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  • Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Volume 18, Issue 4
  • December 1996, pp. 495-510

Explanation versus Structured Input in Processing Instruction

  • Bill VanPatten (a1) and Soile Oikkenon (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 November 2008

This study replicates VanPatten and Cadierno (1993) in an attempt to determine whether or not explicit information given to learners receiving processing instruction is responsible for the beneficial effects of instruction. Fifty-nine subjects were divided into three groups: (1) one receiving processing instruction in object pronouns and word order in Spanish as in VanPatten and Cadierno (1993), (2) another receiving explanation only with no activities or practice, (3) and another receiving only the structured input activities with no explanation. A pretest/post-test assessment was used involving two tests, an interpretation test and a sentence-level production test. Results showed that the beneficial effects of instruction were due to the structured input activities and not to the explicit information (explanation) provided to learners.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

T. Cadierno (1995). Formal instruction from a processing perspective: An investigation into the Spanish past tense. Modern Language Journal, 79, 179193.

V. Scott (1989). An empirical study of explicit and implicit teaching strategies in French. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 1422.

B. VanPatten (1993). Grammar teaching for the acquisition-rich classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 26, 435450.

L. White (1989). Universal Grammar and second language acquisition. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

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