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  • Cited by 12
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Denhovska, Nadiia Serratrice, Ludovica and Payne, John 2016. Acquisition of Second Language Grammar Under Incidental Learning Conditions: The Role of Frequency and Working Memory. Language Learning, Vol. 66, Issue. 1, p. 159.

    Treffers-Daller, Jeanine and Calude, Andreea 2015. The role of statistical learning in the acquisition of motion event construal in a second language. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Vol. 18, Issue. 5, p. 602.

    Crossley, Scott Salsbury, Tom Titak, Ashley and McNamara, Danielle 2014. Frequency effects and second language lexical acquisition: Word types, word tokens, and word production. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 301.

    Mohamadi, Zohre 2013. Determining the Difficulty Level of Listening Tasks. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 3, Issue. 6,

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    Polio, Charlene 2012. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics.

    Trofimovich, Pavel Collins, Laura Cardoso, Walcir White, Joanna and Horst, Marlise 2012. A Frequency-Based Approach to L2 Phonological Learning: Teacher Input and Student Output in an Intensive ESL Context. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 176.

    Javanbakht, Zabih O. 2011. The Impact of Tasks on Male Iranian Elementary EFL Learnersʼ Incidental Vocabulary Learning. Language Education in Asia, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 28.

    Lindqvist, Christina Bardel, Camilla and Gudmundson, Anna 2011. Lexical richness in the advanced learner's oral production of French and Italian L2. IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, Vol. 49, Issue. 3,

    Rau, D. Victoria Chang, Hui-Huan Ann and Tarone, Elaine E. 2009. Think or Sink: Chinese Learners' Acquisition of the English Voiceless Interdental Fricative. Language Learning, Vol. 59, Issue. 3, p. 581.

    Lee, Sun-Young 2008. Argument-Adjunct Asymmetry in the Acquisition of Inversion inWh-Questions by Korean Learners of English. Language Learning, Vol. 58, Issue. 3, p. 625.

    Biber, Douglas and Barbieri, Federica 2007. Lexical bundles in university spoken and written registers. English for Specific Purposes, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 263.



  • Susan M. Gass (a1) (a2) and Alison Mackey (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2002

In this response to Ellis's target article on frequency in language processing, language use, and language acquisition, we argue in favor of a role for frequency in several areas of second language acquisition, including interactional input and output and speech processing. We also discuss areas where second language acquisition appears to proceed along its own route and at its own pace regardless of the frequency of the input, as well as areas where input is infrequent but acquisition appears to be unimpeded. Our response is intended to highlight the complexity of the task of deciphering the role and importance of frequency.

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Studies in Second Language Acquisition
  • ISSN: 0272-2631
  • EISSN: 1470-1545
  • URL: /core/journals/studies-in-second-language-acquisition
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