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  • Kazuya Saito (a1), Mai Tran (a2), Yui Suzukida (a3), Hui Sun (a4), Viktoria Magne (a5) and Meltem Ilkan (a6)...


The current study examines how second language (L2) users differentially assess the comprehensibility (i.e., ease of understanding) of foreign-accented speech according to a range of background variables, including first language (L1) profiles, L2 proficiency, age, experience, familiarity, and metacognition. A total of 110 L2 listeners first evaluated the global comprehensibility of 50 spontaneous speech samples produced by low-, mid-, and high-proficiency Japanese speakers of English. The listeners were categorized into two subgroups according to a cluster analysis of their rating scores: lenient and strict. Results showed that while the lenient listeners appeared to rely equally on many linguistic areas of speech during their judgments, the strict listeners were strongly attuned to phonological accuracy. Analysis of the background questionnaire data revealed that more lenient listeners likely had higher levels of awareness of the importance of comprehensibility for communication (metacognition); regularly used L2 English in professional settings (experience); and had L1s more linguistically close to the target speech samples, Japanese-accented English (L1-L2 distance).


Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be sent to Kazuya Saito, University College London, Institute of Education, 20 Bedford Way, United Kingdom WC1H 0AL. E-mail:


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We are grateful to two anonymous SSLA reviewers and the journal editor, Luke Plonsky, for their constructive feedback on an earlier version of the manuscript. This study was funded by Birkbeck Additional Research Grant.



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