfe J., & Kornell N. (2007). Principles of cognitive science in education: The effects of generation, errors, and feedback. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 225–229.
Mondria J.-A. (2003). The effects of inferring, verifying, and memorizing on the retention of L2 word meanings: An experimental comparison of the “Meaning-Inferred Method” and the “Meaning-Given Method.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 473–499.
Mondria J.-A., & Wiersma B. (2004). Receptive, productive and receptive + productive L2 vocabulary learning: What difference does it make? In Laufer B. (Ed.), Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition, and testing (pp. 79–100). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Benjamins.
Nakata T. (2011). Computer-assisted second language vocabulary learning in a paired-associate paradigm: A critical investigation of flashcard software. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24, 17–38.
Nakata T. (2013). Optimising second language vocabulary learning from flashcards (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
Nation I. S. P. (2000). Learning vocabulary in lexical sets: Dangers and guidelines. TESOL Journal, 9(2), 6–10.
Nation I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Nation I. S. P. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review, 63, 59–82.
Nation I. S. P., & Beglar D. (2007). A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher, 31(7), 9–13.
Nation I. S. P., & Webb S. A. (2011). Researching and analyzing vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle Cengage Learning.
Pashler H., Zarow G., & Triplett B. (2003). Is temporal spacing of tests helpful even when it inflates error rates? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 1051–1057.
Pyc M. A., & Rawson K. A. (2007). Examining the efficiency of schedules of distributed retrieval practice. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1917–1927.
Pyc M. A., & Rawson K. A. (2009). Testing the retrieval effort hypothesis: Does greater difficulty correctly recalling information lead to higher levels of memory? Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 437–447.
Roediger H. L., & Karpicke J. D. (2010). Intricacies of spaced retrieval: A resolution. In Benjamin A. S. (Ed.), Successful remembering and successful forgetting: A festschrift in honor of Robert A. Bjork (pp. 23–47). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Schmidt R. A., & Bjork R. A. (1992). New conceptualizations of practice: Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Psychological Science, 3, 207–217.
Schmitt N. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In Schmitt N. & McCarthy M. (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp. 199–227). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schmitt N. (2007). Current trends in vocabulary learning and teaching. In Cummins J. & Davison C. (Eds.), The international handbook of English language teaching (pp. 827–842). Norwell, MA: Springer.
Schneider V. I., Healy A. F., & Bourne L. E. (2002). What is learned under difficult conditions is hard to forget: Contextual interference effects in foreign vocabulary acquisition, retention, and transfer. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 419–440.
Schuetze U. (2015). Spacing techniques in second language vocabulary acquisition: Short-term gains vs. long-term memory. Language Teaching Research, 19, 28–42.
Shaughnessy J. J., & Zechmeister E. B. (1992). Memory-monitoring accuracy as influenced by the distribution of retrieval practice. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 30, 125–128.
Son L. K., & Simon D. A. (2012). Distributed learning: Data, metacognition, and educational implications. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 379–399.
Steinel M. P., Hulstijn J. H., & Steinel W. (2007). Second language idiom learning in a paired-associate paradigm: Effects of direction of learning, direction of testing, idiom imageability, and idiom transparency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29, 449–484.
Storm B. C., Bjork R. A., & Storm J. C. (2010). Optimizing retrieval as a learning event: When and why expanding retrieval practice enhances long-term retention. Memory & Cognition, 38, 244–253.
Webb S. A. (2009). The effects of pre-learning vocabulary on reading comprehension and writing. Canadian Modern Language Review, 65, 441–470.